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Greening in narrow urban spaces. An urban development concept for the old town of Berlin-Spandau

  • Lehmann, Katharina
[EN] Since October 2015 the government of the federal republic of Germany is developing a national dialogue on the future development of the National Strategy for Sustainability made in 2016. The development is marked by the Agenda 2030 which was adopted by the United Nations for Sustainable Development in 2015. Therefore, the major global challenges must be addressed by all means of sustainable development, trying to reduce hunger, poverty, lack of education as well as environmental and climate issues. All these objectives are addressed to all member states of the European Union, which raises the question: How can the new global sustainability goals be implemented at the national level? What has to happen in Germany to further promote sustainable development? The article focuses on the objective of sustainable urban development in Germany, exemplifying the case oft he oldtown of Berlin-Spandau, a istrict of the City of Berlin. Firstly, the priority objectives will be demonstrated, later on implementation strategies will be explained. The practical application will be demonstrated after a short, theoretical introduction. Thie project itself was realized under the supervision of the author at the University of Hamburg and demonstrates strategies of greening that not only improve the climate of the city but also reinforce social cohesion through its planning measures.
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The effect of buildings on atmospheric turbulence in open spaces in Western São Paulo State, Brazil

  • Machado, Antonio
[EN] This paper seeks to identify a pattern of air turbulence that reflects the effect of buildings on air turbulence characteristics measured in open spaces in Western São Paulo State, Brazil. Atmospheric turbulence was estimated using high-frequency observations of the three orthogonal wind components (u, v, w). A CSAT3 sonic anemometer from Campbell Scientific Inc. (CSI) was deployed on the roof of a building, and the turbulent components (u', v', w') were systematically measured and recorded at 0.1 s and 5 min intervals, respectively, over 100 days between the end of summer (March 2015) and beginning of winter (July 2015) with a CR3000 automatic data acquisition system (CSI). The data analysis took into account the diurnal and nocturnal variability of the turbulence, and the experimental results revealed the existence of a daily vertical circulation pattern. The w component varied between 15 and 45 cm.s-1 on average, and the turbulent fluctuations observed indicated that an ascending component with a speed of up to 1 m.s-1 predominated during the middle of the day and early afternoon. Throughout the night until the early hours of the morning, a less robust, subsiding component with a speed of up to 0.5 m.s-1 was observed. The mean horizontal flow (u, v) was low-speed (around 1 m.s-1) and predominantly from the southeast. There was a consistent change in the direction of this wind, which changed to easterly during the morning as the ascending branch developed. We propose a model for air circulation close to the surface in which this change in direction of the wind is the main effect of the building on the observed turbulence., The author would like to thank the State of São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) for providing financial support (ref. no. 20011/08520-8) and the anonymous reviewers whose comments helped to improve this article.
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Morphological Analysis of Frontier Villages in Cyprus

  • Edgu, Erincik
  • Zafer Comert, Nevter
  • Ozgece, Nezire
[EN] Borders may be built for security reasons however; they also demarcate administrative, economic, socio-cultural, ethnic or religious divergence. Borders change the destinies of the societies at both sides because they affect the process of urban development and delimit the economic and socio-cultural interactions. Cyprus has been experiencing an interrupted continuity along the border, i.e. green line, under the rule of UN that divides north from the south. In this regard the aim of the study is to figure out how the de facto borders affect the configuration of villages upon their existing position. As a part of an ongoing research which investigates all eleven frontier villages and towns located along the border line, this paper only focuses on the morphological and syntactic comparison of four frontier villages. Within this context, initial exploration is about the village morphologies by means of Morphological Regions based on the evolutionary insights of Conzen (2004) and Whitehand (2009). Additionally, considering shifted centrality and transformed social gathering spaces, research discusses the applicability of the comparative analyses of syntactic and morphological methods in order to reveal the characteristics of the frontier villages. The preliminary findings of the research indicates that edge villages located along the green line have a controlled spatial development with dead ends and loop layouts, where the spatial configuration presents an introverted structure. On the other hand, villages divided by the green line, presents a relatively integrated spatial structure developed on both sides of the border, maintaining traditional centrality along with emphasizing forced territoriality.
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The role of original plots and building types in the morphological research of Chinese traditional village tissues

  • Pengyu, Guo
  • Wowo, Ding
[EN] In Chinese traditional village, the morphological transformation of village tissue was embedded in the changing of co-existing morphological elements contains original plots, that recorded the geographical evidence of social structural changing from traditional private ownership economy to rural collective economy. The internal relationships of original plots, derivative plots and building types require investigation in detail as theoretical praxis in the morphological research of village. Several questions need to be clarified: is that the plot restricted to the block, or the plots constitute the block? Is that plot limits building types or building type decides the size of the plot? Whether the plot can be re-divided when the building belong to its kept unchanging? And how the building type transited when the plots size reducing or extending? Focusing on a village in north of China this paper will investigate how the morphological elements worked and acted during the village transformation, based on the field survey, village records and the family documents. Our results will indicate that the role of the street, plots and building types were different between villages and urban, which were interacted each other differently. The concepts derivative plots and the co-relation between the plots, the derivative plots and building types of the village are developed., This study was financially supported by Major Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51538005).
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The role of historical green spaces in the identity and image of today’s cities: The case of Madrid

  • Rodríguez Romero, Eva
  • Sáenz de Tejada Granados, Carlota
  • Santo-Tomás Muro, Rocío
[EN] The image that a city offers when approaching it, depending on its topographical situation, the drawing of its borders or its urban form, generates a perceptive construction, for both locals and tourists, with the potential to become an iconic image and therefore play a part in the collective imagery. The character and value of those landscapes is largely determined by their green spaces, preserved in most European cities for their ecological or historical significance. Being able to recognize the worthiness of these proximity visions, in the context of today’s growing cities, is of fundamental relevance in order to enhance the sense of place, amongst other community values. In this communication we study the above-mentioned aspects in the image of the city of Madrid, within the framework of the project ‘Proximity landscapes of the city of Madrid. From the 19thC to the present’ currently in process. Through a landscape analysis of a selection of iconographic representations of the surroundings of the city, we draw special attention to the presence of historical green spaces throughout time, and its relation with architectural landmarks in the progressive construction of an iconic image of the city. From here, we can deduce the relevance that these elements have in the generation of a recognizable character and the decisive role of protection mechanisms in order to preserve it., This research has been developed in the framework of the State Plan Project of the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (HAR2014-57843-R), entitled “Proximity Landscapes of the City of Madrid. From the 19th Century to the present”. We thank the General Secretariat of Science, Technology and Innovation for the funding of this project. Likewise, we thank the Spanish Ministry of Education for the pre-doctoral scholarship (FPU14/05524) granted to co-author Carlota Sáenz de Tejada Granados in its FPU Program. Lastly, we thank San Pablo-CEU University Foundation for the pre-doctoral scholarship granted to co-author Rocío Santo-Tomás Muro in its FPI Program.
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Pilot studies on optimizing land use, building density and solar electricity generation in dense urban settings

  • Shi, Zhongming
  • Hsieh, Shanshan
  • Sreepathi, Bhargava Krishna
  • Fonseca, Jimeno
  • Maréchal, François
  • Schlueter, Arno
[EN] Previous studies have identified links between the urban form and the performance of urban energy systems. Land use and density are two important aspects of urban planning and design. This paper studies the relationship between these aspects and the performance of an urban energy system. For this, the study compares different metrics of land use, density, and energy performance. These metrics are floor area ratio, density gradient, land use ratio, renewable energy share, and the peak electricity import from the city grid. The approach is based on the multi-objective optimization of the urban form. The results offer what-if scenarios on how land-use and density can either maximize the performance of an urban energy system.
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Quantitative Methods of Urban Morphology in Urban Design and Environmental Psychology

  • Erin, Irem
  • Fusco, Giovanni
  • Cubukcu, Ebru
  • Araldi, Alessandro
[EN] Urban morphology investigates the physical form of the city and the historical processes behind its formation. Together with the qualitative analysis, the founding fathers of urban morphology also proposed quantitative measures of urban form. Urban morphologists have traditionally resisted computer-based geoprocessing of urban form and their calculations were mainly carried out manually. Thanks to technological developments, the number of quantitative studies in urban morphology has increased and fully integrated geoprocessing. More sophisticated computer-aided analyses enhance the potential applications in urban design and in environmental psychology research. Space Syntax (Hillier 1998) and Multiple Centrality Assessment (Porta et al. 2006) are configurational, multi-scale approaches to the analysis of the urban street networks, but miss the interplay between streets, building and parcels composing urban fabric. Space Matrix (Berghauser Pont and Haupt 2010) and, more recently, Multiple Fabric Assessment (Araldi and Fusco 2017) are geoprocessing quantitative approaches to the analysis of urban fabric morphology. This study has two aims; (1) classify quantitative urban morphology methods and (2) discuss how these methods could be applied in urban design and environmental psychology. First, we will present the evolution of these methods along with the theories in urban morphology from qualitative to quantitative approaches. Then, we will discuss how these methods could be combined and used in two related areas: urban design and environmental psychology.
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The virtual earth. The case study of the Rose garden in Alcoy

  • Palomares Figueres, María Teresa
  • Vidal Climent, Ciro Manuel|||0000-0002-6687-1656
  • Vidal Climent, Ivo Eliseo|||0000-0002-1907-2958
[EN] The Viaducte des Arts at the Coulée verte René-Dumont in Paris (1993) or the High Lane in New York (2009) have managed to increase the urban quality in large areas of their cities. In both cases, a costly infrastructure of disused highways was reused to generate a planted promenade or a linear park getting back a dynamic point of view at a height of about ten meters above the city.With the perspective of the time elapsed since its construction we must conclude that, although their structural singularity does not make them exportable to other cities, their simple constructive conception does. In them there is a common denominator that we can define as virtual earth. That concept is linked to the current technical capacity to generate green spaces over spaces of any other use. It is a new fertile land that allows the resolution of the complex problem produced by the accumulation of uses and requirements in the same place.In the present study case the objective is to recover an urban garden in Alcoy, known as la the Rose garden, without having to reduce the number of parking spaces of the garage that was built under it. At the same time, the project has to meet the surface requirements of earthen mantle necessary to consider restored the use of green zone. The solution solves in eighty centimeters of thickness a manufactured earth capable of assuming bulky trees that return to the city and to the Rose garden their lost atmosphere.
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Identify Urban Spatial Patterns Based on the Plot Shapes and Building Setting in Downtown of Nanjing

  • Gu, Yusheng
  • Tang, Lian
  • Ding, Wowo
[EN] he geometric characteristics of modern cities have been difficult to describe that is important for urban design, which deserve to be further interpreted. Taking advantage of Conzen’s methodology, the building is tightly related with its plot, which means the certain building pattern can be described by examining the generation of the building arrangement within the plot. Simultaneously, the building pattern is highly affected by the plot pattern it is located. In view of these, plot patterns together with land property and site coding could be taken as the clue for understanding both building patterns and urban spatial configuration. 35 commercial blocks in Nanjing downtown areas are chosen as research samples. Firstly, the internal structure of the blocks will be studied by analyzing the patterns, functions and land utilities of its plots. Focusing on the site coding and regulation, the building arrangement could be clarified and mapped. The results will identify the urban spatial patterns in downtown of Nanjing by mapping the characteristics of plot size, shape, properties and boundary lines. Therefore, the method on describing urban spatial configuration in modern cities could be developed., This research is funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51538005).
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The impact of a new public transport system on neighbourhoods surrounding stations: The cases of Bermondsey and West Ham with the Jubilee Line extension in London

  • Chen, Po Nien
  • Karimi, Kayvan
[EN] The impact of new public transport systems on towns and suburbs has been widely considered to be a significant aspect of urban development. However, spatial configurations which could stimulate transformation around neighbourhood of stations have not been clearly identified. It could be argued that the implementation of transport systems and the creation of new stations would enhance capacity of transport network and accessibility around vicinity of stations. Furthermore, the dynamics of pedestrian flow, generated by new public transport systems, might encourage socio-economic activities around stations. Therefore, the aims of this study are to verify the impact of urban morphology on station neighbourhoods and identify whether stations are embedded in the best location for optimising urban redevelopment. This paper analyses the surroundings of two stations – Bermondsey and West Ham – along the Jubilee Line Extension in London using Space Syntax measures. A spatial analysis with demographic and land use data reveals that the location of stations within urban layout would be the determinant in optimising socio-economic development in the neighbourhoods. It also suggests that Space Syntax could be an effective analytical methodology to understand the relationship between transport system and urban morphology
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