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What format of treatment do patients with emotional disorders prefer and why? Implications for public mental health settings and policies

  • Osma López, Jorge Javier
  • Suso-Ribera, Carlos
  • Peris Baquero, Óscar
  • Gil Lacruz, Marta
  • Pérez Ayerra, Luisa
  • Ferreres-Galan, Vanesa
  • Torres-Alfosea, Mª Ángeles
  • López-Escriche, María
  • Domínguez, Olga
Objective We analyzed the preference of three psychological intervention formats—individual, group, and online—in a sample of 267 patients with a primary diagnosis of emotional disorder in Spanish public mental health settings. Method We studied patients’ preferences considering sociodemographic characteristics, diagnoses, history of psychological treatments, number of sessions, and satisfaction with past interventions. Results Most participants (85.4%) preferred psychological treatment in an individual format, 14.2% in group, and 0.4% online. When comparing the people who chose individual and group treatment, no demographic or clinical differences were found. The arguments against group format were the lack of privacy and expression difficulties. Regarding online format, these included being considered impersonal and ineffective. Conclusion The rejection of group and online psychotherapy formats allows us to define the actions we should carry out in public mental health settings to improve the acceptance of more costeffective therapy formats.

El termómetro emocional: una herramienta educativa para facilitar la comprensión de emociones, The mood meter: an educational tool to enhance the understanding of emotions

  • Sánchez Gómez, Martín
  • Adelantado-Renau, Mireia
La inteligencia emocional se ha relacionado positivamente con la competencia social, adaptación al entorno, éxito académico y bienestar. En este estudio se presenta una propuesta didáctica basada en el modelo de Mayer y Salovey con el objetivo de facilitar la comprensión emocional en alumnos de Educación Primaria. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que la utilización del termómetro emocional como herramienta lúdica podría facilitar el aprendizaje y la comprensión de las emociones en niños y niñas., Emotional intelligence has been positively related to social competence, adaptation to the environment, academic success and wellbeing. This study shows a didactic proposal based on the model of Mayer and Salovey (i.e., four branch model of ability) aimed to develop the emotional understanding in primary education students. The results suggest that the use of the mood meter as ludic tool could enhance children’s learning process and their understanding of emotions.

Study of cyanotoxin degradation and evaluation of their transformation products in surface waters by LC-QTOF MS

  • León, Cristina
  • Boix Sales, Clara
  • Beltrán Iturat, Eduardo
  • Peñuela, Gustavo
  • López Benet, Francisco José
  • Sancho, Juan V
  • Hernández Hernández, Félix
In the present work, the degradation of three cyanotoxins from the hepatotoxins group was investigated under laboratory-controlled experiments in water samples. Surface waters spiked with microcystin-LR (MC-LR), nodularin (NOD) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) were subjected to hydrolysis, chlorination and photo-degradation, under both sunlight (SL) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. A total of 12 transformation products (TPs) were detected and tentatively identified by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS). These comprised: 6 chlorination TPs (3 from CYN and 3 from MC-LR, 2 isomers); 4 UV TPs (all from CYN); and 2 sunlight TPs (one isomer from MC-LR and another from NOD). No TPs were observed under hydrolysis conditions. The chemical structures for all TPs were tentatively proposed based on the accurate-mass QTOF MS full-spectra. Analysis of real-world samples collected from the Peñol reservoir (Antioquia, Colombia) revealed the presence of MC-LR and CYN as well as a sunlight TP identified in the laboratory experiments. Data presented in this article will assist further research on TPs potentially formed in future tertiary degradation processes applied for the removal of organic micro-pollutants in water; as well as improving available knowledge on the toxic implications of cyanobacterial toxins TPs in surface waters.

Speaking in a Second Language Rosa Alonso Alonso, ed. 2018 Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2018. xii + 243 pp. ISBN-10: 9027200440. ISBN-13: 978-9027200440 (Reseña)

  • Beltrán-Palanques, Vicent
Reseña de: Speaking in a Second Language. Rosa Alonso Alonso, ed. 2018. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2018. xii + 243 pp. ISBN-10: 9027200440. ISBN-13: 978-9027200440.

Improvement of the Electrochemical Behavior of (Sb, Sn, Cu)O Ceramic Electrodes as Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Anodes

  • Giner Sanz, Juan José
  • Sánchez-Rivera, María José
  • García Gabaldón, Montserrat
  • Ortega, Emma
  • Mestre Beltrán, Sergio
  • Pérez-Herranz, Valentín
"This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article: Improvement of the Electrochemical Behavior of (Sb, Sn, Cu)O Ceramic Electrodes as Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Anodes, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1002/celc.201801766. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions., This work explores the possibility of increasing the active surface of a Sb‐doped SnO2 ceramic electrode using CuO as sintering aid, by incorporating petroleum coke as a pore generator. In order to fulfil this goal, three series of (Sb, Sn, Cu)O electrodes with different coke contents were synthetized. The properties of the electrodes, and their microstructure, change significantly as a function of the coke content before sintering. The electrochemical characterization of the synthesized electrodes showed that the coke addition before sintering causes two antagonist effects on the performance of the (Sn, Sb, Cu)O as anodes in electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOP). On one hand, it significantly improves the electrochemical roughness factor of the electrode, solving the densification problem in this way. On the other hand, it worsens the electrochemical behavior of the electrode: narrowing its electrochemical window; and “activating” it slightly. The addition of coke before sintering changes the kinetic parameters, leading to a kinetic situation in which the accumulation of hydroxyl radicals is slightly lower. A balance must be sought: an intermediate coke content will improve significantly the electrochemical roughness factor of the electrode, but will only worsen slightly its electrochemical behavior, leading to an optimum (Sn, Sb, Cu)O EAOP anode.

Brain networks involved in accented speech processing

  • Hernández, Mireia
  • Ventura Campos, Noelia
  • Costa, Albert
  • Miró-Padilla, Anna
  • Avila, Cesar
We investigated the neural correlates of accented speech processing (ASP) with an fMRI study that overcame prior limitations in this line of research: we preserved intelligibility by using two regional accents that differ in prosody but only mildly in phonetics (Latin American and Castilian Spanish), and we used independent component analysis to identify brain networks as opposed to isolated regions. ASP engaged a speech perception network composed primarily of structures related with the processing of prosody (cerebellum, putamen, and thalamus). This network also included anterior fronto-temporal areas associated with lexical-semantic processing and a portion of the inferior frontal gyrus linked to executive control. ASP also recruited domain-general executive control networks related with cognitive demands (dorsal attentional and default mode networks) and the processing of salient events (salience network). Finally, the reward network showed a preference for the native accent, presumably revealing people's sense of social belonging.

Lack of MeCP2 leads to region-specific increase of doublecortin in the olfactory system

  • Martínez-Rodríguez, Elena
  • Martín Sánchez, Ana
  • Coviello, Simona
  • Foiani, Cristina
  • Kul, Emre
  • Martínez-García, Fernando
  • Nacher, Juan
  • Lanuza, Enrique
  • Santos, Mónica
  • Agustín-Pavón, Carmen
This is a pre-print of an article published in Brain Structure and Function. The final authenticated version is available online at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-019-01860-6, The protein doublecortin is mainly expressed in migrating neuroblasts and immature neurons. The X-linked gene MECP2, associated to several neurodevelopmental disorders such as Rett syndrome, encodes the protein methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), a regulatory protein that has been implicated in neuronal maturation and refinement of olfactory circuits. Here, we explored doublecortin immunoreactivity in the brain of young adult female Mecp2-heterozygous and male Mecp2-null mice and their wild-type littermates. The distribution of doublecortin-immunoreactive somata in neurogenic brain regions was consistent with previous reports in rodents, and no qualitative differences were found between genotypes or sexes. Quantitatively, we found a significant increase in doublecortin cell density in the piriform cortex of Mecp2-null males as compared to WT littermates. A similar increase was seen in a newly identified population of doublecortin cells in the olfactory tubercle. In these olfactory structures, however, the percentage of doublecortin immature neurons that also expressed NeuN was not different between genotypes. By contrast, we found no significant differences between genotypes in doublecortin immunoreactivity in the olfactory bulbs. Nonetheless, in the periglomerular layer of Mecp2-null males, we observed a specific decrease of immature neurons co-expressing doublecortin and NeuN. Overall, no differences were evident between Mecp2-heterozygous and WT females. In addition, no differences could be detected between genotypes in the density of doublecortin-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus or striatum of either males or females. Our results suggest that MeCP2 is involved in neuronal maturation in a region-dependent manner.

Distinct branches of the N-end rule pathway modulate the plantimmune response

  • Vicente, Jorge
  • Mendiondo, Guillermina M.
  • Pauwels, Jarne
  • Pastor, Victoria
  • Izquierdo, Yovanny
  • Naumann, Christin
  • Movahedi, Mahsa
  • Rooney, Daniel
  • Gibbs, Daniel J.
  • Smart, Katherine
  • Bachmair, Andreas
  • Gray, Julie E.
  • Dissmeyer, Nico
  • Castresana, Carmen
  • Ray, Rumiana
  • Gevaert, Kris
  • Holdsworth, Michael
The N‐end rule pathway is a highly conserved constituent of the ubiquitin proteasome system, yet little is known about its biological roles. Here we explored the role of the N‐end rule pathway in the plant immune response. We investigated the genetic influences of components of the pathway and known protein substrates on physiological, biochemical and metabolic responses to pathogen infection. We show that the glutamine (Gln) deamidation and cysteine (Cys) oxidation branches are both components of the plant immune system, through the E3 ligase PROTEOLYSIS (PRT)6. In Arabidopsis thaliana Gln‐specific amino‐terminal (Nt)‐amidase (NTAQ1) controls the expression of specific defence‐response genes, activates the synthesis pathway for the phytoalexin camalexin and influences basal resistance to the hemibiotroph pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst). The Nt‐Cys ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR VII transcription factor substrates enhance pathogen‐induced stomatal closure. Transgenic barley with reduced HvPRT6 expression showed enhanced resistance to Ps. japonica and Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, indicating a conserved role of the pathway. We propose that that separate branches of the N‐end rule pathway act as distinct components of the plant immune response in flowering plants.

Symplectic propagators for the Kepler problem with time-dependent mass

  • Bader, Philipp
  • Blanes, Sergio
  • Casas, Fernando
  • Kopylov, Nikita
New numerical integrators specifically designed for solving the two-body gravitational problem with a time-varying mass are presented. They can be seen as a generalization of commutator-free quasi-Magnus exponential integrators and are based on the compositions of symplectic flows. As a consequence, in their implementation they use the mapping that solves the autonomous problem with averaged masses at intermediate stages. Methods up to order eight are constructed and shown to be more efficient than other symplectic schemes on numerical examples.

Niños y niñas en relación: amistades, enemistades y grupos en clave de género

  • Muñoz-Tinoco, Victoria
  • García Bacete, Francisco Juan
  • Jiménez Lagares, Irene
  • Marande Perrin, Ghislaine
Comunicació presentada al Simposi “Niñas, desagrados, enemistades, poder y grupos al inicio de la escolaridad”, coordinat per F. J. García Bacete, durant el XXVI Congreso Internacional de Psicología INFAD (INFAD XXVI), celebrat a Salamanca (España) del 12 al 15 de juny de 2019, Boys and girls and relationships. Friendships, enmities and groups from a gender perspective. In this work we analyzed the relationships and interaction groups of 774 children in 1st grade elementary school, an age rarely present in social network studies, with a focus in gender differences. Maccoby (1998) referred to boys and girls as “two separate worlds”. Children social networks studies of the last decades show diverse evidence that the relational structure differs substantially with gender. Boys and girls interact with each other infrequently as friends or members of the same group. Thus, the most frequent friendships dyads are same-sex, and the same applies for playgroups. On the other hand, girls usually interact in smaller groups and children in larger ones (Rose and Rudolph, 2006). The results presented in this communication confirm these differences in the affiliations of boys and girls from a young age, highlighting the importance of continuing to explore the characteristics of affiliations between girls, between boys and, although less prevalent, mixed affiliations. And what happens in negative relationships? The analysis of the enmity dyads shows that the dyads of mutual aversion display a different pattern, being the mixed enmities between boys and girls more frequent than the friendship. Other studies find more negative interactions between boys and girls and negative perceptual biases towards other-sex playmates (Rodkin et al., 2003; Underwood, Schockner and Hurley, 2001). These results suggest that the low prevalence of friendships and mixed groups does not necessarily imply an absence of a look towards the other world as Maccoby said, but rather less satisfactory interactions. We conclude that enmity can be a good setting for understanding cross-gender relations in childhood, and complementing the analysis of positive relationships and interactions between boys and girls., Para este trabajo se han analizado las relaciones y grupos de interacción de 774 niños y niñas de 1º de Educación Primaria, una edad apenas contemplada en los estudios de redes sociales, prestando atención a las diferencias relacionadas con el sexo. Maccoby (1998) hacía referencia a niños y niñas como “dos mundos separados”. El estudio de las redes sociales infantiles en las últimas décadas muestra evidencias diversas de que la estructura relacional difiere sustancialmente con el género. Niños y niñas interactúan entre sí con poca frecuencia como amigos o miembros de un mismo grupo. Así, las díadas de amistad más frecuentes son del mismo sexo, igual que ocurre con los grupos de juego. Por otra parte, las niñas suelen interactuar en grupos de menor tamaño y los niños en grupos más numerosos. (Rose y Rudolph, 2006). Los resultados que se presentan en esta comunicación confirman estas diferencias en las afiliaciones de niños y niñas desde temprana edad, resaltándose la relevancia de seguir explorando las características propias de las afiliaciones entre niñas, entre niños y, aunque menos prevalentes, las afiliaciones mixtas. ¿Y qué ocurre con las relaciones conflictivas? El análisis de las díadas de enemistad muestra un patrón distinto para las díadas de aversión mutua, siendo las enemistades mixtas más frecuentes que las amistades entre niños y niñas. Otros estudios encuentran interacciones más negativas entre niños y niñas y sesgos perceptivos negativos hacia compañeros de juego de otro sexo (Rodkin, Pearl, Farmer y Van Acker, 2003; Underwood, Schockner y Hurley, 2001). Estos resultados sugieren que la baja prevalencia de amistades y grupos mixtos no implica necesariamente una ausencia de mirada hacia ese otro mundo del que habla Maccoby, sino interacciones menos satisfactorias. Se concluye que las enemistades pueden constituir un buen escenario para comprender las relaciones intergénero en la infancia, complementando el análisis de las relaciones e interacciones positivas entre niños y niñas.

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