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Rising declaratives of the quality-suspending kind

  • Westera, Matthijs
The theory of Intonational Compliance Marking (ICM) maintains that speakers of English use final rising intonation to indicate a suspension (potential violation) of a conversational maxim (Westera 2013; 2014). This paper aims to show that a certain kind of rising declarative, one which has been prominent in the literature (e.g., Gunlogson 2008), can be adequately understood in ICM’s terms as involving a suspension of the maxim of Quality. By explicating certain minimal assumptions about pragmatics, this understanding accounts for three core features of such rising declaratives: their question-likeness, the speaker bias they express and their badness out of the blue. In a nutshell, their question-likeness is derived from principles of general cooperative discourse, their bias from the relative importance of the maxim of Quality, and their badness out of the blue from a competition between rising declaratives and interrogatives. The account is compared in detail to various existing accounts of rising declaratives of the relevant sort, highlighting explanatory and empirical differences., This work has benefited from detailed commentary by four anonymous reviewers for Glossa, as well as Jeroen Groenendijk and Floris Roelofsen. Any remaining errors are of course my own. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No 715154).
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Grounding semantic roles in images

  • Silberer, Carina
  • Pinkal, Manfred
Comunicació presentada a la 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP 2018), celebrada del 31 d'octubre al 4 de novembre de 2018 a Brussel·les, Bèlgica., We address the task of visual semantic role labeling (vSRL), the identification of the participants of a situation or event in a visual scene, and their labeling with their semantic relations to the event or situation. We render candidate participants as image regions of objects, and train a model which learns to ground roles in the regions which depict the corresponding participant. Experimental results demonstrate that we can train a vSRL model without reliance on prohibitive image-based role annotations, by utilizing noisy data which we extract automatically from image captions using a linguistic SRL system. Furthermore, our model induces frame–semantic visual representations, and their comparison to previous work on supervised visual verb sense disambiguation yields overall better results., We thank the anonymous reviewers, Leonie Harter, Christine Sch¨afer, Michael Roth, Gemma Boleda, Anna Rohrbach and Bernt Schiele. This research was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG EXC 285), by the European Research Council (ERC Horizon 2020 grant agreement No 715154), and the Spanish Ramon y Cajal programme (grant RYC-2015-18907).
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Identity Construction as a Mother: A Comparative Study between Adopted and Non-Adopted Women

  • Pacheco Pérez, Meritxell
  • Garcia Sala, Laia
  • Canal Ortega, Marta
From a constructivist perspective we studied the experience of motherhood in a comparative study with 15 adopted women and 15 non-adopted women, all of them also biological mothers. We used the social self grid and it was analyzed by means of the program RECORD 5.0 and also through content analysis. Results show similarities and differences between the two groups in the construction of identity as a mother. Although in both samples the self as a mother is constructed similarly to the self in their couple relationship this is more evident in the case of adoptive daughters and the difference is statistically significant. The meanings attributed to their own motherhood are similar in both samples and have to do with enjoying motherhood. Nonetheless, in the adoptive sample there are more constructs related to control and doing things right and in the biological sample there are more constructs referring to naturalness and devotion. Moreover, in the adoptive sample there appears a higher presence of cognitive conflicts and lower self esteem, and both results tend to significance.
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Research traditions in social sciences and their methodological rationales

  • Gallifa i Roca, Josep
The aim of this article is to review and describe the most common research paradigms in social sciences in order to then use this knowledge to inform the choice of research methods. Paradigms are defined here as traditions generated by the diversity of ways of understanding reality and the associated beliefs about what knowledge is and how it can be created. Research traditions can be characterised by the coherence in the articulation of their ontology, epistemology and the corresponding methodologies. The traditions studied here are Logical Empiricism, Constructivism, Conceptualism (or Productive Science in the Aristotelian tradition), and Phenomenology. For each one, the corresponding methodologies are described, their rationales are presented and detailed and some methodological developments are explained, with a special focus on those most often used in Psychology and Education. Because the advancement of social sciences requires integrating findings into broader theoretical frameworks, the article argues in favour of the need to explicitly include paradigmatic and methodological rationales in the justification of the choice of research method. It is seen as a necessary step in establishing the relevance of research and to facilitate the integration of perspectives. The need for this awareness increases when the scientific community has diverse backgrounds and/or the scope of a field is wide or interdisciplinary. Additionally, integral approaches require the bringing together of research from a range of paradigms. In these cases, the explicit presenting of this rationale is a reasonable requirement to further ensure the quality of a piece of research., L’objectiu d’aquest article és revisar i descriure els paradigmes d’investigació més freqüents en ciències socials per tal d’utilitzar aquest coneixement per a l’elecció dels mètodes d’investigació. Els paradigmes es defineixen aquí com a tradicions generades per la diversitat de maneres d’entendre la realitat i les creences associades sobre el que és el coneixement i com es pot crear. Les tradicions d’investigació es poden caracteritzar per una coherent articulació de la seva ontologia, epistemologia i metodologies corresponents. Les tradicions estudiades aquí són l’empirisme lògic, el constructivisme, el conceptualisme (o la ciència productiva en la tradició aristotèlica), i la fenomenologia. Per a cadascuna, es descriuen les metodologies corresponents, es presenten i es detallen les seves raons i s’expliquen alguns desenvolupaments metodològics, amb un enfocament especial en els més utilitzats en Psicologia i Educació. Com que l’avanç de les ciències socials requereix la integració de troballes en marcs teòrics més amplis, l’article defensa la necessitat d’incloure explícitament fonamentacions paradigmàtiques i metodològiques en la justificació de l’elecció del mètode d’investigació. Es considera un pas necessari per establir la rellevància de la recerca i facilitar la integració de les perspectives. La necessitat d’aquesta consciència augmenta quan la comunitat científica té diversos orígens i /o l’abast d’un camp és ampli o interdisciplinari. A més, els enfocaments integrals requereixen la unió de recerques provinents de diversos paradigmes. En aquests casos, la presentació d’aquesta fonamentació és un requisit raonable per garantir encara més la qualitat d’una investigació.
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La influencia de la personalidad en el uso de Instagram

  • Casado, Carla
  • Carbonell, Xavier
Instagram es una red social en creciente auge, por lo que es necesario comprender cómo las personas se presentan en este contexto y cómo influye la personalidad en su uso. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron estudiar la influencia de la personalidad en el uso de Instagram, según el modelo de los cinco grandes y analizar las diferencias de personalidad entre los usuarios que utilizan Instagram y los no usuarios. El NEO Five-Factory Inventory (NEO-FFI) se utilizó para estudiar la personalidad y para el análisis de la actividad en Instagram un cuestionario ad hoc. Los 401 participantes se reclutaron a través de las redes sociales en línea: 262 usuarios de Instagram y 139 no usuarios. Se hallaron relaciones positivas entre la extraversión con el número de seguidores y el de usuarios seguidos. Respecto a la edad de los participantes, se encontraron diferencias significativas en los grupos de rangos de edad de 18-25 años y de 26-35 años. En concreto, las personas de estos rangos de edad más extravertidas siguen a más usuarios y tienen más seguidores en su cuenta de Instagram. Por otro lado, se halló una relación positiva entre la apertura y el número de publicaciones y seguidores en Instagram. La responsabilidad correlacionó con un mayor número de publicaciones únicamente en el grupo de edad de 26 a 35 años. En neuroticismo y amabilidad no se hallaron correlaciones significativas. Por último, se observó que las personas que utilizan Instagram presentan una mayor extraversión que las que no disponen de una cuenta en esta red social. Estos resultados resaltan la influencia de la personalidad en el uso de Instagram., Instagram is a constantly growing online social network, and as such it is necessary to know how people present themselves in this context and how personality influences their use of the network. The objectives of the present study were to use the Five Factor Model to study the influence of personality on the Instagram use and to analyse the personality differences between Instagram users and non-users. In order to assess personality, the Neo Five Factory Inventory (NEO-FFI) was administered, and to analyse Instagram activity an ad hoc questionnaire was used. The 401 participants were recruited through online social networks: 262 of them were Instagram users and 139 non-users. Positive correlations were found between extraversion and users’ the number of followers and the number of other users they follow. Regarding the age of the participants, significant differences were found in the groups of age ranges of 18-25 years old and 26-35 years old. Specifically, people in these more extraverted age ranges follow more users and have more followers on their Instagram accounts. Meanwhile, a positive correlation was found between openness to experiences, and number of posts and number of followers on Instagram. Conscientiousness correlated with a greater number of posts, but only in one age group: users 26-35 years old. No significant correlations were found with neuroticism and agreeableness. Finally, it was observed that people who use Instagram have higher levels of extraversion than those who do not have an account on this social network. These results highlight the influence of personality on Instagram.
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Nueva escuela, ¿nuevos aprendizajes?

  • Liesa, Eva
  • Castelló, Montserrat
  • Becerril, Lorena
La finalidad última del cambio educativo debe ser que los alumnos aprendan más y mejor. El aprendizaje competencial es uno de los retos de la escuela y éste conlleva promover procesos de regulación y co-regulación de los aprendizajes con el in que los alumnos dispongan de herramientas de pensamiento que les permitan resolver con cierta autonomía tareas auténticas de aprendizaje y de evaluación. Promover un aprendizaje competencial genera algunas resistencias y algunas dificultades que son analizadas: las concepciones de los docentes sobre qué significa enseñar y aprender y los procesos de colaboración entre docentes son dos condiciones clave para garantizar el éxito de las propuestas de innovación o cambio educativo. Finalmente, argumentamos como la sostenibilidad de los cambios radica en que los centros educativos se conviertan en comunidades de aprendizaje profesional, dónde no sólo los alumnos aprenden sino también los maestros promoviendo y analizando prácticas fundamentadas dirigidas a la mejora del aprendizaje de todos los alumnos., The main goal of educational change should be to improve students' learning. Developing competences is one of the challenges of the school and this involves promoting processes of regulation and co-regulation of learning in order for students to have tools of thought which allow them to solve authentic learning and assessment tasks with a certain degree of autonomy. Promoting the learning of competences generates some resistance and some diiculties which are analyzed: teachers' conceptions of what it means to teach and learn and processes of collaboration between teachers are two key conditions to ensure the success of proposals for innovation or educational change. Finally, we argue that in order for these changes to be sustainable, schools need to become professional learning communities where not only students learn but also teachers, promoting and analyzing informed practices aimed at improving the learning of all students.
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Quan el cos esdevé paraula. Parentalitat i discapacitat

  • Alamany i Ferré, Laia
Tenir un fill amb discapacitat suposa un impacte de gran abast que sovint es pot considerar com a situació traumàtica amb seqüeles de trastorn d’estrès post traumàtic (TEPT) de tipus crònic. Aquest impacte afecta a la vivència de la parentalitat, en el seu més ampli dels sentits (a nivell personal, de parella, familiar, social) i es facilitador de les projeccions d’angoixes primerenques que es transmetran en la relació vincular i dificultaran l’establiment d’un vincle segur així com del procés d’individuació. La dansa moviment teràpia (DMT) com a psicoteràpia que cerca la integració psicofísica de la persona és una molt bona eina per a l’abordatge de la interacció familiar i l’assoliment de vincles relacionals segurs ja sigui des del treball individual (d’un dels progenitors), de parella o bé grupal (ja sigui en grups d’iguals o familiars), Tener un hijo con discapacidad supone un impacto de gran alcance que a menudo se puede considerar como situación traumática con secuelas de trastorno de estrés post traumático (TEPT) de tipo crónico. Este impacto afecta a la vivencia de la parentalidad, en su más amplio de los sentidos (a nivel personal, de pareja, familiar, social) y es facilitador de las proyecciones de angustias tempranas que se transmitirán en la relación vincular y dificultarán el establecimiento de un vínculo seguro así como del proceso de individuación. La danza movimiento terapia (DMT) como psicoterapia que busca la integración psicofísica de la persona es una muy buena herramienta para el abordaje de la interacción familiar y el logro de vínculos relacionales seguros ya sea desde el trabajo individual (de uno los progenitores), de pareja o bien grupal (ya sea en grupos de iguales o familiares)., Having a child with a disability has a powerful impact that can often be considered as a traumatic situation with sequels of a chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This impact affects the experience of parenting, in its widest sense (personal, couple, family, social) and facilitates the projections of primary anguish that will be transmitted in the attachment relation and that will difficult to establishing a secure attachment as well as the individualization process. The dance movement therapy (DMT) as a psychotherapy that seeks the psychophysical integration of the person is a very good tool for the approach of family interaction and the achievement of secure attachment either from individual focus (from one of the parents), as a couple or group (in groups of peers or families).
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La intimidad en un contexto intimidatorio. La DMT como herramienta eficaz para el encuentro íntimo con los adolescentes

  • Romero Diego, Marta
Este artículo presenta un caso que ilustra cómo viven los adolescentes la intimidad en la actualidad. Internet, las redes sociales y los medios de comunicación influyen en su modo de construir relaciones íntimas y también desdibujan la línea entre lo público y lo privado. Las carencias afectivas y las experiencias negativas en las relaciones de intimidad están estrechamente relacionadas con trastornos psicológicos, aislamiento social, bullying o suicidio. Ante esta situación es prioritario encontrar enfoques respetuosos y efectivos de acompañamiento. La Danza Movimiento Terapia (DMT), sirviéndose de la empatía kinestésica, el contacto físico y la compresión de las metáforas que surgen en el movimiento y el juego, constituye una herramienta adecuada para establecer un diálogo íntimo con el adolescente, This article presents a case to illustrate how adolescents experience intimacy nowadays. Internet, social networks and mass media have an impact on how they build their intimate relationships and also blur the distinction between what is private and what is public. Lack of affection and negative experiences in intimate relationships are closely connected to psychological disorders, social isolation, bullying and suicide. Faced with this situation, finding respectful and effective approaches to accompany adolescents is a priority. Dance Movement Therapy (DMT), through kinesthetic empathy, physical contact and the understanding of metaphors arising from movement and play, constitutes an adequate tool to open an intimate dialogue with the adolescent
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Some qualitative properties for the total variation flow

  • Andreu, Fuensanta
  • Caselles, Vicente
  • Díaz, Jesus Ildefonso
  • Mazón, Jose
We prove the existence of a finite extinction time for the solutions of the Dirichlet problem for the total variation flow. For the Neumann problem, we prove that the solutions reach the average of its initial datum in finite time. The asymptotic profile of the solutions of the Dirichlet problem is also studied. It is shown that the profiles are nonzero solutions of an eigenvalue-type problem that seems to be unexplored in the previous literature. The propagation of the support is analyzed in the radial case showing a behaviour entirely different to the case of the problem associated with the p-Laplacian operator. Finally, the study of the radially symmetric case allows us to point out other qualitative properties that are peculiar of this special class of quasilinear equations., The first and fourth authors have been partially support by the Spanish DGICYT, Project PB98-1442, the third author by the REN2000-0766. The second author acknowledges partial support by the TMR European Project ‘‘Viscosity Solutions and their Applications’’, Reference FMRXCT98-0234 and the PNPGC Project BFM2000-0962-C02-01.
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The Tree of shapes of an image

  • Ballester, Coloma
  • Caselles, Vicente
  • Monasse, Pascal
In [CITE], Kronrod proves that the connected components of isolevel sets of a continuous function can be endowed with a tree structure. Obviously, the connected components of upper level sets are an inclusion tree, and the same is true for connected components of lower level sets. We prove that in the case of semicontinuous functions, those trees can be merged into a single one, which, following its use in image processing, we call “tree of shapes”. This permits us to solve a classical representation problem in mathematical morphology: to represent an image in such a way that maxima and minima can be computationally dealt with simultaneously. We prove the finiteness of the tree when the image is the result of applying any extrema killer (a classical denoising filter in image processing). The shape tree also yields an easy mathematical definition of adaptive image quantization., We acknowledge partial support by the TMR European project \Viscosity solutions and their applications", reference FMRX-CT98-0234 and the CNRS through a PICS project. The first two authors also acknowledge partial support by the PNPGC project, reference BFM2000-0962-C02-01.
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