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The conflicts between professional and non-professional work of community pharmacists in Indonesia

  • Hermansyah,Andi
  • Sukorini,Anila I.
  • Setiawan,Catur D.
  • Priyandani,Yuni
Objectives: The study aimed to determine the type of professional and non professional work of community pharmacists in Surabaya Indonesia and find the difference between time spent for performing both works in actual (current) situation and ideal (expected) situation. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted by combining purposive sampling for selecting the community pharmacists. Afterwards, the data was analyzed using SPSS v16 to provide the descriptive results and completed with Wilcoxon signed rank test to find the difference between time spent in actual and ideal situation. The sample size was 100 respondents of 300 pharmacists who have been practicing in Surabaya. Results: From 100 participants just 30 participants gave response to the questionnaire, 67% was female who 20-30 years old at most (53%) with working experience as pharmacist less than 3 years (60%) and working 30 hours per week (60%) in pharmacy. Significant difference between time spent in actual and ideal situation was found. Discussion: The time spent for performing professional and non professional work in ideal situation was significantly higher than in actual situation except for preparing medicines activity. This finding illustrated that the respondents did not have adequate time to provide ideal services in their daily practice. Therefore, they expected to improve their time and level of work in more professional manner. Surprisingly, they were also willing to provide more time and higher level of work in some non professional work. Conclusions: The Indonesian community pharmacists spent little time on both professional work and non-professional work in their daily activities. This indicated that the pharmacists did not focus on delivering quality professional work.
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Days lost due to disability of diclofenac-induced adverse drug reactions

  • Thomas,Dixon
  • Mathew,Molly
  • Vijaya Raghavan,C.
  • Mohanta,Guru P.
  • Padmanabha Reddy,Y.
Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) is a widely used measure to quantify the burden of diseases or illness. DALYs for a disease is calculated as the sum of the Years of Life Lost (YLL) due to premature mortality in the population and the equivalent healthy Years Lost due to Disability (YLD). The only difference from the YLD and Days Lost due to Disability (DLD) calculation is that instead of considering the duration of Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) in years, it is calculated in days. Objective: DLD was measured for diclofenac tablets to prepare the ADR profile. Methods: The study was done on the patients (18-65 years old) attending the community pharmacy at Kasaragod district, South India, with prescription of diclofenac tablets. Patients reported ADRs on their next visit to the pharmacy or they had called to the provided phone number and reported it. Disability Weight (DW) was calculated in an analogue scale from 0-1. Zero represent complete health and 1 represent death or equivalent condition. DW was multiplied with occurrence and duration of ADRs in days. Results: About 943 patients received diclofenac tablets in 1000 prescriptions were successfully followed up for possible, probable and definite ADRs. A total of 561 reactions reported in 2010 for diclofenac tablet in the study population. There were 34 different types of ADRs under 12 physiological systems/organs. Most common reactions were on gastrointestinal (GI) system (48%), followed by skin (14%), Central Nervous System (10%), renal (7%), and cardiovascular (7%). Abdominal pain, cramps or flatulence was the highest occurring GI ADR (107), followed by 43 rashes, 42 nausea/vomiting, 37 indigestion, 34 peptic ulcers, 31 edema etc. DLD for peptic ulcer was considerably high (0.078) per 1000 of the study population on diclofenac. The most damaging ADR were peptic ulcer with or without perforation, followed by rash 0.036 DLD and edema 0.027 DLD. There was considerable DLD by acute renal failure (0.012) Steven-Johnson syndrom (0.013) even though few cases were reported. Conclusion: Diclofenac has a complex adverse drug profile. Around 34 types of reactions were reported. Diclofenac was widely prescribed because of the experiential belief of comparative safety with other NSAIDs. The study shows the importance of pharmacovigilance even on the most prescribed medicine. Most disabling ADR for the study population was peptic ulcer with or without perforation. YLD or DLD are useful measures of calculating disability caused by ADRs. Future studies could focus on improving the usefulness & precision of DLD.
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Evaluation of an intensive insulin transition protocol in the intensive care unit setting: a before and after study

  • Jacobson,Leigh Anne
  • Jerguson,Kathleen
  • Spiva,LeeAnna
  • Fraser,Danielle
The benefits of controlling blood glucose levels in intensive care units (ICUs) are well documented. Objective: This study determined the effectiveness and safety of a standardized transition order set for converting a continuous insulin infusion to a subcutaneous insulin regimen in non-cardiovascular surgery ICUs patient population. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted. Patients presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome were excluded. One hundred patients were included prior to and 100 patients were included after initiating the transition order set. Blood glucose control was reviewed for up to 72 hours following the transition. Results: A total of 115 patients were included in data analysis: 85 prior to and 30 after transition protocol. All patients transitioned using the protocol were transitioned to basal insulin, compared to only 40% of the prior to protocol group. Patients transitioned correctly per the transition order set, "per protocol," had 54% of blood sugars within the desired range, no increase in hypoglycemic events, and on average 5.56 hyperglycemic events (blood glucose >180 mg/dL) per person during the 72 hours compared to 6.68 and 9.00 for the prior to protocol group and the "off protocol" group (transitioned different than the protocol recommended), respectively (p= 0.05). There were significant differences in blood sugar control at 48 and 72 hours between the "per protocol" and "off protocol" groups (p= 0.01) and a 40% reduction in sliding scale or correctional insulin coverage. Conclusion: The addition of basal insulin to transition regimens resulted in fewer hyperglycemic events with no increase in hypoglycemic events. Patients transitioned "per protocol" had better glucose control demonstrated by: less hyperglycemic events, lower mean blood glucose levels at 48 and 72 hours, and lower need for correctional insulin. These findings showed benefits of glycemic control in the ICU by following a standardized transition protocol.
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Qualitative interviews of pharmacy interns: determining curricular preparedness for work life

  • Stupans,Ieva
One of the key features affecting the transition from university to paid employment is the graduate´s perception of their capability to satisfactorily perform the work of a graduate. In some professions such as in nursing, the concept of "transition shock" is referred to. There is a need to understand how pharmacy students perceive the transition to their first job as intern pharmacists and identify potential curriculum gaps in their pharmacy studies. To date, little evidence around whether university programs are effective in equipping pharmacy graduates in transitioning to the world of work has been published. Objectives: To explore from the perspective of new pharmacy professionals, graduated from one Australian university areas that need to be addressed in pharmacy programs to prepare graduates for the transition to full-time work as interns in pharmacy. Methods: Thematic analysis of interviews with interns. Results: Subthemes were identified within the responses- relationships within the workplace and graduates needing to interest themselves in other people, adjusting to work hours and the differences between university assessments and performing in a workplace. Suggestions were made by graduates that the placement period within the pharmacy program be increased. Conclusions: Pharmacy graduates appear prepared for the world of pharmacy work. The concept of "transition shock" or "transition stress" described for graduates of other health professions commencing work was not apparent.
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Attitudes of consumers and healthcare professionals towards the patient package inserts: a study in Palestine

  • Al-Ramahi,Rowa'
  • Zaid,Abdel N.
  • Kettana,Na'em
  • Sweileh,Waleed
  • Al-Jabi,Doa'
Reading the patient package inserts (PPIs) is a key source of information about medications for patients. They should be clear and understandable to the general population. Objectives: The aims of this study were to obtain base-line data on the extent of reading PPIs by consumers and possible factors that might affect this; to explore the attitude of the Palestinian public and healthcare professionals towards the patient package inserts (PPIs); and to review a random sample of PPIs for the availability of different information. Methods: The first part of the study was a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire for consumers included 15 items. The questionnaire for healthcare professionals included 10 items and it was very similar to that of consumers with some modifications. In the second part, a random sample of PPIs was reviewed. In our community pharmacies, where medications are arranged according to their producing company, a researcher was asked to choose randomly 10-15 medications for every company to check for the availability of pharmacological, pharmaceutical and clinical information. Results: A total of 304 healthcare professionals out of 320 (95.0%) and 223 consumers out of 240 (92.9%) accepted to answer the survey. Forty five percent consumers reported that they always read the PPIs, and 29.3% said that they read the PPIs most of the times. Increased rate of reading the leaflet was found among females (P = 0.047). The preferred language for the PPIs was Arabic for most of the consumers (89.6%) while it was English for most of the healthcare professionals (80.8%). 35.9% of the consumers and 43.6% of the healthcare professionals found the font size suitable. 42.3% of the consumers and 25.5% of the healthcare professionals said that they found the information in the PPIs useful and enough. The PPIs of 135 randomly sampled medications were reviewed. Many important sections were not found in the PPIs' sample. Conclusion: A high percentage of consumers read the PPIs, but still this needs to be improved. People would appreciate a more detailed and clear PPI. Pharmacists should advocate reading the PPIs but they need to provide consumers with detailed counseling to compensate for the missing information in some of the PPIs. Authorities and manufacturers should implement appropriate measures to regulate the quality and quantity of information in the PPIs.
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Efficacy of class III antiarrhythmics and magnesium combination therapy for atrial fibrillation

  • Wang,Amy
Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiac arrhythmia, and has been a significant financial burden. Class III antiarrhythmics such as dofetilide, ibutilide, and amiodarone are indicated for rhythm control. Magnesium may possess intrinsic antiarrhythmic properties, and may potentially increase the efficacy of class III antiarrhythmics when used concomitantly. Objective: The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the efficacy of magnesium in addition to Class III antiarrhythmics, specifically amidarone, ibutilide, and dofetilide for the cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Methods: Databases Pubmed and CINAHL are utilized along with the search terms amiodarone, dofetilide, ibutlide, magnesium, atrial fibrillation, conversion, rhythm control, and cardioversion. Results: One study on dofetilide and 5 studies on ibutilide were identified. No studies were found on amiodarone. Patients with atrial fibrillation who received dofetilide and magnesium had higher rates of successful cardioversion as compared to those who only received dofetilide. Conversion rates were similar between the 2 treatment groups for patients with atrial flutter. As for ibutilide, 4 studies have shown that the addition of magnesium significantly increases conversion rates for patients with atrial fibrillation or typical atrial flutter. Conversion rates were similar for patients with atypical atrial flutter. One study showed that addition of magnesium did not improve efficacy of ibutilide. Higher doses of magnesium (4 g) were associated with improved outcomes. Adverse effects of magnesium were mild and included flushing, tingling, and dizziness. Patients who received magnesium had shorter corrected QT intervals and smaller increase in corrected QT interval from baseline. Compare to previous studies, studies included in this review had higher conversion rates for dofetilide and ibutilide as well as dofetilide and magnesium or ibutilide and magnesium combination therapies. However, only 2 ibutilide studies and 1 dofetilide study reported baseline characteristics such as left atrial size, history of heart failure, and duration of atrial fibrillation, which are significant predictors of successful cardioversion. Therefore, differences in baseline demographics may have influenced the results. Conclusion: Magnesium may be used as adjunct for dofetilide and ibutilide due to potential improved efficacy and minimal toxicity. Dose ranging studies should be conducted in the future to establish the optimal dose and duration of therapy as well as the optimal serum magnesium concentration in order for the clinician to manage and monitor patients appropriately.
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Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

  • Volmer,Daisy
  • Haavik,Svein
  • Ekedahl,Anders
Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient. Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1) by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2) by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3) by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers. Methods: Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4) and Sweden (n=7) and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9). Results: Pharmacists´ in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45%) and Sweden (0.38%). Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%), printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1%) in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9%) in Sweden. More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (p<0.05 for prescription types and p<0.01 for countries). However, clinically important errors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified. Conclusion: Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact with prescriber before dispensing, irrespective of the type of prescription or recording method.
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Student pharmacist initiated medication reconciliation in the outpatient setting

  • Andrus,Miranda R.
The Joint Commission continues to emphasize the importance of medication reconciliation in all practice settings. Pharmacists and student pharmacists are uniquely trained in this aspect of patient care, and can assist with keeping accurate and complete medication records through patient interview in the outpatient setting. Objective: The objective of this study was to quantify and describe medication reconciliation efforts by student pharmacists in an outpatient family medicine center. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of all standard medication reconciliation forms completed by student pharmacists during patient interviews from April 2010 to July 2010. The number of reviews conducted was recorded, along with the frequency of each type of discrepancy. A discrepancy was defined as any lack of agreement between the medication list in the electronic health record (EHR) and the patient-reported regimen and included any differences in dose or frequency of a medication, duplication of the same medication, medication no longer taken or omission of any medication. Results: A total of 213 standard medication forms from the 4 month period were reviewed. A total of 555 discrepancies were found, including medications no longer taken, prescription medications that needed to be added to the EHR, over-the-counter(OTC) and herbal medications that needed to be added to the EHR, medications taken differently than recorded in the EHR, and medication allergies which needed to be updated. An average of 2.6 discrepancies was found per patient interviewed. Conclusion: Student pharmacist-initiated medication reconciliation in an outpatient family medicine center resulted in the resolution of numerous discrepancies in the medication lists of individual patients. Pharmacists and student pharmacists are uniquely trained in medication history taking and play a vital role in medication reconciliation in the outpatient setting.
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Potentially inappropriate prescribing in institutionalised older patients in Spain: the STOPP-START criteria compared with the Beers criteria

  • Ubeda,Amalia
  • Ferrándiz,M. Luisa
  • Maicas,Nuria
  • Gomez,Cristina
  • Bonet,Montserrat
  • Peris,Jose E.
Objective: The aims of this study were to identify potentially inappropriate prescribing using the Beers and STOPP criteria. The START criteria were applied to detect prescription omission in the geriatric population. We compared the utility of these criteria in institutionalised older people. Methods: Descriptive study reviewing the medication and clinical records of 81 residents (aged 65 years and more) by pharmacists in a nursing home in the Lleida region (Spain). Results: The mean patients´ age was 84 (SD=8) years, with an average of 5 drugs per resident (total prescriptions: 416 medicines). The Beers criteria identified potentially inappropriate medication use in 25% of patients and 48% of patients used at least 1 inappropriate medication according to STOPP criteria. The most frequent potentially inappropriate medications for both criteria were long-acting benzodiazepines and NSAIDs. START detected 58 potential prescribing omissions in 44% of patients. Calcium-vitamin D supplementation in osteoporosis was the most frequent rule (15%), but omissions corresponding to the cardiovascular system implied 23% of patients. Conclusion: The STOPP-START criteria reveal that potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) is a highly prevalent problem among Spanish nursing home residents, and a statistically significant positive correlation was found between the number of medicines prescribed and the number of PIP detected in this study. The STOPP criteria detect a larger number of PI medications in this geriatric population than the Beers criteria. The prescribing omissions detected by the START criteria are relevant and require intervention. Pharmacists´ review of medications may help identify potentially inappropriate prescribing and, through an interdisciplinary approach, working with physicians may improve prescribing practices among geriatric residents of nursing homes.
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