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Exploratory study of consumer issues in online peer-to-peer platform markets : final report.

  • Hausemer, Pierre
  • Rzepecka, Julia
  • Dragulin, Marius
  • Vitiello, Simone
  • Rabuel, Lison
  • Nunu, Madalina
  • Rodriguez Diaz, Adriana
  • Psaila, Emma
  • Fiorentini, Sara
  • Gysen, Sara
  • Meeusen, Tim
  • Quaschning, Simon
  • Dunne, Allison.
  • Grinevich, Vadim
  • Huber, Franz
  • Baines, Linda
  • Comisión Europea. Dirección General de Justicia y Consumidores.
  • VVA
  • Milieu
  • GFK.
This study explores consumer issues in five online peer to peer platform markets: (Re)sale of Goods; Sharing/renting of goods, Sharing/renting accommodation; Sharing/hiring rides; and Odd jobs. The study estimates that 191m citizens across the EU-28 spend EUR 27.9 billion per year on online P2P platforms. Of this total, an estimated EUR 10.61 billion consists of platform revenues and revenues of third parties. The study defines three main peer-to-peer platform business models: (a) hosting of listings where platforms do not get involved in the peer to peer transaction (b) active management of transactions where platforms foster trust among peers to facilitate a larger number of transactions and (c) platform governed peer transactions where the platform sets one or more contractual terms for the peer-to-peer transaction and exercises control over the performance of the transaction. The study identifies five key consumer issues that emerge from this new kind of economy: (1) transparency and clarity regarding the nature of transactions concluded through online P2P platforms, applicable consumer rights and obligations, the applicable legal framework and its enforcement; (2) reliability of peer review and rating systems and accuracy of identity information provided on the platform; (3) discrepancy between exclusion of platform responsibility and liability for the performance of online P2P transactions and platform practices; (4) access to redress for peer consumers and peer providers; and (5) data use and data protection issues.
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Exploratory study of consumer issues in online peer-to-peer platform markets : task 1 report.

  • Hausemer, Pierre
  • Rzepecka, Julia
  • Dragulin, Marius
  • Vitiello, Simone
  • Rabuel, Lison
  • Nunu, Madalina
  • Rodriguez Diaz, Adriana
  • Psaila, Emma
  • Fiorentini, Sara
  • Gysen, Sara
  • Meeusen, Tim
  • Quaschning, Simon
  • Dunne, Allison.
  • Grinevich, Vadim
  • Huber, Franz
  • Baines, Linda
  • Comisión Europea. Dirección General de Justicia y Consumidores
  • VVA
  • Milieu
  • GFK
The objective of Task 1 is to provide an indication of the economic importance of the five P2P markets analysed in the study, as well as the different P2P business models used. These objectives are met by analysing the services and characteristics of 485 P2P platforms based in the EU and Norway, operationalising the Task 2 survey results and through a review of secondary data and publications. Consumer protection issues are particularly important considering that P2P platforms have developed considerably in recent years: 52% of the platforms in the sample (252) were created in or after 2010. According to the academic literature, the recent increase in P2P transactions is due to P2P market advantages such as lower prices, increased access to goods or environmental concerns. 81% of the platforms in the sample are small or medium-sized (below 10,000 daily visitors), and the literature suggests that P2P markets will continue to grow in the near future.
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Exploratory study of consumer issues in online peer-to-peer platform markets : task 2 report.

  • Hausemer, Pierre
  • Rzepecka, Julia
  • Dragulin, Marius
  • Vitiello, Simone
  • Rabuel, Lison
  • Nunu, Madalina
  • Rodriguez Diaz, Adriana
  • Psaila, Emma
  • Fiorentini, Sara
  • Gysen, Sara
  • Meeusen, Tim
  • Quaschning, Simon
  • Dunne, Allison.
  • Grinevich, Vadim
  • Huber, Franz
  • Baines, Linda
  • Comisión Europea. Dirección General de Justicia y Consumidores
  • VVA
  • Milieu
  • GFK
As a part of a wider study, which aims to identify the main issues for consumers in online peer-to-peer (P2P) markets, the current survey provides quantitative insights into the usage, experience, perceptions, problems and behaviour of peer consumers and peer providers on online P2P platforms. The survey included the sector for sale and resale of new and used goods (i.e., (Re)Sale Goods platforms) and four collaborative sectors, including platforms for sharing and renting goods, for sharing and renting accommodation, for sharing and hiring rides and for providing non-professional services (i.e., Odd Jobs platforms). The survey was conducted online by GfK in 10 EU Member States: Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. A representative sample of the online population in each country (14.597 respondents) was screened on their experience with five sectors of online peer-to-peer (P2P) platforms, resulting in a total sample of 10.019 users of P2P platforms. This included peer consumers, peer providers and peers acting as both providers and consumers on one or more of the investigated platforms. The survey was conducted from 4 May 2016 until 18 May 2016.
Proyecto:


Exploratory study of consumer issues in online peer-to-peer platform markets : task 3 report.

  • Hausemer, Pierre
  • Rzepecka, Julia
  • Dragulin, Marius
  • Vitiello, Simone
  • Rabuel, Lison
  • Nunu, Madalina
  • Rodriguez Diaz, Adriana
  • Psaila, Emma
  • Fiorentini, Sara
  • Gysen, Sara
  • Meeusen, Tim
  • Quaschning, Simon
  • Dunne, Allison.
  • Grinevich, Vadim
  • Huber, Franz
  • Baines, Linda
  • Comisión Europea. Dirección General de Justicia y Consumidores
  • VVA
  • Milieu
  • GFK
Online P2P platforms appear to be embraced by experience-driven, proactive, “deal savvy” users. Based on the perception of the moderators a lot of current users across countries share common values and personality traits. P2P is to them a lifestyle and a way to feel different. Platforms are mainly categorized by sector (goods, mobility, accommodation and other services). Pure sharing platforms are not popular and less known in all of the countries investigated. A key benefit of all of these platforms is cost savings. Across categories people mention cost savings of up to 80%. However, besides the monetary savings other benefits are key in defining the attractiveness of P2P. Saving resources, a broad and unique offer, convenience... are also drivers. Additionally, next to the functional benefits, plenty of emotional elements (such as, feeling smart, enjoying the buzz of the deal, feeling part of a community of kindred spirits, feeling different and trendy, engaging with real people, sense of locality) add to the charm of the sharing economy as a whole.
Proyecto:


Exploratory study of consumer issues in online peer-to-peer platform markets : task 4 report : cross analysis of case studies of 10 peer-to-peer platforms.

  • Hausemer, Pierre
  • Rzepecka, Julia
  • Dragulin, Marius
  • Vitiello, Simone
  • Rabuel, Lison
  • Nunu, Madalina
  • Rodriguez Diaz, Adriana
  • Psaila, Emma
  • Fiorentini, Sara
  • Gysen, Sara
  • Meeusen, Tim
  • Quaschning, Simon
  • Dunne, Allison.
  • Grinevich, Vadim
  • Huber, Franz
  • Baines, Linda
  • Comisión Europea. Dirección General de Justicia y Consumidores
  • VVA
  • Milieu
  • GFK
The aims of Task 4 were: 1. To assess the level of clarity and transparency of information on online peer-to-peer (P2P) platforms; 2. To evaluate the effectiveness of self-regulatory mechanisms that platforms implement for trust building, verification of information, complaint handling, redress and insurance.
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Exploratory study of consumer issues in online peer-to-peer platform markets : task 5 report : legal analysis report.

  • Hausemer, Pierre
  • Rzepecka, Julia
  • Dragulin, Marius
  • Vitiello, Simone
  • Rabuel, Lison
  • Nunu, Madalina
  • Rodriguez Diaz, Adriana
  • Psaila, Emma
  • Fiorentini, Sara
  • Gysen, Sara
  • Meeusen, Tim
  • Quaschning, Simon
  • Dunne, Allison.
  • Grinevich, Vadim
  • Huber, Franz
  • Baines, Linda
  • Comisión Europea. Dirección General de Justicia y Consumidores
  • VVA
  • Milieu
  • GFK
The sharing economy and online P2P markets are rapidly growing phenomena that could empower consumers by allowing peer suppliers/providers to monetise under-utilised resources, on the one hand, and by making goods and services more afforda-ble for peer consumers, on the other hand. The emergence and development of these new markets, however, also raises consumer protection concerns due to regulatory uncertainty. Against this background, the ‘Exploratory study of consumer issues in the sharing economy’ (the Study), included in its objectives an analysis of the 28 EU Member States’ legislation applicable to C2C transactions and to online platforms facil-itating P2P transactions (Task 5 – Legal Analysis). A focal point of this analysis is the identification of the key national-level indicators used to distinguish between individuals acting in a private capacity and individuals acting in a commercial/professional capacity; a distinction that has gained particular importance in the sharing economy context. Furthermore, the Legal Analysis investi-gates the extent to which the EU consumer acquis and other relevant EU legislation might apply to C2C transactions and online platforms facilitating these transactions. It also identifies the main enforcement issues of the applicable legal frameworks, the application problems experienced by national authorities, and relevant legal and policy initiatives adopted, or being discussed, by Member States or at EU level.
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