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O fotojornalismo depois da fotografia: Modelos de configuração da cadeia produtiva do fotojornalismo em tempos de convergência digital

  • Da Silva Junior, José Afonso
This research report concerns about the post-doctoral activities, conducted between/nSeptember 2010 and March 2011 at the University Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona. It comes to identify the consequences of the convergence phenomenon on photojournalism./nThus, in a more general approach, the effort is to to recovery the structural elements of the convergence concept in journalism. It aims to map, as well, the current debates about the repositioning of photographic practices linked to the news produced in a widespread adoption of digital devices in contemporary workflow. It is also specified,/nthe analysis of photographic collectives as a result of the convergence framework/napplied to photojournalism; the debate on ways of funding; alternatives facing the/nalleged crisis of press photography and, finally, proposes to create qualifying stages of/ndevelopment of photojournalism in the digital age as well as the proposition of hypotheses concerning the structure of the productive routines. In addition, we present three cases to be analyzed in order to explore and verify the occurrence of/ncharacteristics that may identify the object of research in the state of practice. Finally,/nwe work in a series of conclusions, revisiting the main hypotheses. With this strategy, is/npossible to define an sequence of analysis capable of addressing the characteristics present in the studied cases and other ones in future, thus, be able to affirm this stage as a step, in the continuous historical course of photojournalism., Esta relatório de pesquisa é relativo as atividades de pós-doutorado, realizado entre/nsetembro de 2010 e março de 2011 na Universidade Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona. Trata de/nidentificar os desdobramentos do fenômeno da convergência sobre o fotojornalismo./nDesse modo, procura-se estabelecer os elementos de estruturação do conceito de/nconvergência para o jornalismo, numa abordagem mais geral. Busca-se ainda, mapear/nos debates atuais sobre o reposicionamento das práticas fotográficas vinculadas à notícia/nem função da adoção generalizada de dispositivos de ordem digital na cadeia produtiva./nEstabelece-se ainda, a análise dos coletivos fotográficos como resultantes do quadro de/nconvergência aplicado ao fotojornalismo; o debate sobre modos e financiamento; as/nalternativas diante da suposta crise da fotografia de imprensa e, por fim, propõe-se criar/netapas classificatórias do desenvolvimento do fotojornalismo já na era digital, bem/ncomo levantamento de hipóteses da estruturação da cadeia produtiva. Prosseguindo,/napresentamos três casos analisados de modo a explorar e verificar a ocorrência de/ncaracterísticas que possam identificar o objeto da pesquisa no estado da prática. Por fim,/ntrabalha-se uma série de conclusões revisitando hipóteses. Com essa estratégia/nestabelecida, acredita-se ser possível delimitar uma matriz de análise capaz de abordar/nas características presentes nos casos estudados e em outros futuramente, e desse modo,/npoder afirmar mais esse estágio como um passo no percurso histórico do fotojornalismo

Political mobilisation and models of trade unionism: Southern Europe in comparative perspective

  • Cebolla Boado, Héctor
  • Ortiz Gervasi, Luis
The relationship between union membership and political mobilization has been studied under many perspectives, but quantitative cross-national analyses have been hampered by the absence of international comparable survey data until the first round of the European Social Survey (ESS-2002) was made available. Using different national samples from this survey in four moments of time (2002, 2004 and 2006), our paper provides evidence of cross-country divergence in the empirical association between political mobilisation and trade union membership. Cross-national differences in union members’ political mobilization, we argue, can be explained by the existence of models of unionism that in turn differ with respect to two decisive factors: the institutionalisation of trade union activity and the opportunities left-wing parties have available for gaining access to executive power.

Parental care time in four European countries: comparing types and contexts

  • Gracia, Pablo
  • Ghysels, Joris
  • Vercammen, Kim
The intensity of parental investments in child care time is expected to vary across families with different norms and time-constraints. Additionally, it should also differ across countries, since the abilities of parents to harmonize family and work vary by national context. In our opinion, however, this question remains inconclusive for two main reasons: 1) only some countries have been studied from a comparative approach; 2) previous studies have not paid enough attention to the analysis of how the conditional effects of education and employment affect parental investments.In this paper we used nationally representative time-use data from Denmark, Flanders, Spain and the United Kingdom (N=4,031) to explore how employment and education predict variations in child care time. IN Britain and Spain employment has a strong negative effect on fathers’ child care, but a weaker one in Flanders and particularly in Denmark. In contrast, maternal employment has a strong negative impact in all four countries. Education increases child care time significantly only among Spanish mothers and fathers, as well as British mothers. Nonetheless, we find that college-educated mothers under similar time-constraints increase substantially their expected child care time in Britain, Flanders and Spain; for fathers we find a more mixed picture. Routine child care activities are more sensitive to both maternal and paternal employment than interactive child care activities. Finally, we observe that working a public sector job generally increases a total time allocated to parental care, controlling for several demographic and socioeconomic variables.

Deferred effects of nursery school on adolescents' school performance in Spain

  • Sarasa Urdiola, Sebastià
This research analysis the long-term effects of nursery school attendance before the age of three in Spain. The effects are measured when the individuals are adolescents and attend secondary school. The article deals with the controversy over the long-term effects of nursery school attendance and its potential effect on reducing inequalities and social exclusion. The results estimate a significant long-term effect of nursery school attendance on improving educational performance, although the beneficial effects are lower among adolescents residing in the lower status households.

Effects of prison work programmes on the employability of ex-prisioners

  • Alós, Ramon
  • Esteban, Fernando Osvaldo
  • Jódar, Pere
  • Miguélez, Fausto
This paper presents the main results of a study that relates information from the prison system with information for the Spanish Social Security in order to study the employability of the former inmates of prisons in Catalonia, Spain who obtained final release from 1/1/2004 to 31/12/2007. The results show that 43.6% of the ex-prisoners find a job after serving their sentences, but their integration in the labour market tends to be fragile, confirming that it is a very vulnerable group. It was also found that prison work has a favourable effect on employability and that vocational training could be useful for those who have not previously worked and have no education or job skills.

Capital cities of federations. On the way to analysing the normative base of their asymmetrical status

  • Nagel, Klaus-Jürgen
Federal Capitals often have special statutes. Compared with member states, they often enjoy a lower degree of self-government and a lesser share in the governing of the federation. Why do actors choose such devices, and how can they be justified in a liberal democracy? Surprisingly, the burgeoning literature on asymmetric federalism (to which our research group has contributed significantly) has overlooked this important feature of a de iure asymmetry, perhaps because political theory up to now has concentrated on cases of multicultural and plurinational federations. However, comparative literature is also rare. This paper is the first step to filling in this gap by comparing some federal capitals. The Federal District model (Washington) is compared to capitals organized as member-states (Berlin and Brussels), and capitals that are cities belonging to a single member state (Ottawa in Ontario). The different features of de iure asymmetry will thereby be highlighted. Some light will be shed on the possible motives, reasons and justifications for the choice of each respective status. The paper opens the door to further research on such status questions by analysing public and parliamentary debates, for example. It paves the way for more thorough research. Sicne the author has been awarded a grant by the Institut d’Estudis Autonòmics, this research will be carried out soon.

Immigration controls and the erosion of popular sovereignty

  • Gilligan, Chris
The idea that immigration controls in Western developed states are a response to popular pressure is axiomatic in the academic literature on migration. In the academic literature and in policy circles it is also commonplace to hear that migration is eroding the sovereignty of states. This article challenges both of these ideas. We argue that both of these ideas overlook or ignore the erosion of popular sovereignty from within states. We argue that engaging with, rather than evading, public debate on migration can potentially help to reinvigorate popular sovereignty.

Plaza en red. Características del seguimiento informativo de la/n@acampadaBCN por parte de los/las jóvenes participantes en Plaza Cataluña.

  • Fernández-Planells, Ariadna
  • Figueras Maz, Mònica
Los indignados salieron a las calles y ocuparon las plazas físicamente. También la plaza virtual a través de las redes sociales, blogs y otras herramientas en red. Los rasgos de la comunicación digital se han hecho presentes en asambleas y acampadas a través de sus máximos representantes: los jóvenes. Una juventud que ha sabido utilizar la tecnología para hacerse presente en la sociedad y reivindicar (se). Los participantes en la @acampadaBCN han sabido encontrar sus propias formas de participación y de movilización social a través de las redes sociales y las nuevas tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. /nEn este informe se presentan los resultados sobre las características del seguimiento informativo de la @acampadaBCN por parte de los/las jóvenes participantes en Plaza Cataluña. Se describe el perfil de los encuestados, el primer y posteriores canales de seguimiento de información sobre la @acampadaBCN, los canales de información utilizados por los indignados para seguir el desalojo del 27 de mayo de 2011, el tipo de interacción con las distintas herramientas digitales de la acampada y el cambio de referente informativo que ha provocado la perdida de credibilidad de los medios convencionales frente a la red. Sus referentes políticos, mediáticos y sociales ya no están en los partidos políticos, en la televisión, en la prensa o en la radio; ahora se informan a través de la red y, a través de ella y de sus perfiles en las redes sociales, difunden las informaciones que protagonizan, les interesan o obtienen su credibilidad. /nLos resultados de este informe surgen tras una inmersión participante en el movimiento de indignados. Asimismo, se realizaron 15 entrevistas a diferentes perfiles presentes en la #acampadaBCN y 339 encuestas realizadas a jóvenes que visitaron la plaza.

A reassessment of family reunification in Europe. The case of Senegalese couples

  • Baizán, Pau
Contemporary policy makers in most European destination countriesexpress a great concern about reunification of migrants’ families. Newrestrictions multiply in almost all countries, on the grounds thatmigrants would take advantage of a too lax system and that it wouldfoster an influx of non-desirable migrants. So far, quantitative evidenceis scarce on migrants’ practices in matter of family reunification.Taking advantage of a unique longitudinal dataset that includesSenegalese individuals surveyed both at origin (in Senegal) and inEurope (France, Italy and Spain), we perform event-history analyses toshow three things. First, couple separation is very often a long lastingsituation. Second, when separated because of international migration,wives and husbands do not only reunify in Europe but quite commonlyin Senegal. And third, those who reunify in Europe are those who arethe most adapted or adaptable to the European culture and economy.

Overcoming the ethical dilemmas of skilled migration? An analysis of international narratives on the “brain drain”

  • Levatino, Antonina
Migration-related issues have, since approximately 2000, been the object of increased attention at the international level. This has led, among other things, to the production of international narratives, which aim both at understanding migration and at proposing policy recommendations on how to address it, with the objective of improving the governance of migration at the global level. But this implies overcoming dilemmas stemming from the diverging interests of states and other actors (like NGOs and the private sector). This article examines the way in which international migration narratives address skilled migration, which is characterised by some of the clearest political trade-offs between stakeholders. It argues that these narratives attempt to speak to all parties and conciliate contradictory arguments about what should be done, in order to discursively overcome policy dilemmas and create a consensus. While this is line with the mandate of international organizations, it depoliticises migration issues.

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