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The influence of sleep apnea syndrome and intermittent hypoxia in carotid adventitial vasa vasorum

  • López Cano, Carolina
  • Rius, Ferran
  • Sánchez Peña, Enric
  • Gaeta, Anna Michela
  • Betriu i Bars, M. Àngels
  • Fernández i Giráldez, Elvira
  • Yeramian Hakim, Andree
  • Hernández García, Marta
  • Bueno Díez, Marta
  • Gutiérrez Carrasquilla, Liliana
  • Dalmases, Mireia
  • Lecube Torelló, Albert
Subjects with sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) show an increased carotid intima-media thickness. However, no data exist about earlier markers of atheromatous disease, such as the proliferation and expansion of the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) to the avascular intima in this setting. Our aim was to assess carotid VV density and its relationship with sleep parameters in a cohort of obese patients without prior vascular events. A total of 55 subjects evaluated for bariatric surgery were prospectively recruited. A non-attended respiratory polygraphy was performed. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the cumulative percentage of time spent with oxygen saturation below 90% (CT90) were assessed. Serum concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, P-selectin, lipocalin-2 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) were measured. Contrast-enhanced carotid ultrasound was used to assess the VV density. Patients with SAHS (80%) showed a higher adventitial VV density (0.801±0.125 vs. 0.697±0.082, p = 0.005) and higher levels of sVCAM-1 (745.2±137.8 vs. 643.3±122.7 ng/ml, p = 0.035) than subjects with an AHI lower than 10 events/hour. In addition, a positive association exist between mean VV density and AHI (r = 0.445, p = 0.001) and CT90 (r = 0.399, p = 0.005). Finally, in the multiple linear regression analysis, female sex, fasting plasma glucose and AHI (but not CT90) were the only variables independently associated with the mean adventitial VV density (R2 = 0.327). In conclusion, a high VV density is present in obese subjects with SAHS, and chronic intermittent hypoxia is pointed as an independent risk factor for the development of this early step of atheromatous disease, This study was supported by grants from Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria PI15/00260), European Union (European Regional Development Fund, Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional, “Una manera de hacer Europa”), Fundación Sociedad Española Endocrinología y Nutrición (FSEEN) and Laboratorios Almirall (“Beca FSEEN de ayuda a la investigación sobre factores de riesgo cardiovascular”, Laboratorio ESTEVE and Menarini Spain S.A. CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas and CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias are initiatives of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The authors would like to thank Virtudes Maria and Mª del Valle Peña (from the Unit for the Detection and Treatment of Atherothrombotic Diseases), Olga Mínguez and Lidia Pascual (from the Sleep Unit) for their help in the study.
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History popularised and Tweeted: Emotions and Social Representations around the Conquest of Navarre in 1512, Historia divulgada e Historia twiteada: Emociones y representaciones sociales de la Conquista de Navarra de 1512

  • Mugueta Moreno, Íñigo
This study analyses the social representations and uses of the Conquest of Navarre in 1512 by the troops of Castile. Starting from an analysis of the feelings that David Lowenthal thinks history arouses, the interpretations of it by non-university authors linked to the Basque nationalist groups, Nabarralde and Nafarroa Bizirik will be analysed. The repercussions of these interpretations in the society of Navarre will also be evaluated through a series of cultural manifestations. Some of the most important are those on social networks such as Twitter, where the theories of some of these authors have achieved a large following., En el presente trabajo se analizan las representaciones y usos sociales de la conquista de Navarra de 1512 por las tropas castellanas. Partiendo del análisis de los sentimientos que para David Lowenthal suscita la Historia, se analizarán especialmente las interpretaciones históricas de autores no universitarios ligados a los colectivos nacionalistas vascos, Nabarralde y Nafarroa Bizirik. Del mismo modo, se tratará de valorar la repercusión de estas interpretaciones en la sociedad navarra a través de diferentes manifestaciones culturales. Unas de las más importantes son las que proceden de las redes sociales, como Twitter, donde los planteamientos de algunos de estos autores han logrado un importante seguimiento.
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Innovating from tradition. Notes on historiographical production of Jacques le Goff, from the Mentalities to the Historical Anthropology, Innovando desde la tradición. Notas sobre la producción historiográfica de Jacques Le Goff: desde las mentalidades a su antropología histórica

  • Mundaca, Diego
The writing and historiographical production of Jacques Le Goff pursued in the present work focuses on the time period when the Annales journal changed course, following the essential contributions of Fernand Braudel. This article discusses the work of Le Goff after the cultural shift of the late sixties, when he departed from the Ecole des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales and created the Groupe d’Anthropologie historique de l’Occident Medieval. Changes and innovations found in New History are a reflection and expression of the place from where Le Goff wrotes. Within the search for a medieval humanism that transformed alongside historical anthropology, we hold that the logic of Le Goff’s writing was a permanent dialogue between, on the one hand, an innovation stemming from its immediate contingency and, on the other hand, the past, and innovations of tradition., La escritura y producción historiográfica del Jacques Le Goff que abordaremos en este trabajo, se concentra desde el momento en que la revista Annales comienza a tomar un rumbo distinto después de los fundamentales aportes que construyó Fernand Braudel a cargo de la VI Sección de l’École Practique des Hautes Études (EPHE) (1945-1965). El problema es tratar su obra desde los cambios culturales de fines de los años sesenta cuando deja la Ecole des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) y se ve impulsado a crear el Groupe d’Anthropologie Historique de l’Occident Médiéval (GAHOM), en el que desarrolló un trabajo intenso entre 1977-1992. La producción de este periodo se puede explicar tratando de hacer dialogar la historiografía y el contexto sociocultural, caracterizado por el movimiento de mayo del ‘68 que lo vio nacer. Los cambios e innovaciones que se consignan en la Nueva Historia es un reflejo y expresión del lugar desde dónde escribe. Teniendo como horizonte esa búsqueda de un humanismo medieval que se fue materializando con la antropología histórica, sostenemos que lo inteligible de la escritura de Le Goff está en ese permanente diálogo entre, por un lado, una innovación que parte de su contingencia inmediata, y por el otro, el pasado: innovación desde la tradición.
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Consideraciones generales respecto a la necesidad de practicar una pedagogía sobre la finitud humana en la educación formal. Estudio de caso, Consideracions generals respecte a la necessitat de practicar una pedagogia sobre la finitud humana en l’educació formal. Estudi de cas, General considerations about the need for pedagogy on death in formal education. A case study

  • Ramos Pla, Anabel
  • Camats Guardia, Ramon
Actualmente, la pedagogía de la muerte es un tema formativo emergente, sobre todo en el ámbito español. Asimismo, la finitud humana continúa siendo un tabú que cuesta derribar, tanto socialmente como pedagógicamente. En contraposición a dicha circunstancia, apostamos por la necesidad de tratar la pedagogía de la finitud humana desde la conciencia de la muerte en el ámbito de la didáctica formal. La aportación presenta un estudio de caso realizado en dos centros docentes de Lleida (España), donde los profesionales de la educación, la psicología, la pedagogía y/o la psicopedagogía respondieron un cuestionario diseñado ex profeso. Los resultados del cuestionario y de las entrevistas llevadas a cabo reflejan que los enseñantes no se sienten suficientemente formados ni preparados para realizar acciones pedagógicas respecto a situaciones infantiles y juveniles de muerte y de duelo. Se apuesta, finalmente, por la formación docente específica y se proponen una serie de estrategias generales para poder afrontar dicha temática en contextos de educación formal. De este modo, se pretende romper el tabú al cual se enfrenta la muerte en la profesión docente y psicopedagógica., Actualment, la pedagogia de la mort és un tema formatiu emergent, sobretot en l’àmbit espanyol. Així mateix, la finitud humana continua sent un tabú que costa derrocar, tant socialment com pedagògicament. En contraposició a aquesta circumstància, apostem per la necessitat de practicar la pedagogia de la finitud humana des de la consciència de la mort en l’àmbit de la didàctica formal. L’aportació presenta un estudi de cas realitzat en dos centres docents de Lleida, on els professionals de l’educació, la psicologia, la pedagogia i/o la psicopedagogia van respondre un qüestionari dissenyat ex professo. Els resultats del qüestionari i de les entrevistes dutes a terme reflecteixen que els ensenyants no se senten preparats per realitzar accions pedagògiques respecte a situacions infantils i juvenils de mort i de dol. S’aposta, finalment, por la formació docent específica i proposem una sèrie d’estratègies generals per poder afrontar aquesta temàtica en contextos d’educació formal. D’aquesta manera, es pretén trencar el tabú al qual s’enfronta la mort en la professió docent i psicopedagògica. Paraules clau: educació per a la mort; concepte de mort; intel·ligència emocional; dol; suport a l’educació primària, The pedagogy of death is an emerging subject in education, especially in Spain. Human finitude is a taboo topic that is difficult to eradicate both socially and pedagogically. In contrast to this view, we focus on the need for training in human finitude based on the consciousness of death in the field of formal education. A case study of two schools in Lleida, Spain, was carried out. Professionals of education, psychology and/or educational psychology were administered a questionnaire designed specifically for the purpose of the study. The results of the questionnaire and interviews show that teachers feel unprepared for educational activities regarding situations of death and grieving children and youth. Finally, we advocate that teachers receive specific training and propose a series of general strategies to face death in the context of formal education in order to break the taboo of death in the teaching profession and educational psychology.
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Effects of Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity on Pulmonary Function: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the ILERVAS Project

  • Gutiérrez Carrasquilla, Liliana
  • Sánchez Peña, Enric
  • Hernández García, Marta
  • Polanco, Dinora
  • Salas-Salvadó, Jordi
  • Betriu i Bars, M. Àngels
  • Gaeta, Anna Michela
  • Carmona, Paola
  • Purroy Garcia, Francisco
  • Pamplona Gras, Reinald
  • Farràs, Cristina
  • López Cano, Carolina
  • Fernández i Giráldez, Elvira
  • Lecube Torelló, Albert
A few studies showed that both adherence to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and physical activity practice have a positive impact on pulmonary function in subjects with lung disease. These associations are not well studied in subjects free from lung disease. In a cross-sectional study conducted in 3020 middle-aged subjects free of lung disease, adherence to the MedDiet using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener, and physical activity practice using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form were recorded. Respiratory function was assessed using forced spirometry and the results were evaluated according to the Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations between adherence to the MedDiet and physical activity practice with the presence of ventilatory defects. Participants with a high adherence to MedDiet, in comparison to those with low adherence, had both higher forced vital capacity (FVC; 100 (87–109) vs. 94 (82–105) % of predicted, p = 0.003) and forced expired volume in the first second (FEV1; 100 (89–112) vs. 93 (80–107) % of predicted, p < 0.001). According to their degree of physical activity, those subjects with a high adherence also had both higher FVC (100 (88–107) vs. 94 (83–105) % of predicted, p = 0.027) and FEV1 (100 (89–110) vs. 95 (84–108) % of predicted, p = 0.047) in comparison with those with low adherence. The multivariable logistic regression models showed a significant and independent association between both low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice, and the presence of altered pulmonary patterns, with differences between men and women. However, no joint effect between adherence to MedDiet and physical activity practice on respiratory function values was observed. Low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice were independently associated with pulmonary impairment. Therefore, the lung mechanics seem to benefit from heart-healthy lifestyle behaviors., This study was supported by grants from the Diputació de Lleida, Generalitat de Catalunya (2017SGR696 and SLT0021600250), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria PI12/00803 and PI15/00260), and European Union (European Regional Development Fund, Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional, “Una manera de hacer Europa”). CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas, CIBER de Nutrición y Obesidad, and CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias are initiatives of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III.
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Incidencia del factor sexo en el léxico disponible de una comunidad bilingüe

  • Calero Fernández, Ma. Ángeles
  • Serrano Zapata, Maribel
Una de las variables sociolingüísticas tenida en cuenta, tradicionalmente, en los estudios sobre variación léxica es el sexo (o género ). En el presente trabajo pretendemos conocer la incidencia de esta variable sobre el léxico disponible en castellano y en catalán en la provincia de Lleida. Concretamente, analizamos mediante procedimientos estadísticos la influencia que ejerce este factor en la producción del léxico en las dos lenguas en una muestra de 240 informantes bilingües de entre 17 y 18 años con est udios secundarios. Comprobamos 1) que las mujeres obtienen mejores índices de producción; 2) que existe una relación entre qué sexo evoca más palabras en cada centro de interés y la atribución social a la esfera femenina o masculina de la realidad que engl oba dicho centro; 3) que las mujeres se están sustrayendo a la prohibición de utilizar palabras malsonantes y 4) que, en cambio, mantienen rasgos propios de la afectividad lingüística. Sucede en ambas lenguas en contacto, aunque con ciertas diferencias res eñables, Sex (or gender) is one of the sociolinguistic variables considered, traditionally, in studies dealing with lexical variation. In the present work we intend to know the incidence of this variable on the lexicon available in Spanish and in Catalan in the pro vince of Lleida. Specifically, we analyze through statistical procedures the influence that this factor exerts on the production of the lexicon in the two languages in a sample of 240 bilingual informants aged between 17 and 18 years old with secondary edu cation. We verify that: 1) women obtain better production ra tes; 2) lexicon available in each center of interest depends on whether reality to which it refers is socially assigned to male or female sphere; 3) women are avoiding the prohibition of using bad words; 4) on the other hand, they use linguistic affectivity’s features. It happens in both languages in contact, although with certain notable differences
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Estudio del cráneo mediante morfometría geométrica en dos especies de Sylvilagus Gray, 1867 (Mammalia: Lagomorpha)

  • Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel
Within the genus Sylvilagus Gray, 1867, Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Sylvilagus floridanus (J.A. Allen, 1890) are some of its recognized species, for whom morphological studies in both species are extensive. Therefore, a comparative study was conducted between the cranial conformation using techniques of geometric morphometrics. For this purpose we studied a total of 31 S. brasiliensis and 16 S. floridanus skulls. Pictures were obtained and 12 anatomical landmarks were situated on the dorsal aspect. There did not appear differences between sexes but indeed between both species, both in size and shape. S. brasiliensis presented a shorter but wider the skull of than S. floridanus. Anatomical points were not particularly important as muscular attachments neither host externally important functional structures (as it might be those related to the view); due to this fact and that both species share similar ecological requirements it is plausible to think that detected differences were merely due to changes derived from the size differences -S. brasiliensis is smaller than S. floridanus-. In other words: the cranial size reduction would not imply a mere reduced form version (a 'harmonic reduction'), but it would require heterotopic changes, e.g. a redesign structural derivative of the size reduction. We assume these regional differences in cranial structure to be due more to changes in development patterns between both species rather than a difference in their life strategies, in view of the similar ecological requirements for both., Dentro del género Sylvilagus Gray, 1867 se reconocen, entre otras, las especies Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) y Sylvilagus floridanus (J.A. Allen, 1890) los estudios morfológicos disponibles de las cuales son muy extensos. Por ello, se realizó un estudio comparativo de la conformación craneal en ambas especies empleando técnicas de morfometría geométrica. Para ello se estudió un total de 31 cráneos de S. brasiliensis y 16 S. floridanus en los que, a partir de las fotografías, se situaron 12 hitos anatómicos en el plano dorsal. No aparecieron diferencias entre sexos pero sí entre especies, tanto en tamaño como en forma, presentando S. brasiliensis un cráneo de menor longitud pero más ancho que S. floridanus. Al tratarse de puntos no especialmente importantes de inserción muscular, ni albergar externamente estructuras funcionales importantes (como podría ser todo lo relacionado con la visión), y en vista de los requerimientos ecológicos similares para ambas especies estudiadas, se interpreta que las diferencias detectadas son debidas a un mero cambio derivado de la diferencia de tamaño entre las dos especies –S. brasiliensis es de menor tamaño que S. floridanus-. Dicho de otro modo: la reducción del tamaño craneal no implicaría una mera versión reducida de la forma (una “reducción harmónica”), sino que exigiría cambios heterotópicos, un rediseño estructural derivado de la reducción en tamaño. Suponemos que estas diferencias regionales en la estructura craneal son más debidas a cambios en los patrones de desarrollo que a una diferencia en las estrategias de vida para ambas especies, a la vista de los requerimientos ecológicos similares entra ambas especies estudiadas.
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Influence of size and shape of forest inventory units on the layout of harvest blocks in numerical forest planning

  • Pascual, Adrián
  • Pukkala, Timo
  • Miguel Magaña, Sergio de
  • Pesonen, Annukka
  • Packalen, Petteri
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of using alternative types of forest inventory units (FIUs) in multi-objective forest planning. The research was carried out in a Mediterranean forest area in central Spain. The study area was divided, alternatively, into pixels (square cells) and segments of two different sizes (small and large), which represented the tested FIU types. Airborne laser scanning data (ALS) and field sample plots were combined using the area-based approach to estimate forest attributes for each FIU. Dynamic treatment units were created using cellular automaton optimization aiming at maximizing timber production during a 60-year plan with periodical even-flow cuttings both with and without the aim of creating aggregated harvest blocks. The hypothesis was that the use of segments would enhance the clustering of harvests, as compared to cells, and provide dynamic treatment units more suitable for forestry practice. The results showed that segment-based planning created compact harvest blocks even without the use of spatial objective variables in optimization. The spatial layout of the solution for large segments was the most efficient in the absence of spatial objective variables. The FIU type that performed the best in maximizing timber production was the small segments. For the three tested FIU types, the inclusion of spatial objective variables further improved the clustering of harvests, especially during the latter half of the 60-year planning period. Segmentation acted as a first-phase clustering that made spatial optimization easier and faster. In the case of square cells, the clustering of harvests was greatly improved by the inclusion of spatial goals. The forest planning system and the spatial optimization method proposed in this study maximize the utility of fine-grained ALS data., Open access funding provided by University of Eastern Finland (UEF) including Kuopio University Hospital. This research was supported by the University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences and research consortium projects FORBIO (Proj. 14970) and ADAPT (Proj. 14907), funded by the Academy of Finland and led by Prof. Heli Peltola, at the School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland (UEF). Sergio de-Miguel was supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 MultiFUNGtionality Marie Sklodowska-Curie (IF-EF No 655815).
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The influence of an educational internet-based intervention in the beliefs and attitudes of primary care professionals on non-specific chronic low back pain: study protocol of a mixed methods approach

  • García-Martínez, Ester
  • Soler González, Jorge
  • Rubí Carnacea, Francesc
  • García-Martínez, Beatriz
  • Climent-Sanz, Carolina
  • Blanco Blanco, Joan
  • Valenzuela Pascual, Francesc
Background: Personal convictions in referral to pain cause misbeliefs in health professionals, which can influence patients who suffer from non-specific chronic low back pain. Likewise, health professionals’ beliefs affect their advice and attitudes towards patients’ treatment, becoming a possible cause of greater disability. The development of educational interventions based on the best scientific evidence in neurophysiology of pain could be a way to provide information and advice to primary care health professionals to change their cognition towards chronic non-specific low back pain. The use of Information and Communication Technologies allows the development of web sites, which might be one of the effective resources to modify misbeliefs and attitudes, in relation to the origin and meaning of non-specific chronic low back pain, of primary care professionals and that may modify their attitudes in patients’ treatment. Methods: The aim of this project is to identify misbeliefs and attitudes of primary care physicians and nurses about chronic non-specific low back pain to develop a web-based educational tool using different educational formats and gamification techniques. This study has a mixed-method sequential exploratory design. The participants are medical and nursing staff working in primary care centers in the city of Lleida, Spain. For the qualitative phase of this study, the authors will use personal semi-structured interviews. For the quantitative phase the authors will use an experimental study design. Subjects will be randomly allocated using a simple random sample technique. The intervention group will have access to the web site where they will find information related to non-specific chronic low back pain, based on the information obtained in the qualitative phase. The control group will have access to a video explaining the clinical practice guidelines on low back pain. Discussion: This study has been designed to explore and modify the beliefs and attitudes about chronic low back pain of physicians and nurses working in primary care settings, using a web-based educational tool with different educational formats and gamification techniques. The aim of the educational intervention is to change their knowledge about the origin and meaning of pain, with the result of reducing their misbeliefs and attitudes of fear avoidance., This study is funded by a research grant from the College of Catalan Physical Therapists. The funding body does not have, nor has had, any involvement in the design of the study, nor in any of the subsequent phases of the study, namely the collection, analysis, interpretation of data, and in writing the manuscript.
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Drought and phytophthora are associated with the decline of oak species in Southern Italy

  • Colangelo, Michele
  • Camarero, J. Julio
  • Borghetti, Marco
  • Gentilesca, Tiziana
  • Oliva Palau, Jonàs
  • Redondo, Miguel Ángel
  • Ripullone, Francesco
Forest decline induced by climate change is a global phenomenon that affects many tree species, mainly in drought-prone areas as the Mediterranean region. In southern Italy, several oak species have shown decline symptoms and elevated mortality since the 2000s due to drought stress. However, it remains to be answered whether decline occurred alone or whether a pathogen was also involved. To this aim, we compared two coexisting oak species in a forest located in southern Italy which are assumed to be less (Quercus cerris) and more tolerant to drought (Quercus pubescens). We sampled fifteen couples of neighboring declining (D) and non-declining (ND) trees of both species. Wood cores were taken from all trees to perform dendrochronological analyses to detect the decline onset and link it to potential climatic drivers. Carbon isotope ratios (d13C) were analyzed in wood of the two vigor classes to compare their water-use efficiency. Phytophthora presence was also assessed in soil samples from ten D-ND couples of trees per species. The oak species most affected by drought-induced decline in terms of leaf shedding and mortality was Q. cerris, i.e., the least tolerant to drought. In both species, the D trees showed a reduced growth rate compared with ND trees from 2000 onward when drought and warming intensified. Q. pubescens showed higher growth sensitivity to precipitation, temperature and drought than Q. cerris. This sensitivity to climate was magnified in D trees whose growth decreased in response to warm and dry conditions during the prior winter and the late summer. The Q. pubescens D trees were more efficient in their water use than ND trees before the growth divergence between D and ND trees amplified. In the studied area, Phytophthora quercina was isolated from 40% of the sampled trees, and tended to be more frequent amongst ND than amongst D trees. Our data suggests that droughts and warm summer conditions triggered oak decline. The high prevalence of P. quercina in the studied area warrants further study as a potential predisposing factor., This research was supported by the project “Alarm of Forest Mortality in Southern Italy” (Gorgoglione Administration, Basilicata Region, Italy) and by the CGL2015-69186-C2-1-R project (Spanish Ministry of Science).
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