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Factores de riesgo de las enfermedades cardiovasculares

  • Soto García, Ana
  • Pérez Fernández, Yolanda
Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) son un conjunto de enfermedades que afectan al corazón y a los vasos sanguíneos. Representan un problema para la salud pública a causa de su alta prevalencia. Son la principal causa de muerte y de hospitalización en los países desarrollados, siendo también una causa importante de muerte en países en vías de desarrollo. El objetivo del presente estudio es conocer la revalencia de ECV en la población española e identificar los factores de riesgo que tienen mayor contribución en el desarrollo de la misma. Para ello se ha realizado un estudio epidemiológico, observacional, descriptivo y transversal en una población constituida por 22.842 personas. Los datos han sido obtenidos de la Encuesta Europea de Salud de 2014. Tras el análisis de los resultados obtenidos a través de la encuesta se observa que una de cada diez personas en España padece de enfermedad cardiovascular, siendo los factores de riesgo que más contribuyen, la edad (mayores de 65 años), la falta de actividad física, padecer de HTA, tener el colesterol elevado y ser diabético. Para disminuir el riesgo de padecer ECV se deben tomar medidas e incidir en aquellos factores modificables.
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Estudio comparativo in vitro del ajuste y microfiltración en la interfase implante-pilar según el tipo de conexión, pilares y torque

  • Vélez Barros, Jorge Luis
El objetivo general de esta investigación fue analizar el ajuste marginal y la microfiltración de la conexión implante-pilar en implantes con dos tipos de conexión, dos tipos de pilares y diferente torque de insercción. Este objetivo principal se proyecta en los siguientes objetivos específicos: 1) Evaluar si el ajuste implante-pilar en implantes con conexión externa e interna, en pilares rectos y angulados y diferente torque de inserción , se encuentra dentro de los límites claramente aceptados. 2) Comparar el ajuste implante-pilar entre los dos tipos de conexiones. 3) Comparar el ajuste entre pilares rectos y angulados en ambos tipos de conexión. 4) Comparar el ajuste implante-pilar con diferente torque de insercción de los pilares. 5) Comparar el ajuste implante-pilar según el lugar de medición. 6) Evaluar la microfiltración marginal en la interfase implante-pilar en implantes con conexión externa e interna, en pilares rectos y angulados y diferente torque de inserción.
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La potencialidad creativa de la piel animal: Artesculp, arte y tradición en el proceso de transculturación del territorio rural español a partir de 1950

  • Alcolea Sánchez, Carmela
Esta investigación aborda, desde el campo del arte, el análisis de determinadas actividades creativas, culturalmente arraigadas en el espacio rural español en los años sesenta, focalizando el estudio sobre aquellas que tienen como principal objetivo, la decoración de los animales de labor, para su exhibición en las fiestas tradicionales como la romería. Una celebración compleja, de acciones individuales y colectivas, que forma parte del patrimonio cultural inmaterial, en la que se concentran una parte importante de los signos culturales de un pueblo, acciones que facilitan la cohesión del grupo y reafirman los lazos identitarios del individuo con su entorno, su memoria y su historia. Dentro del conjunto de prácticas artísticas populares que se producen en el ámbito rural, este estudio analiza las centradas en la decoración de la piel de los animales, y en concreto en los procedimientos englobados bajo la técnica denominada Artesculp. Se afronta un largo proceso de creación e investigación artística, que comenzó Ramón Alcolea a mediados del siglo XX, con unos sencillos dibujos ornamentales de esquileo artístico sobre una mula viva, y que en la actualidad se ha trasformado en una singular forma de expresión y comunicación artística sobre una piel de animal curtida con el pelo...
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A Framework Proposal for Regional-Scale Flood-Risk Assessment of Cultural Heritage Sites and Application to the Castile and León Region (Central Spain)

  • Garrote Revilla, Julio
  • Díez Herrero, Andrés
  • Escudero, Cristina
  • García, Inés
Floods, at present, may constitute the natural phenomenon with the greatest impact on the deterioration of cultural heritage, which is the reason why the study of flood risk becomes essential in any attempt to manage cultural heritage (archaeological sites, historic buildings, artworks, etc.) This management of cultural heritage is complicated when it is distributed over a wide territory. This is precisely the situation in the region of Castile and León (Spain), in which 2155 cultural heritage elements are registered in the Catalog of Cultural Heritage Sites of Castile and León, and these are distributed along the 94,226 km2 of this region. Given this scenario, the present study proposes a methodological framework of flood risk analysis for these cultural heritage sites and elements. This assessment is based on two main processing tools to be developed in addition: on the one hand, the creation of a GIS database in which to establish the spatial relationship between the cultural heritage elements and the flow-prone areas for different flood return periods and, on the other hand, the creation of a risk matrix in which different variables are regarded as associated both to flood hazard (return period, flow depth, and river flooding typology) and to flood vulnerability (construction typology, and construction structural relationship with the hydraulic environment). The combination of both tools has allowed us to establish each cultural heritage flood risk level, making its categorization of risk possible. Of all the cultural heritage sites considered, 18 of them are categorized under an Extreme flood risk level; and another 24 show a High potential flood risk level. Therefore, these are about 25% to 30% of all cultural heritage sites in Castile and León. This flood risk categorization, with a scientific basis of the cultural heritage sites at risk, makes it possible to define territories of high flood risk clustering; where local scale analyses for mitigation measures against flood risk are necessary.
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Non-Euclidean symmetries of first-order optical systems

  • Monzón Serrano, Juan José
  • Montesinos Amilibia, José María
  • Sánchez Soto, Luis Lorenzo
We revisit the basic aspects of first-order optical systems from a geometrical viewpoint. In the paraxial regime, there is a wide family of beams for which the action of these systems can be represented as a Möbius transformation. We examine this action from the perspective of non-Euclidean hyperbolic geometry and resort to the isometric-circle method to decompose it as a reflection followed by an inversion in a circle. We elucidate the physical meaning of these geometrical operations for basic elements, such as free propagation and thin lenses, and link them with physical parameters of the system.
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Short and long period growth markers of enamel formation distinguish European Pleistocene hominins

  • Modesto Mata, Mario
  • Dean, M. Christopher
  • Lacruz, Rodrigo S.
  • Bromage, Timothy G.
  • García Campos, Cecilia
  • Martínez de Pinillos, Marina
  • Martín-Francés, Laura
  • Martinón-Torres, María
  • Carbonell i Roura, Eudald
  • Arsuaga, Juan Luis
  • Bermúdez de Castro, José María
Characterizing dental development in fossil hominins is important for distinguishing between them and for establishing where and when the slow overall growth and development of modern humans appeared. Dental development of australopiths and early Homo was faster than modern humans. The Atapuerca fossils (Spain) fill a barely known gap in human evolution, spanning ~1.2 to ~0.4 million years (Ma), during which H. sapiens and Neandertal dental growth characteristics may have developed. We report here perikymata counts, perikymata distributions and periodicities of all teeth belonging to the TE9 level of Sima del Elefante, level TD6.2 of Gran Dolina (H. antecessor) and Sima de los Huesos. We found some components of dental growth in the Atapuerca fossils resembled more recent H. sapiens. Mosaic evolution of perikymata counts and distribution generate three distinct clusters: H. antecessor, Sima de los Huesos and H. sapiens.
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Desde abajo y en la periferia: protesta social en el mundo rural durante el tardofranquismo y la Transición española (1962-1979)

  • Latorre Manglano, Diego
El proceso de democratización en España es uno de los temas que más interesa a los investigadores sociales en la actualidad. Los historiadores han ido abandonando una forma de estudio centrada en un cierto determinismo para poner el foco en los sujetos sociales. La sociedad civil y los movimientos sociales fueron actores determinantes en la construcción de la democracia en nuestro país. Pero, aunque los estudios “desde abajo” cada vez son más numerosos, todavía hoy hay un cierto olvido del mundo rural. En el campo también existieron movimientos antifranquistas y de protesta potentes que desafiaron la dictadura de formas muy diversas. A través del marco teórico proporcionado por los sociólogos de la nueva teoría del conflicto social se establecen unas líneas interpretativas que permiten explicar el fenómeno de la democratización rural de forma más compleja y no determinista.
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10-Fold Quantum Yield Improvement of Ag2S Nanoparticles by Fine Compositional Tuning

  • Ortega Rodríguez, Alicia
  • Shen, Yingli
  • Zabala Gutiérrez, Irene
  • Santos, Harrison D. A.
  • Torres Vera, Vivian
  • Ximedes, Erving
  • Villaverde Cantizano, Gonzalo
  • Lifante, José
  • Gerke, Christoph
  • Fernández Monsalve, Nuria
  • Gómez Calderón, Óscar
  • Melle Hernández, Sonia
  • Marqués Hueso, José
  • Méndez González, Diego
  • Laurenti, Marco
  • Jones, Callum M. S.
  • López Romero, Juan Manuel
  • Contreras Cáceres, Rafael
  • Jaque García, Daniel
  • Rubio Retama, Jorge
Ag2S semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) are near-infrared luminescent probes with outstanding properties (good biocompatibility, optimum spectral operation range, and easy biofunctionalization) that make them ideal probes for in vivo imaging. Ag2S NPs have, indeed, made possible amazing challenges including in vivo brain imaging and advanced diagnosis of the cardiovascular system. Despite the continuous redesign of synthesis routes, the emission quantum yield (QY) of Ag2S NPs is typically below 0.2%. This leads to a low luminescent brightness that avoids their translation into the clinics. In this work, an innovative synthetic methodology that permits a 10-fold increment in the absolute QY from 0.2 up to 2.3% is presented. Such an increment in the QY is accompanied by an enlargement of photoluminescence lifetimes from 184 to 1200 ns. The optimized synthetic route presented here is based on a fine control over both the Ag core and the Ag/S ratio within the NPs. Such control reduces the density of structural defects and decreases the nonradiative pathways. In addition, we demonstrate that the superior performance of the Ag2S NPs allows for high-contrast in vivo bioimaging. .
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Provenance of the HP–HT subducted margin in the Variscan belt (Cabo Ortegal Complex, NW Iberian Massif)

  • Albert Roper, Richard
  • Arenas Martín, Ricardo
  • Gerdes, Axel
  • Sánchez Martínez, S.
  • Marko, Linda
The Variscan Upper Allochthon is a continental-affinity terrane that recorded a Cambrian–Ediacaran magmatic arc generation, a subsequent transition to a passive margin, and a collision-related high-P metamorphism during the Devonian–Carboniferous amalgamation of Pangea. The objective of this article is to decipher which continental margin subducted in the Devonian high-P–high-T (HP–HT) event. To do so, a provenance study is presented using combined U–Pb (n = 613) and Lu–Hf (n = 463) isotopic LA–ICP–MS zircon analyses and Sm–Nd whole–rock (n = 5) determinations. These analyses have been performed on five samples of the Banded Gneisses (Cabo Ortegal Complex, NW Iberia), which forms a part of the HP–HT bottom member of the Upper Allochthon. Palaeozoic– Neoproterozoic zircon ages (34.7%) have a maximum abundance at 522–512 Ma, peaks at 575, 561, 545 Ma and minor abundance peaks between 780 and 590 Ma, and show from their Lu–Hf compositions a volcanic arc mixing pattern. This arc was probably related to the Cadomian arc system. The Mesoproterozoic population is scarce and scattered (2.8%), and due to its Lu–Hf pattern, it is proposed that this population is also West Africa Craton derived. The Paleoproterozoic population (39.6%) is concentrated at 2.07 Ga and it is linked to the Eburnean Orogeny, where depleted mantle derived magmas intruded an Archean craton margin. This craton is represented by the Archean population (22.8%), which is grouped at 3.0, 2.68-2.61 and 2.52-2.48 Ga, and shows long-term reworking processes and at least two juvenile magma intrusions. These data show that the Variscan Upper Allochthon has a West African provenance and therefore, it strongly suggests that the NW Iberian allochthonous complexes and their correlative European terranes are also West Africa derived. These results allow us to finally clarify that the first high-P event, recorded during the eo-Variscan amalgamation of Pangea, was attained by the subduction of the margin of Gondwana under Laurussia.
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Influence of addition of organic fillers on the properties of mechanically recycled PLA

  • Beltrán González, Freddys
  • Gaspar Roa, Gerald Manuel
  • Chomachayi, Masoud Dadras
  • Jalali Arani, Azam
  • Lozano Pérez, Antonio Abel
  • Cenis Anadón, José Luis
  • Orden Hernández, María Ulagares de la
  • Pérez Tabernero, Ernesto
  • Martínez Urreaga, Joaquín
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is one of the most used biobased and biodegradable polymers. Due to their high stability, some of the newest grades of PLA are only degradable under severe industrial conditions. For these grades, mechanical recycling is a viable end-of-life option, with great environmental advantages. However, the polymer undergoes degradation during its service life and in the melt reprocessing, which leads to a decrease in properties that can compromise the recyclability of PLA. The goal of this work was to evaluate the usefulness of adding small amounts of two organic fillers, chitosan, and silk fibroin nanoparticles, during the recycling process for improving the properties of the recycled plastic. The degradation level of the aged polymer and the nature and amount of filler affect the performance of the recycled plastics. The fillers reduce the degradation during the melt reprocessing of PLA previously subjected to severe hydrolysis, thus increasing the intrinsic viscosity of the recycled plastic. A careful selection of the added organic filler lead to recycled plastics with improvements in some key mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties. Thus, the use of organic fillers represents a cost-effective and environmentally sound way for improving the mechanical recycling of bioplastics.
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