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Justicia conciliatoria durante el liberalismo hispano en el Perú: el caso de Huamanga = Conciliatory justice during hispanic liberalism in Peru: The case of Huamanga

  • Sala i Vila, Núria
The 1812 Constitution established the division of powers, except at local level. Mayors held powers in the internal government of towns and villages and were lay judges in settlements, an obligatory procedure for litigants and for resolving any dispute before the legal courts -district or provincial judges. Based on the case study of Huamanga, the players and the type of causes settled during the two stages in which the vice-royalty of Peru practised Spanish liberal politics -1812-1814 and 1820-1824- are analysed. The municipal judicial culture was dominated by a series of changes and demands, which provide new perspectives towards an understanding of the convulsed times of the wars of independence of the Andes that sometimes extended to the early republic, La Constitución de 1812 estableció la división de poderes, excepto en el ámbito local. Los alcaldes tenían competencias en el gobierno interior de los pueblos y, al mismo tiempo, eran los jueces legos en las conciliaciones, un trámite preceptivo para los litigantes y para dirimir cualquier conflicto ante la justicia letrada -jueces de partido o audiencias. A partir del estudio de caso de Huamanga, se analizan los actores y la tipología de las causas dirimidas durante las dos etapas en que el virreinato del Perú ensayó la política liberal hispana- 1812-1814 y 1820-1824. La cultura jurídica municipal estuvo dominada por una serie de cambios y reivindicaciones, que aportan nuevas perspectivas para comprender los convulsos tiempos de las guerras por la independencia en los Andes y que en ocasiones trascendieron a la temprana república
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'The periodic table of videos': an excellent bridge between university research and the high school chemistry classroom = 'The periodic table of videos': un excel·lent pont entre la recerca universitària i la docència a secundària

  • Poliakoff, Martyn
  • Tang, Samantha
  • Haran, Brady
  • Vieta Corcoy, Pep Anton
Teachers and professors know that excitement within the class and school lab is a key factor for promoting vocations. With this article we want to show an interesting project developed from the University of Nottingham that has this objective. «The periodic table of videos» (PTOV) has become an excellent bridge between university research and the high school chemistry classroom. This proposal aims to increase scientific vocations in students and give a better view of chemistry and scientific culture in society, Els professors saben que la motivació a classe i al laboratori és un factor clau per a la promoció de les vocacions científiques. Amb aquest article volem mostrar un interessant projecte desenvolupat a la Universitat de Nottingham amb aquest objectiu. «The periodic table of videos» (PTOV) s’ha convertit en un excel·lent pont entre la recerca universitària i l’aula de química a secundària. Aquesta proposta té com a objectiu fomentar vocacions científiques, així com millorar la visió de la química i incrementar la cultura científica en la societat
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The development of professional competences using the interdisciplinary project approach with university students

  • González Carrasco, Mònica
  • Francés Ortega, Jesús
  • Castro Vila, Rodolfo de
  • Castañer i Vivas, Margarida
  • San Molina, Juan Lorenzo
  • Martí Bonmatí, Joan
This work describes an experience conducted by a group of professors from different departments at the University of Girona (Catalonia, Spain) which arose from the need for interdisciplinary work in university classrooms in order to promote competences relevant to the professional sector. As part of this experience, students from different degree programs were challenged to work collaboratively and in an interdisciplinary manner on a project related to the management of a school cafeteria designed for a real educational center. The work promoted the development of competences that are otherwise difficult to attain through activities that lack an interdisciplinary approach, which are key in today's professional world, such as multi-professional teamwork. Based on this experience, the feasibility of students from different areas of study carrying out a final degree project (FDP) that meets real, contextualized needs and requires the contribution of knowledge from different disciplines is considered
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Learning based on the project entitled "design and construction of a wooden bridge"

  • Barris Peña, Cristina
  • Torres Llinàs, Lluís
  • Simon Madrenas, Enric
This article presents the results of a case involving the application of project-based learning carried out with students in the Mechanical Engineering degree program at the University of Girona. The project, entitled "Design and construction of a wooden bridge", was conducted at the Polytechnic School in the third-year Structures course. This project required students to address, consider and solve different problems related to the resistance of materials, structural calculations, material optimization and structural design. The project also included the building of the bridge based on the calculations made, thus enabling the students to verify the suitability of the theoretical calculations as compared to real results. Furthermore, a competition was held to reward those teams who obtained the best ratio between the failure load and the weight of the bridge. The main conclusion observed from the implementation of only two editions of this project is the acquisition of the different proposed competences (both specific and cross-curricular) by the students. Finally, it was interesting to note that after completing the activity, the students were observed to be more motivated by the course content
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The exploitation of sludge from aggregate plants in the manufacture of porous fired clay bricks

  • Chamorro Trenado, Miquel Àngel
  • Pareta Marjanedas, M. Mercè
  • Berthelsen-Molist, B. E.
  • Janer-Adrian, F.X.
Aggregates (gravel and sand) are, after water, the Earth's second most used natural resource, representing about 50% of all consumed mineral resources. Aggregate production generates a large quantity of waste from the aggregate washing process. This waste is made up of suspended solids - sludge - which has a great environmental impact. It is deposited in huge troughs because of the impossibility of discharging it directly into rivers. Many plants have incorporated decanters and filter presses to separate the solid from the liquid fraction. This paper evaluates the possibility of exploiting the solid fraction (i.e. sludge) in the manufacture of fired clay bricks. The added value of these bricks is, on the one hand, the exploitation of sludge as a currently useless waste product, and on the other, the use of this sludge to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of conventional fired clay bricks
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Learning Clinical Communication

  • Carrión Ribas, Carme
  • Toran Monserrat, Pere
  • Zamora Cervantes, Alberto
  • Balló Peña, Elisabet
  • Quesada Sabaté, Miquel
  • Grau Martín, Armand
  • Castro i Guardiola, Antoni
  • Cerezo Goyeneche, Carlos
  • Torrent Goñi, Silvia
  • Vargas Vila, Susanna
  • Galí Pla, Bibiana
  • Vilert Garrofa, Esther
  • Subirats Bayego, Enric
  • Coll de Tuero, Gabriel
  • Muñoz Ortiz, Laura
  • Cordón i Granados, Ferran
Problem statement: Clinician-patient communication is a basic skill that medical students should learn as part of their training process. Communication skills curriculums aim to develop effective communication with patients, carers, and colleagues by working on both verbal and non-verbal skills. These include being able to take a history and share information, and particularly explaining procedures and discussing treatment options and their effects. Students taking the Communication, interview and clinical history module are asked to follow a simulated-patient clinical interview, which is recorded and then self and tutor- assessed using standardized questionnaires. Purpose of study: The aim of this study is to conduct a pilot test to compare questionnaire results for self and tutor-assessed video-recorded clinical interviews. Methods: The results of students’ self-assessment questionnaires within the Communication, interview and clinical history module (second year of the medical degree) were compared with those of their tutors. The questionnaire used was a shortened version of the 17-itemCICCA-D (Conectar-Identificar-Comprender-Acordar-Ayudar – Connect-Identify-Understand-Agree- Help) instrument (score of 2, 1 or 0 for each item), based on patient-centred interviews. The assessments were carried out independently from one another, with no previous training, after watching the clinical interview video recording. Results: A total of 47 student and tutor assessments were carried out. Differences in the global average scores were statistically significant (p-value < 0.05). The students’ mean self-assessment score was 13 (SD = 5), while the tutors’ was 15 (SD = 5). A weak direct and statistically significant correlation was observed in the global questionnaire score between both self and tutor assessment (n = 47): with an ICC of 0.41 (confidence interval [CI] 95%, (0.09 – 0.66). Conclusions: Pilot test results show that tutors consider students having better communication skills than students themselves. Lack of previous training in the use of the questionnaire could be relevant. Further research is needed to confirm these preliminary results
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Rhetoric in Spain: an overview

  • Iglesias, Narcís
  • Załęska, Maria
In the paper, the author stresses the main trends in Spain in contemporary research in rhetoric, as well as the most infl uential authors, their international renown, the current major research projects and their theoretical and methodological input into the scholarly discussion in Spain. After discussing the general framework, the author presents contributions by individual scholars included in this monographic issue
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Educació i immigració: de la ingenuïtat social al compromís pedagògic

  • Besalú, Xavier
Aquest text correspon a la lliçó inaugural del curs 2001-2002 de la Societat Catalana de Pedagogia, dictada el dia 9 d’octubre de 2001 a la seu de l’Institut d’Estudis Catalans, El propòsit d’aquest text és fer una mena de balanç del que han estat els plantejaments teòrics i pràctics de la pedagogia centrada en la immigració i la interculturalitat, fixant-me en dos moments: el de l’emergència d’aquest nou àmbit d’estudi i actuació, que situo en els anys que van de 1989 a 1993; i el de la situació que vivim actualment i que considero significativament diferent. La hipòtesi de partida era que la pedagogia hi havia tingut una presència més aviat subalterna i poc decidida, marcada per la inhibició i la dependència d’altres disciplines científiques, i per una certa ingenuïtat en cercar un territori propi, fins a cert punt incontaminat, diferenciat del contradictori i complex entramat social, ple d’irracionalitats i conflictes. L’argument hipotètic es tancava amb una crida al compromís pedagògic, és a dir, moral i polític, amb tots els ciutadans -tant els que ho són de dret com els que ho són de fet- i amb la comunitat de referència, per contribuir alhora a incrementar els índexs de llibertat, justícia i cohesió social
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Política, Pedagogia, Propaganda: una altra mirada a la desafecció política de la ciutadania

  • Besalú, Xavier
Departing from the assertion of the Catalan politician Rafel Campalans «politics means pedagogy», the article shows how in general professional politicians misuse the word pedagogy, often equating it to mere propaganda. At a later point it is argued that the political disenchantment of citizens is not only a subjective feeling, but is rather also due to more structural reasons: the power and the role of the economy and the impact of the information and communication technologies, beginning with the mass media. To illustrate what pedagogy could teach politics, he analyses the theoretical and practical contributions of two great 20th Century pedagogues: Paulo Freire and Lorenzo Milani. Regarding Freire, he emphasises that the point of departure for any political or educational intervention must be the understanding of other people’s reality. And he highlights Milani’s capacity for indignation and for transforming this indignation into political and educational action, Partint de l’afirmació del polític català Rafel Campalans «política vol dir pedagogia» es mostra com, en general, els polítics professionals fan un mal ús de la paraula pedagogia, assimilant-la sovint a la simple propaganda. Més endavant, s’argumenta que la desafecció política de la ciutadania no és només un sentiment subjectiu, sinó que obeeix també a raons més estructurals: el poder i el paper de l’economia i l’impacte de les tecnologies de la informació i la comunicació, començant pels mitjans de comunicació de masses. Per exemplificar el que pot ensenyar la pedagogia a la política, s’analitzen les aportacions teoricopràctiques de dos grans pedagogs del segle XX: Paulo Freire i Lorenzo Milani. De Freire es destaca que el punt de partida per a qualsevol intervenció política o educativa ha de ser la comprensió de la realitat que viuen els altres. I de Milani s’emfasitza la seva capacitat d’indignació i de transformar aquesta indignació en acció política i educativa
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La Competència en matèria de llengua pròpia en el nou Estatut

  • Cabellos Espiérrez, Miguel Ángel
After some preliminary considerations regarding the meaning of the new Statute as regards the division of jurisdiction, this article focuses on an analysis of jurisdiction in matters concerning the autochthonous language granted in article 143.1 of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia. In this regard, after analyzing the autochthonous language - official language relationship, the article examines how this relationship has been reflected in constitutional case law and what constitutional case law has found with respect to communities with an autochthonous language and the jurisdiction that is left in the hands of the central government with regard to Spanish. At the same time, other factors that, as can be deduced from the case law itself, affect and condition the exercise of regional jurisdiction, are analyzed. In this regard, special attention is paid to the material substantive section in which regional jurisdiction should apply (education, consumers, etc.), which has its its own set of jurisdictional rules, and the influence of the fact that regional language jurisdiction should also be exercised vis-à-vis branches of government that are not part of the autonomous government of Catalonia (Generalitat). As this paper shows, the construction of case law around these issues has not been uniform or free from contradictions. The article number 143 of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (while at the same time underscoring the cuts that were introduced in the text as it moved through Congress and the consequences that these cuts may entail), as well as what space is left to the central government, especially in the area of teaching, given the recent proposals from some of the parties to reform the National Education Act in order to include the right to receive classes in the vehicular language the student body chooses, in such a way that in autonomous communities with two official languages the students would be separated according to their choice. Finally, the article initiates a discussion about the implementation of article 143 of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, and makes reference to the impact that the recent decision, docket number 247/2007, handed down by the Constitutional Court may have on language rights, given the existence of jurisdiction over the autochthonous language, El artículo, después de unas consideraciones preliminares sobre la significación del nuevo Estatuto en el ámbito de la distribución de competencias, se centra en el análisis de la competencia reconocida en el artículo 143.1 eac en materia de lengua propia. En este sentido, después de analizar el binomio lengua propia-lengua oficial, se estudia de qué manera éste ha tenido resonancia en la jurisprudencia constitucional y cómo se ha pronunciado ésta sobre la competencia en materia lingüística de las comunidades con lengua propia y sobre la competencia que se reserva al Estado en relación con el castellano. Junto con ello, se analizan otros factores que, tal como se deriva de la propia jurisprudencia, inciden y condicionan el ejercicio de la competencia autonómica; particularmente, el sector material sustantivo en que ésta se debe aplicar (enseñanza, consumidores, etc.), y que tiene su propio régimen competencial, y la incidencia que tiene el hecho de que la competencia lingüística autonómica se deba ejercitar también ante administraciones que no son la de la Generalidad. Como se muestra en este trabajo, la construcción jurisprudencial sobre estas cuestiones no ha sido unívoca ni ha estado exenta de contradicciones. A continuación, se analiza la competencia del nuevo artículo 143 eac (subrayando el recorte que sufrió durante su tramitación en el Congreso, y las consecuencias que ello puede tener), así como cuál es el espacio que queda reservado al Estado, especialmente en el ámbito de la enseñanza, ante las propuestas recientes de algún partido de reformar la Ley estatal de educación con el fin de incluir el derecho a recibir enseñanza en la lengua vehicular que el alumnado escoja, de manera que en las comunidades autónomas con dos lenguas oficiales se separaría a los alumnos en función de su elección. Finalmente, se hacen algunas consideraciones sobre el desarrollo del artículo 143 eac, así como una referencia a la incidencia que puede tener la reciente stc 247/2007 sobre los derechos lingüísticos, ante la existencia de la competencia sobre lengua propia
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