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Culturele apartheid in leergangen Nederlands als vreemde taal

  • Raemdonck, Anne Van
This article looks at the way culture is represented in 3 commonly used course books of Dutch as a foreign language. According to the author, everyday culture of the regions where Dutch is spoken, is presented from a nationalistic point of view, i.e. it is limited to either cultural, historical and social aspects of The Netherlands or cultural, historical and social aspects of the Flemish Community in Belgium. The existence of the other region or country where the same language is spoken is not only ignored but at times even portrayed wrongfully which has its logically negative effect upon the students" interpretation and can lead to prejudice and the teachers using those course books.
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Lezers, boeken en lectuur van een humanistenkring in de zestiende eeuw: Boekbestellingen door Arias Montano en zijn Sevilliaanse vrienden

  • Dávila Pérez, Antonio
Después de su salida de Amberes, Benito Arias Montano (ca. 1525/27-1598) mantuvo una frecuente correspondencia con la oficina tipográfica de Cristóbal Plantino. Las cartas no se limitaron a intercambiar noticias públicas y privadas; el teólogo español envió muy a menudo listas de títulos de libros que él o su cenáculo de humanistas sevillanos estaban interesados en comprar. Este artículo se centra en quince listas enviadas entre 1585 y 1596 y conservadas en el Museo Plantin-Moretus de Amberes. El autor no se limita a publicar una transcripción de los documentos, sino que también trata de identificar los títulos de los listados. En varios casos logra también encontrar información extra sobre el envío de los libros que realmente fueron comprados. Un análisis de estos listados arroja luz sobre los amplios intereses culturales y científicos de este grupo, así como sobre su situación socio-económica.
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‘HIJ’ VERSUS ‘ZIJ’: CONTRASTEN, PARALLELLEN EN BEELDSPRAAK IN LAIA FÀBREGAS’ LANDEN (2010), ‘HIM’ VERSUS ‘HER’: CONTRASTS, PARALLELS AND IMAGERY IN LAIA FÀBREGAS’ LANDEN (2010)

  • van Raemdonck, Anne
In this article I shall show how deftly Fàbregas creates in her novel Landen two separate but thematically connected stories and leads them to a very satisfying and totally unexpected ending. Landen is an intriguing psychological novel where the two main characters, Him and Her, tell, in alternating chapters, their own story in the first person. They only meet once, in the first chapter, where the Him character dies. I shall first look at the main characters’ life experiences, i.e. the car accident in which the Her character loses her parents and the experiences of the Him character as an emigrant and later as a widower. I shall then describe the contrasting attitudes they each adopt and look at parallels between both narratives. Finally, I shall give an interpretation of the imagery as a link that also enhances the contrast between the characters., In this article I shall show how deftly Fàbregas creates in her novel Landen two separate but thematically connected stories and leads them to a very satisfying and totally unexpected ending. Landen is an intriguing psychological novel where the two main characters, Him and Her, tell, in alternating chapters, their own story in the first person. They only meet once, in the first chapter, where the Him character dies. I shall first look at the main characters’ life experiences, i.e. the car accident in which the Her character loses her parents and the experiences of the Him character as an emigrant and later as a widower. I shall then describe the contrasting attitudes they each adopt and look at parallels between both narratives. Finally, I shall give an interpretation of the imagery as a link that also enhances the contrast between the characters.
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Evidence for a relationship between mitochondrial Complex I activity and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase during nitroglycerin tolerance: Effects of mitochondrial antioxidants

  • Garcia-Bou, R
  • Rocha, M
  • Apostolova, N
  • Herance, R
  • Hernandez-Mijares, A
  • Victor, V
The medical use of nitroglycerin (GTN) is limited by patient tolerance. The present study evaluated the role of mitochondrial Complex I in GIN biotransformation and the therapeutic effect of mitochondrial antioxidants. The development of GIN tolerance (in rat and human vessels) produced a decrease in mitochondrial 02 consumption. Co-incubation with the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone (MQ 10(-6) mol/L) or with glutathione ester (GEE, 10(-4) mol/L) blocked GTN tolerance and the effects of GTN on mitochondrial respiration and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2) activity. Biotransformation of GTN depended on the mitochondria being functionally active, particularly mitochondrial Complex I. Tolerance induced mitochondrial ROS production and oxidative stress, though these effects were not detected in HUVEC rho(0) cells or Complex I mutant cells. Experiments performed to evaluate Complex I-dependent respiration demonstrated that its inhibition by GIN was prevented by the antioxidants in control samples. These results point to a key role for mitochondrial Complex I in the adequate functioning of ALDH-2. In addition, we have identified mitochondrial Complex I as one of the targets at which the initial oxidative stress responsible for GIN tolerance takes place. Our data also suggest a role for mitochondrial-antioxidants as therapeutic tools in the control of the tolerance that accompanies chronic nitrate use. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Mathematical anxiety effects on simple arithmetic processing efficiency: an event-related potential study.

  • Suárez-Pellicioni M
  • Nunez M
  • Colomé A
This study uses event-related brain potentials to investigate the difficulties that high math anxious individuals face when processing dramatically incorrect solutions to simple arithmetical problems. To this end, thirteen high math-anxious (HMA) and thirteen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with simple addition problems in a verification task. The proposed solution could be correct, incorrect but very close to the correct one (small-split), or dramatically incorrect (large-split). The two groups did not differ in mathematical ability or trait anxiety. We reproduced previous results for flawed scores suggesting HMA difficulties in processing large-split solutions. Moreover, large-split solutions elicited a late positive component (P600/P3b) which was more enhanced and delayed in the HMA group. Our study proposes that the pattern of flawed scores found by previous studies (and that we replicate) has to do with HMA individuals'difficulties in inhibiting an extended processing of irrelevant information (large-split solutions).
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Less precise representation of numerical magnitude in high math-anxious individuals: an ERP study of the size and distance effects.

  • Nunez M
  • Suárez-Pellicioni M
Numerical comparison tasks are widely used to study the mental representation of numerical magnitude. In study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while 26 high math-anxious (HMA) and 27 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with pairs of single-digit Arabic numbers and were asked to decide which one had the larger numerical magnitude. The size of the numbers and the distance between them were manipulated in order to study the size and the distance effects. The results showed that both distance and size effects were larger for the HMA group. As for ERPs, results showed that the ERP distance effect had larger amplitude for both the size and distance effects in the HMA group than among their LMA counterparts. Since this component has been taken as a marker of the processing of numerical magnitude, this result suggests that HMA individuals have a less precise representation of numerical magnitude.
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Phasic boosting of auditory perception by visual emotion.

  • Selinger L
  • Domínguez-Borràs J
  • Escera C
Emotionally negative stimuli boost perceptual processes. There is little known, however, about the timing of this modulation. The present study aims at elucidating the phasic effects of, emotional processing on auditory processing within subsequent time-windows of visual emotional, processing in humans. We recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) while participants responded to a, discrimination task of faces with neutral or fearful expressions. A brief complex tone, which subjects, were instructed to ignore, was displayed concomitantly, but with different asynchronies respective to, the image onset. Analyses of the N1 auditory event-related potential (ERP) revealed enhanced brain, responses in presence of fearful faces. Importantly, this effect occurred at picture-tone asynchronies of, 100 and 150ms, but not when these were displayed simultaneously, or at 50ms or 200ms asynchrony. These results confirm the existence of a fast-operating crossmodal effect of visual emotion on auditory, processing, suggesting a phasic variation according to the time-course of emotional processing.
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Mitochondrial response to the BCKDK-deficiency: Some clues to understand the positive dietary response in this form of autism

  • De Oyarzabal-Sanz AL
  • Bravo-Alonso I
  • Sánchez-Aragó M
  • Rejas MT
  • Merinero B
  • Garcia-Cazorla A
  • Artuch-Iriberri R
  • Ugarte M
  • Rodríguez-Pombo P
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Drug-induced lipotoxicity: lipodystrophy associated with HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral treatment.

  • Villarroya F
  • Domingo P
  • Giralt M
A subset of HIV-1-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral treatment develops a lipodystrophy syndrome. It is characterized by loss of peripheral subcutaneous adipose tissue (face, limbs, buttocks), visceral fat accumulation, and, in some cases, lipomatosis, especially in the dorsocervical area. In addition, these patients show metabolic alterations reminiscent of the metabolic syndrome, particularly dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. These alterations lead to enhanced cardiovascular risk in patients and favor the development of diabetes. Although a complex combination of HIV-1 infection and drug treatment-related events triggers the syndrome, lipotoxicity appears to contribute to the development of the syndrome. Active lipolysis in subcutaneous fat, combined with impaired fat storage capacity in the subcutaneous depot, drive ectopic deposition of lipids, either in the visceral depot or in nonadipose sites. Both hepatic steatosis and increased lipid content in skeletal muscle take place and surely contribute to systemic metabolic alterations, especially insulin resistance. Pancreatic function may also be affected by the exposure to high levels of fatty acids; together with direct effects of antiretroviral drugs, this may contribute to impaired insulin release and a prodiabetic state in the patients. Addressing lipotoxicity as a pathogenic actor in the lipodystrophy syndrome should be considered in strategies for treating and/or preventing the morphological alterations and systemic metabolic disturbances associated with lipodystrophy.
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Atorvastatin inhibits GSK-3beta phosphorylation by cardiac hypertrophic stimuli.

  • Planavila A
  • Rodríguez-Calvo R
  • Palomer FX
  • Coll T
  • Sánchez RM
  • Merlos M
  • Laguna JC
  • Vazquez M
In this study we examined the effect of the statin atorvastatin on the Akt/GSK-3beta pathway. Our findings indicate that atorvastatin treatment for 15 days inhibited pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and prevented nuclear translocation of GATA4 and c-Jun and AP-1 DNA-binding activity. In addition, atorvastatin treatment prevented the increase in the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta caused by cardiac hypertrophy, and this effect correlated with an increase in protein levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10 (PTEN), which negatively regulates the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt pathway. To test whether the inhibitory effect of atorvastatin on Akt and GSK-3beta phosphorylation was direct we performed in vitro studies using embryonic rat heart-derived H9c2 cells, human AC16 cardiomyoblasts and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Preincubation of cells with atorvastatin prevented Akt/GSK-3beta phosphorylation by different hypertrophic stimuli without affecting PTEN protein levels. However, atorvastatin prevented endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and PTEN oxidation, a process that correlates with its inactivation, suggesting that atorvastatin prevents ROS-induced PTEN inactivation in acute treatments. These findings point to a new potential anti-hypertrophic effect of statins, which can prevent activation of the Akt/GSK-3beta hypertrophic pathway by modulating PTEN activation by different mechanisms in chronic and acute treatments.
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