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Limited Interactions between Streptococcus Suis and Haemophilus Parasuis in In Vitro Co-Infection Studies

  • Mathieu-Denoncourt, Annabelle
  • Letendre, Corinne
  • Auger, Jean-Philippe
  • Segura, Mariela
  • Aragon, Virginia
  • Lacouture, Sonia
  • Gottschalk, Marcelo
Streptococcus suis and Haemophilus parasuis are normal inhabitants of the porcine upper respiratory tract but are also among the most frequent causes of disease in weaned piglets worldwide, causing inflammatory diseases such as septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia. Using an in vitro model of infection with tracheal epithelial cells or primary alveolar macrophages (PAMs), it was possible to determine the interaction between S. suis serotype 2 and H. parasuis strains with different level of virulence. Within H. parasuis strains, the low-virulence F9 strain showed higher adhesion levels to respiratory epithelial cells and greater association levels to PAMs than the high-virulence Nagasaki strain. Accordingly, the low-virulence F9 strain induced, in general, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than the virulent Nagasaki strain from both cell types. In general, S. suis adhesion levels to respiratory epithelial cells were similar to H. parasuis Nagasaki strain. Yet, S. suis strains induced a significantly lower level of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression from epithelial cells and PAMs than those observed with both H. parasuis strains. Finally, this study has shown that, overall and under the conditions used in the present study, S. suis and H. parasuis have limited in vitro interactions between them and use probably different host receptors, regardless to their level of virulence., info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

A literature review as an aid to identify strategies for mitigating ostreid herpesvirus 1 in Crassostrea gigas hatchery and nursery systems

  • Rodgers, Chris
  • Arzul, Isabelle
  • Carrasco, Noèlia
  • Furones Nozal, Dolores
An understanding of husbandry strategies and any associated risk factors is important for designing management control measures that can reduce mortality in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, caused by ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV‐1). The type of culture facility can be considered in relation to the potential pathways that could lead to the entry of a pathogen and its survival. In addition, the animal host (e.g. age, physiological state, selective breeding programmes), husbandry procedures (e.g. stocking density), the pathogen itself (e.g. pathogenicity, virulence) and environmental effects (e.g. temperature) represent other relevant interconnected factors. However, all these factors provide valuable background information for outlining the mitigation strategies needed by the industry, as well as in the context of surveillance and biosecurity programmes. These control mechanisms for hatchery or nursery areas are related to movement restrictions, water treatment, virus inactivation, the production calendar and practical farm management decisions. This comprehensive literature review compiles information related to such approaches and also includes the different existing guidelines suggested for control of OsHV‐1. Therefore, the review represents a solid foundation for a more critical appraisal currently being developed to support recommendations for disease management strategies., info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

Vertical price transmission in the Egyptian tomato sector after the Arab Spring

  • Osama, Ahmed
This study assesses price transmission along the Egyptian tomato food marketing chain in the period that followed the Arab Spring, which accentuated economic precariousness in Egypt. Static and time-varying copula methods are used for this purpose. Results suggest a positive link between producer, wholesaler and retailer tomato prices. Such positive dependence is characterized by asymmetries during extreme market events that lead price increases to be transferred more completely along the supply chain than price declines., info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

Promoting biodiversity values of small forest patches in agricultural landscapes: Ecological drivers and social demand

  • Varela, Elsa
  • Verheyen, Kris
  • Vicialdés, Alicia
  • Soliño, Mario
  • Jacobsen, Jette B.
  • De Smedt, Pallieter
  • Ehrmann, Steffen
  • Gärtner, Stefanie
  • Górriz, Elena
  • Decocq, Guillaume
Small forest patches embedded in agricultural (and peri-urban) landscapes in Western Europe play a key role for biodiversity conservation with a recognized capacity of delivering a wide suite of ecosystem services. Measures aimed to preserve these patches should be both socially desirable and ecologically effective. This study presents a joint ecologic and economic assessment conducted on small forest patches in Flanders (Belgium) and Picardie (N France). In each study region, two contrasted types of agricultural landscapes were selected. Open field (OF) and Bocage (B) landscapes are distinguished by the intensity of their usage and higher connectivity in the B landscapes. The social demand for enhancing biodiversity and forest structure diversity as well as for increasing the forest area at the expenses of agricultural land is estimated through an economic valuation survey. These results are compared with the outcomes of an ecological survey where the influence of structural features of the forest patches on the associated herbaceous diversity is assessed. The ecological and economic surveys show contrasting results; increasing tree species richness is ecologically more important for herbaceous diversity in the patch, but both tree species richness and herbaceous diversity obtain insignificant willingness to pay estimates. Furthermore, although respondents prefer the proposed changes to take place in the region where they live, we find out that social preferences and ecological effectiveness do differ between landscapes that represent different intensities of land use. Dwellers where the landscape is perceived as more “degraded” attach more value to diversity enhancement, suggesting a prioritization of initiatives in these area. In contrast, the ecological analyses show that prioritizing the protection and enhancement of the relatively better-off areas is more ecologically effective. Our study calls for a balance between ecological effectiveness and welfare benefits, suggesting that cost effectiveness studies should consider these approaches jointly., info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion

Effect of β-Glucans in Diets on Growth, Survival, Digestive Enzyme Activity, and Immune System and Intestinal Barrier Gene Expression for Tropical Gar (Atractosteus tropicus) Juveniles

  • Nieves-Rodríguez, Karen N.
  • Álvarez-González, Carlos Alfonso
  • Peña-Marín, Emyr S.
  • Vega-Villasante, Fernando
  • Martínez-García, Rafael
  • Camarillo-Coop, Susana
  • Tovar-Ramírez, Daniel
  • Guzmán-Villanueva, Laura T.
  • Andree, Karl B.
  • Gisbert, Enric
The application of β-1,3/1,6-glucan derived from yeast at five concentrations (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%) in formulated diets was evaluated in juveniles for its effects on the growth, survival, digestive enzymatic activity, and expression of genes associated with the immune system (interlukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor (TGF), occludin (OCC), mucin2 (MUC2), lysozyme (LYS), and nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2)) in tropical gar (Atractosteus tropicus). For the experiment, three replicates of 30 fish per experimental unit (70 L) were cultivated for 62 days. The growth results showed no statistically significant differences in relation to weight and total length between treatments. The activity of digestive enzymes (alkaline proteases, trypsin, leucine aminopeptidase, and amylase) did not show significant differences between treatments, except for chymotrypsin activity, where fish fed 1.0% and 1.5% of β-glucans showed higher activities compared with the rest of the treatments. On the other hand, the analysis of gene expression did not show significant differences between treatments, although a tendency of increase in the expression of IL-10, TGF, MUC2, and OCC was observed with an addition of 1.5% of the prebiotic, but there was a decrease in the fish fed with 2% of the prebiotic. It is possible to include concentrations of between 0.5% and 1.5% of β-glucans in the diets for A. tropicus, with no detectable adverse effects on growth, survival, digestive enzyme activity, or specific gene expression. β-glucan 1,3/1,6 added at 1.0% and 1.5% in the diet significantly increases chymotrypsin activity., info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

Supplementary feeding stations for conservation of vultures could be an important source of monophasic Salmonella typhimurium 1,4,[5],12:i:-

  • Marin, Clara
  • Torres, Cristobal
  • Marco-Jiménez, Francisco
  • Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta
  • Sevilla, Sandra
  • Ayats, Teresa
  • Vega, Santiago
Vultures are nature's most successful scavengers, feeding on the carcasses of dead animals present in the field. Availability of domestic carrion has been unstable due to rapidly changing agro-grazing economies and increasing sanitary regulations that may require burial or burning of livestock carcasses. Thus, several griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) recoveries are based on European legislation that guarantees the animals' welfare, avoids intense persecution of the vultures and allows the feeding of threatened wildlife in supplementary feeding stations (SFS). However, in recent years, many studies have speculated on the likelihood that avian scavengers may be infected by feeding on pig carcasses at SFS from intensive livestock. In this context, the present study evaluated whether free-living griffon vultures and pig farms share zoonotic Salmonella strains to test the hypothesis that vulture are infected during consumption of carcasses provided at SFS. Here, the occurrence, serotypes and genomic DNA fingerprinting (phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) of isolated strains were carried out in griffon vultures and pig farms authorised to provided carcasses at SFS in Castellón province (eastern Spain). The bacteriological analyses revealed that 21.1% of vultures and 14.5% for pig farms samples tested were Salmonella-positive. Monophasic S. typhimurium 1,4,[5],12:i:- was the most frequently isolated serovar. Comparison of Salmonella strains isolated from vultures and pig farms revealed that monophasic S. typhimurium 1,4,[5],12:i:-, S. Derby and S. Rissen strains were highly genetically homogeneous (similar DNA fingerprint). In conclusion, the current study indicates that free-living griffon vultures and pig farms that provide the carcasses at SFS share several zoonotic Salmonella strains. On this basis, and although transmission could be bidirectional, our result seems to corroborate the pig carcasses-to-vulture transmission and cross-infection at SFS. As an immediate Salmonella control strategy in wild avian scavengers, we suggest the implementation of a programme to guarantee that solely pig carcasses from Salmonella-free farms arrive at SFS., info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion

Impact of climate change environmental conditions on the resilience of different formulations of the biocontrol agent Candida sake CPA‐1 on grapes

  • Carbó, A.
  • Torres, R.
  • Teixidó, N.
  • Usall, J.
  • Medina, A.
  • Magan, N.
Biocontrol agents have become componentsof integrated crop protection systemsfor controlling economically important fungal pathogens.Candida sakeCPA-1 is abiocontrol agent of fungal pathogens of fruits, both pre- and post-harvest. Whilethe efficacy of different formulations have been examined previously, few studieshave considered the resilience of different formulations under changing climaticconditions of elevated temperature, drought stress and increased atmospheric CO2.This study examined the effect of (a) temperature9RH9elevated CO2(400vs1000 ppm) on the temporal establishment and viability of two dry and one liquidC. sakeCPA-1 formulations on grape berry surfaces; (b) temperature stress (25vs35°C); and (c) elevated CO2levels. Results indicated that temperature, RH and CO2concentration influenced the establishment and viability of the formulations butthere was no significant difference between formulations. For the combined three-component factors, increased temperature (35°C) and lower RH (40%) reduced theviable populations on grapes. The interaction with elevated CO2improved theestablishment of viable populations of the formulations tested. Viable populationsgreater than Log 4 CFUs per g were recovered from the grape surfaces suggestingthat these had conserved resilience for control ofBotrytisrot in grapes., info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion

Effect of kaolin silver complex on the control of populations of Brettanomyces and acetic acid bacteria in wine

  • Izquierdo-Cañas, P. M.
  • López-Martín, R.
  • García-Romero, E.
  • González-Arenzana, L.
  • Mínguez-Sanz, S.
  • Chatonnet, P.
  • Palacios-García, A.
  • Puig-Pujol, A.
In this work, the effects of kaolin silver complex (KAgC) have been evaluated to replace the use of SO2 for the control of spoilage microorganisms in the winemaking process. The results showed that KAgC at a dose of 1 g/L provided effective control against the development of B. bruxellensis and acetic acid bacteria. In wines artificially contaminated with an initial population of B. bruxellensis at 104 CFU/mL, a concentration proven to produce off flavors in wine, only residual populations of the contaminating yeast remained after 24 days of contact with the additive. Populations of acetic bacteria inoculated into wine at concentrations of 102 and 104 CFU/mL were reduced to negligible levels after 72 h of treatment with KAgC. The antimicrobial effect of KAgC against B. bruxellensis and acetic bacteria was also demonstrated in a wine naturally contaminated by these microorganisms, decreasing their population in a similar way to a chitosan treatment. Related to this effect, wines with KAgC showed lower concentrations of acetic acid and 4-ethyl phenol than wines without KAgC. The silver concentration from KAgC that remained in the finished wines was below the legal limits. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of KAgC to reduce spoilage microorganisms in winemaking., info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion

Identification of potential recruitment bottlenecks in larval stages of the giant fan mussel Pinna nobilis using specific quantitative PCR

  • Andree, Karl B.
  • Trigos, Sergio
  • Vicente, Nardo
  • Carrasco, Noelia
  • Carella, Francesca
  • Prado, Patricia
Pinna nobilis is an endangered species of fan mussel found along coastal Mediterranean waters requiring special attention for conservation. Populations are restricted in number, due to anthropogenic disturbances, disease, and in some areas, low rates of recruitment. To date, the difficulties associated with the identification of planktonic stages have prompted the use of benthic collectors as a proxy for quantifying larval supply, despite important information being lost regarding planktonic processes. We present evidence of spawning utilizing a qPCR assay developed for detecting genomic DNA of P. nobilis to enable specific identification of planktonic stages to augment knowledge of P. nobilis life history. In the Ebro Delta, Spain, it has been used to study what might be limiting their reproduction locally. We demonstrate the ability to differentiate DNA of P. nobilis from other bivalve mollusks and distinguish between fertilized and unfertilized eggs of P. nobilis, which may be a crucial point for understanding the low level of recruitment seen in this natural population. We also show evidence of larval presence during the expected spawning period, although abundance in positive samples were so low that they pose new questions about factors controlling the availability of planktonic stages of P. nobilis., info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion

Characterisation of Bergeyella spp. isolated from the nasal cavities of piglets

  • Lorenzo de Arriba, M.
  • Lopez-Serrano, S.
  • Galofre-Mila, N.
  • Aragon, V.
The aim of this study was to characterise bacteria in the genus Bergeyella isolated from the nasal passages of healthy piglets. Nasal swabs from 3 to 4 week-old piglets from eight commercial domestic pig farms and one wild boar farm were cultured under aerobic conditions. Twenty-nine Bergeyella spp. isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and 11 genotypes were discriminated by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR. Bergeyella zoohelcum and Bergeyella porcorum were identified within the 11 genotypes. Bergeyella spp. isolates exhibited resistance to serum complement and phagocytosis, poor capacity to form biofilms and were able to adhere to epithelial cells. Maneval staining was consistent with the presence of a capsule. Multiple drug resistance (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents) was present in 9/11 genotypes, including one genotype isolated from wild boar with no history of antimicrobial use. In conclusion, Bergeyella spp. isolates from the nasal cavities of piglets showed some in vitro features indicative of a potential for virulence. Further studies are necessary to identify the role of Bergeyella spp. in disease and within the nasal microbiota of pigs., info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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