Buscador

Encontrado(s) 16 resultado(s)
Encontrada(s) 2 página(s)

Efectos de la incorporación de altos niveles de harina de colza en piensos de cerdos de engorde

  • Torres-Pitarch, A.
  • Moset, Verónica
  • Ferrer, Pablo
  • Hernández, P.
  • Bonet, J.
  • Coma, J.
  • Cerisuelo, Alba
Proyecto:


The inclusion of rapeseed meal in fattening pig diets, as a partial replacer of soybean meal, alters nutrient digestion, faecal composition and biochemical methane potential from faeces

  • Torres-Pitarch, A.
  • Moset, Verónica
  • Ferrer, Pablo
  • Cambra-López, María
  • Hernandez, P.
  • Coma, J.
  • Pascual, Mariam
  • Serrano, Paula
  • Cerisuelo, Alba
The effects of including rapeseed meal (RSM) as an alternative source of vegetable protein in pig diets on animal performance, nutrient digestibility and methane production from faeces was investigated. A total of 96 pigs of 42.4 (+/- 14.04) kg of body weight (BW) were allocated into two dietary treatments (48 animals/treatment). One group was fed a conventional diet (C) and the other with a diet containing RSM (R). The level of RSM in the R diet was 120 g/kg during the growing phase (40-70 kg BW; days 1-34 of study) and 200 g/kg during the finishing phase (70-114 kg BW; days 35-76 of study). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were measured throughout the study. During the finishing phase, faeces were collected and analysed for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), crude fat, fibre fractions, pH, volatile fatty acids and biochemical methane potential (B-0). Additionally, the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients was measured using the acid-insoluble ash method. At slaughter (114 +/- 12.2 kg BW), the main carcass and meat quality characteristics were registered and the fatty acid (FA) profile of the subcutaneous fat and muscle was analysed. During the growing phase, R animals showed lower ADG compared with C animals (818 vs. 890 g/d; P<0.05). These differences disappeared during the finishing phase. Faeces from treatment R showed a lower B-0 compared to those from treatment C (308 vs. 351 mL methane/g OM). Animals from R group showed a lower DM, OM and CP CTTAD than C animals (0.790, 0.826 and 0.729 vs. 0.832, 0.865 and 0.818, respectively; P<0.05) and tended to show lower fibre digestion rates. Consequently, animals from R group showed a higher amount of these components in faeces. However, fat digestion was not affected. No differences were found between treatments on most carcass characteristics. Overall, the inclusion of high levels of RSM in pig diets decreased final BW and nutrient digestibility (except fat) in the finishing phase. However, faeces from animals fed RSM were less degradable, producing less methane per gram of OM. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Proyecto:


Concentration, spatial and size distribution of airborne aerobic mesophilic bacteria in broiler farms

  • Adell, Elisa
  • Moset, Verónica
  • Zhao, Yang
  • Cerisuelo, Alba
  • Cambra-López, María
In livestock houses, particulate matter (PM) and airborne microorganism are two of the most relevant air pollutants. Particulate matter may carry microorganisms, the inhalation of which can cause detrimental health effects. The aim of this study was to study the spatial distribution of airborne aerobic mesophilic bacteria in the air of a broiler farm (rearing poultry for meat production), to quantify the concentration of airborne aerobic mesophilic bacteria and PM in the air and to study their evolution in time, as well as to evaluate the relationship between particle size and airborne aerobic mesophilic bacteria, and to correlate the evolution of PM concentrations and aerobic mesophilic bacteria concentrations. For this purpose, the air of two broiler rooms in an experimental broiler farm was sampled weekly using different methods during 42 days. There was a spatial gradient (p<0.001) in aerobic mesophilic bacteria concentrations between animal height and higher heights, at the beginning of the production cycle (day 3). The concentration of aerobic mesophilic bacteria in the air ranged from 3 to 6.53 log CFU/m(3). Between 42% and 96% of aerobic mesophilic bacteria in the air were found in the particle size ranges between 3.3 to more than 7 mu m. The PM concentration in the air was equal to 0.019 mg/m(3) for PM2.5 and equal to 0.189 mg/m(3) for PM10. The PM and bacteria concentrations followed a similar evolution during the production cycle (correlation coefficient between 0.78 and 0.89), showing a maximum concentration on day 24 and decreasing thereafter, coinciding with an increase in the ventilation rate.
Proyecto:


Comparative performance of three sampling techniques to detect airborne Salmonella species in poultry farms

  • Adell, Elisa
  • Moset, Verónica
  • Zhao, Yang
  • Jimenez-Belenguer, Ana
  • Cerisuelo, Alba
  • Cambra-López, María
Sampling techniques to detect airborne Salmonella species (spp.) in two pilot scale broiler houses were compared. Broilers were inoculated at seven days of age with a marked strain of Salmonella enteritidis. The rearing cycle lasted 42 days during the summer. Airborne Salmonella spp. were sampled weekly using impaction, gravitational settling, and impingement techniques. Additionally,Salmonella spp. were sampled on feeders, drinkers, walls, and in the litter. Environmental conditions (temperature, relative humidity, and airborne particulate matter (PM) concentration) were monitored during the rearing cycle. The presence of Salmonella spp. was determined by culture-dependent and molecular methods. No cultivable Salmonella spp. were recovered from the poultry houses' surfaces, the litter, or the air before inoculation. After inoculation, cultivable Salmonella spp. were recovered from the surfaces and in the litter. Airborne cultivable Salmonella spp. were detected using impaction and gravitational settling one or two weeks after the detection of Salmonella spp. in the litter. No cultivable Salmonella spp. were recovered using impingement based on culture-dependent techniques. At low airborne concentrations, the use of impingement for the quantification or detection of cultivable airborne Salmonella spp. is not recommended. In these cases, a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods is recommended. These data are valuable to improve current measures to control the transmission of pathogens in livestock environments and for optimising the sampling and detection of airborne Salmonella spp. in practical conditions.
Proyecto:


The inclusion of ensiled citrus pulp in diets for growing pigs: Effects on voluntary intake, growth performance, gut microbiology and meat quality

  • Cerisuelo, Alba
  • Castello, L.
  • Moset, Verónica
  • Martinez, M.
  • Hernandez, P.
  • Piquer, Olga
  • Gómez, Ernesto A.
  • Gasa, J.
  • Lainez, Manuel
Citrus pulp was evaluated as an alternative feedstuff in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Three diets were formulated on an iso-nutrient basis to contain 0 (C), 50 (PM) or 100 (PH) g of ensiled citrus pulp per kg on a dry matter basis (DM). At 56.7 +/- 7.1 kg of body weight, 72 pigs were allocated into 3 groups according to the citrus pulp level in the diet. Body weight and voluntary feed intake (VFI) were recorded on days 0,29 and 55. Backfat thickness (BF) and loin depth (LD) were measured at P2 using ultrasounds. Faecal samples were taken directly from the rectum and cultured for Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus counts. At slaughter, carcass weight. BF at gluteus medius and meat colour was recorded. Also fatty acid profile in subcutaneous fat was determined. Pigs fed citrus pulp showed a lower (P<0.05) VFI on a DM basis and, consequently, a lower (P<0.05) weight gain (ADG) compared to C pigs during the first 4 weeks of study. Thereafter, no differences were found between groups. At the end of the study. C pigs showed a greater level of BF at P2 than PM and PH. The inclusion of citrus pulp significantly reduced (P<0.05) Enterobacteriaceae in faeces, not affecting Lactobacillus population. The inclusion of citrus pulp lead to no differences in BF at gluteus medius and meat colour but tended (P<0.10) to decrease carcass yield and increase oleic acid percentage in subcutaneous fat. It was concluded that growing pigs can adapt their gastrointestinal tract to citrus pulp as a source of high-fermentable carbohydrates without detrimental effects on growth performance and meat quality, and potential benefits on gut microbiology. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Proyecto:


Effects of inclusion of sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets for growing and finishing pigs

  • Cerisuelo, Alba
  • Moset, Verónica
  • Bonet, J.
  • Coma, J.
  • Lainez, Manuel
The effects of sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles (sorghum-DDGS) in growing pig diets on growth performance and carcass quality were investigated. A total of 204 animals of 13.9 +/- 2.60 kg body weight (BW) were allocated into two dietary treatments, a conventional diet (C) and a diet containing sorghum-DDGS (DDGS). DDGS inclusion levels used were 150 g kg(-1) in pigs from 14-40 kg BW, 300 g kg(-1) from 40-80 kg BW and 350 g kg(-1) from 80 kg BW to slaughter. Animals' body weight, feed intake, backfat thickness (BF) and loin depth (LD) were measured throughout the study. Protein, fibre and fat content of sorghum-DDGS were approximately three times-fold those of the whole grain. During the nursery period, feed intake and final BW tended to be lower in the group of pigs fed DDGS compared to the piglets fed C diet (871.4 g d (1) and 30 kg vs 951.1 g d (1) and 31 kg). During the growing period no differences were found on growth performance between treatments. Pigs fed sorghum-DDGS showed higher BF than pigs fed C diet (10.96 mm vs 9.80 mm, p < 0.001). No differences were found on LD and carcass weight and yield between treatments. Thus, although 150 g kg(-1) of sorghum-DDGS in nursery diets tended to reduce growth performance, inclusion rates up to 300-350 g kg(-1) during the finishing phase did not affect it, but led to fatter carcasses.
Proyecto:


Increasing energy and lysine in diets for growing-finishing pigs in hot environmental conditions: Consequences on performance, digestibility, slurry composition, and gas emission

  • Cerisuelo, Alba
  • Torres, A.
  • Lainez, Manuel
  • Moset, Verónica
The influence of dietary nutrient concentration on growth performance, manure composition, and gas emission was studied in pigs in hot environmental conditions. A total of 64 intact males and 64 females [(Landrace x Large White) x Pietrain] weighing 63.1 +/- 9.7 kg were divided into 2 dietary treatments: high (HD: 14.39 MJ of DE/kg and 1.11% Lys) and low (LD: 13.97 MJ of DE/kg and 1.01% Lys) in energy and Lys contents. Pigs were allocated to 32 split-sex pens with 4 pigs/pen and 16 pens/treatment. Average productive performance was recorded for 41 d (phase 1). After phase 1, 12 females of 103.3 +/- 3.15 kg (6 per treatment) were selected and housed individually, and feces and slurry were collected during 3 and 4 consecutive days, respectively, to calculate nutrient digestibility and measure gas emissions (phase 2). For gas emission measurements, slurry was pooled by treatment and stored for 76 d. Initial composition of slurry and pH were analyzed. Maximum and minimum temperatures registered in the barn throughout the growing period were 35.1 and 18.1 degrees C, respectively. Animals fed the HD diet grew more efficiently than pigs fed the LD diet (G:F, 0.43 vs. 0.40; SEM = 0.01; P < 0.05). Fat digestibility was greater in HD compared with LD pigs (88.0 vs. 84.9%; SEM = 0.9; P < 0.05). Slurry from pigs fed the LD diet showed greater DM, OM, total N, and VFA contents than slurry from pigs fed the HD diet. Cumulative NH3, CO2, and especially CH4 emissions were greater in the HD slurry compared with the LD slurry (192 vs. 210 g of NH3/m(3); 2,712 vs. 3,210 g of CO2/m(3); 1,502 vs. 2,647 mL of CH4/kg of OM). Increasing feed density in the present study led to a more efficient growth, a decreased nutrient concentration in the slurry, and a greater gas emission.
Proyecto:


The use of agricultural substrates to improve methane yield in anaerobic co-digestion with pig slurry: Effect of substrate type and inclusion level

  • Ferrer, Pablo
  • Cambra-López, María
  • Cerisuelo, Alba
  • Penaranda, David S.
  • Moset, Verónica
Anaerobic co-digestion of pig slurry with four agricultural substrates (tomato, pepper, persimmon and peach) was investigated. Each agricultural substrate was tested in co-digestion with pig slurry at four inclusion levels: 0%, 15%, 30% and 50%. Inclusion levels consisted in the replacement of the volatile solids (VS) from the pig slurry with the VS from the agricultural substrate. The effect of substrate type and inclusion level on the biochemical methane potential (BMP) was evaluated in a batch assay performed at 35 degrees C for 100 days. Agricultural substrate's chemical composition was also analyzed and related with BMP. Additionally, Bacteria and Archaea domains together with the four main methanogenic archaeal orders were quantified using quantitative real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) at the end of the experiment to determine the influence of agricultural substrate on sludge's microbial composition. Results showed that vegetable substrates (pepper and tomato) had higher lipid and protein content and lower carbohydrates than fruit substrates (persimmon and peach). Among substrates, vegetable substrates showed higher BMP than fruit substrates. Higher BMP values were obtained with increasing addition of agricultural substrate. The replacement of 50% of VS from pig slurry by tomato and pepper increased BMP in 41% and 44%, respectively compared with pig slurry only. Lower increments in BMP were achieved with lower inclusion levels. Results from qPCR showed that total bacteria and total archaea gene concentrations were similar in all combinations tested. Methanomicrobiales gene concentrations dominated over the rest of individual archaeal orders. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Proyecto:


Buscador avanzado