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Modeling the Error of the Medtronic Paradigm Veo Enlite Glucose Sensor

  • Biagi, Lyvia
  • Ramkissoon, Charrise M.
  • Facchinetti, Andrea
  • Leal Moncada, Yenny Teresa
  • Vehí, Josep
Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) are prone to inaccuracy due to time lags, sensor drift, calibration errors, and measurement noise. The aim of this study is to derive the model of the error of the second generation Medtronic Paradigm Veo Enlite (ENL) sensor and compare it with the Dexcom SEVEN PLUS (7P), G4 PLATINUM (G4P), and advanced G4 for Artificial Pancreas studies (G4AP) systems. An enhanced methodology to a previously employed technique was utilized to dissect the sensor error into several components. The dataset used included 37 inpatient sessions in 10 subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D), in which CGMs were worn in parallel and blood glucose (BG) samples were analyzed every 15 ± 5 min Calibration error and sensor drift of the ENL sensor was best described by a linear relationship related to the gain and offset. The mean time lag estimated by the model is 9.4 ± 6.5 min. The overall average mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of the ENL sensor was 11.68 ± 5.07% Calibration error had the highest contribution to total error in the ENL sensor. This was also reported in the 7P, G4P, and G4AP. The model of the ENL sensor error will be useful to test the in silico performance of CGM-based applications, i.e., the artificial pancreas, employing this kind of sensor, This project has been partially supported by the Spanish Government through Grants DPI-2013-46982-C2-2-R and DPI-2016-78831-C2-2-R, the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development, CNPq Brazil through Grant 202050/2015-7, the University of Girona through Grant BR2014/51, and the Agency for Management of University and Research Grants of the Government of Catalonia, Spain (Beatriu de Pinós [BP-DGR 2013])
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Carboranycarboxylate Complexes as Efficient Catalysts in Epoxidation Reactions

  • Fontanet Cepeda, Mònica
  • Rodríguez Pizarro, Montserrat
  • Viñas, Clara
  • Teixidor Bombardó, Francesc
  • Romero García, Isabel
This work presents the first examples of carboranylcarboxylate complexes as precatalysts in epoxidation reactions with the use of peracetic acid as the oxidant. The manganese [Mn(μ-H2O)(1-CH3-2-CO2-1,2-closo-C2B10H10)2]n·(H2O)n (1), [Mn2(1-CH3-2-CO2-1,2-closo-C2B10H10)4(2,2'-bpy)2] (2, bpy = bipyridine), [Mn(1-CH3-2-CO2-1,2-closo-C2B10H10)2(bpm)]n (3, bpm = bipyrimidine), and [Mn(1-CH3-2-CO2-1,2-closo-C2B10H10)2(2,2'-bpy)2] (4) complexes and the cobalt [Co2(μ-H2O)(1-CH3-2-CO2-1,2-closo-C2B10H10)4(thf)4] (6) complex, all containing the carboranylcarboxylic 1-CH3-2-CO2H-1,2-closo-C2B10H10 (LH) ligand, together with Mn3(OAc)6(2,2'-bpy)2 (5) displayed good performance with high conversions and selectivity values in short reaction times, in most cases. This work highlights that the coordination of the carboranylcarboxylic ligand to the metal ions is crucial to the performance of the complexes as catalysts, This research has been financed by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (CTQ2015-66143-P; CTQ2016-75150-R) and Generalitat de Catalunya through project 2014-SGR-149
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A CBR-based bolus recommender system for type 1 diabetes

  • Torrent-Fontbona, Ferran
  • López Ibáñez, Beatriz
  • Pozo-Alonso, Alejandro
Comunicació presentada a: Workshop on Artificial Intelligence for Diabetes (2nd: 2017: Viena, Àustria). Aquest workshop ha rebut finançament del programa d'investigació i innovació EU Horizon 2020 sota el núm. d'ajut 689810, People with type 1 diabetes mellitus usually need to administer bolus insulin before each meal to keep the blood glucose level in the target glycaemic range. However, the factors involved in the calculation of the appropriate dose can change due to multiple factors and with an unknown relation. This may increase the error in the bolus calculation, and therefore, increase the chances of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia. This paper proposes a bolus recommender system based on case based reasoning developed under project PEPPER, with the objective of recommending personalised and adaptive bolus doses. The system has been tested with in silico adults with UVA/PADOVA T1DM simulator. Results show that the use of the proposed bolus recommender system increases the percentage of time in the target glycaemic range, This project has received funding from the grant of the University of Girona 2016-2018 (MPCUdG2016) and the European Union Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 689810, www.pepper.eu.com/, PEPPER. The work has been developed with the support of the research group SITES awarded with distinction by the Generalitat de Catalunya (SGR 2014-2016).
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The Syntactic Information in the 'Diccionario Crítico Etimológico Castellano e Hispánico' by J. Corominas and J.A. Pascual as Expressed in the Database 'Syntax.Dbf'

  • Batllori Dillet, Montse
  • Pujol Payet, Isabel
  • Sánchez Lancis, Carlos E.
L'objectiu d'aquest article és presentar l'estructura de la base de dades relacional que inclou tota la informació sintictica continguda en el Diccionario Critico Etimológico Castellano e Hispánico de J. Corominas i J. A. Pascual. Tot i que aquest diccionari conté un ampli ventall d'informacions històriques de cadascun dels temes, aquestes no es mostren de forma estructurada, per la qual cosa ha estat necessari estudiar i classificar tots aquells elements relacionats amb aspectes sintàctics. És a partir d'aquest estudi previ que s'han elaborat els diferents camps de la base de dades, els quals s'agrupen en cinc blocs temàtics: informació lemàtica; gramatical; sintàctica; altres aspectes relacionats; i observacions o comentaris rellevants fets per l'investigador. Aquesta base de dades no només reprodueix els continguts del diccionari, sinó que inclou diferents camps interpretatius. Per aquesta raó, Syntax. dbf representa una eina de treball fonamental per a tots aquells investigadors interessats en la sintaxi diacrònica de l'espanyol, This paper focuses on the structure of a syntactic relational data base which includes all the syntactic information contained in the ‘Diccionario Crítico Etimológico Castellano e Hispánico’ by J. Corominas and J.A. Pascual. Owing to the fact that the dictionary as writing in a way which escapes uniformity, it has been necessary to establish a series of fields in order to compile and accommodate the different kinds of knowledge related to the syntactic history of the lexical items. These fields are organized in five groups according to the subject of study: information related to the lemmata; grammatical aspects; syntactic information; other related knowledge; and relevant observations and comments provided by the researchers. Besides reproducing the data given in the dictionary, this type of data base comprises several interpretative fields. Therefore, ‘Syntax.dbf’ continues a basic tool for any researches working on Spanish diachronic syntax
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Ecosistemes aquàtics continentals

  • Sabater, Sergi
  • Acuña i Salazar, Vicenç
  • Batalla, Ramon J.
  • Borrego i Moré, Carles
  • Butturini, Andrea
  • Felip, Marisol
  • García-Berthou, Emili
  • Gascón Garcia, Stéphanie
  • Marcé Romero, Rafael
  • Martí, Eugènia
  • Menéndez, Margarita
  • Muñoz Gràcia, Isabel
  • Quintana Pou, Xavier
  • Sabater, Francesc
Els sistemes aquàtics continentals inclouen rius, estanys (o llacs), llacunes (o estanyols) i embassaments com a masses d’aigua superficials. Aquests sistemes recullen tant les influències climàtiques com les que són fruit de l’activitat humana que es desenvolupa a la conca, de les quals les dinàmiques hidrològica, sedimentària, biogeoquímica i biològica són receptores directes. El canvi climàtic afecta la quantitat i la freqüència de les pluges i l’evapotranspiració que s’efectua a la conca, amb efectes directes en la magnitud i la freqüència dels patrons hidrològics. S’estima que el canvi climàtic pot ser el detonant de l’augment de la freqüència d’esdeveniments extrems i transitoris (com ara les sequeres i les avingudes) a les regions amb clima mediterrani, i de l’augment de la raresa de les condicions hidrològiques basals: els sistemes funcionaran cada vegada més en règim episòdic, mentre que els canvis progressius i estacionals seran més difusos. L’increment anòmal de la temperatura pot ser la causa de la disminució de la coberta del gel en els estanys pirinencs, de l’avançament i la prolongació del període d’estratificació de les masses d’aigua lacustres, i de l’increment de la temperatura de l’aigua fluvial, amb implicacions biogeoquímiques i per a la biodiversitat. L’augment de la freqüència d’aquests episodis extrems té implicacions múltiples per als ecosistemes. D’una banda, les crescudes afavoreixen el pas ràpid de l’aigua i dels materials, cosa que comporta pics puntuals de més productivitat als ecosistemes receptors (com ara els estanys i els embassaments, les zones al·luvials i deltaiques i les zones costaneres); de l’altra, les sequeres fragmenten el continu fluvial o bé disminueixen dràsticament la durada del període d’inundació de les masses estagnants temporànies. Durant els períodes de cabal baix, que es preveu que seran més extensos a conseqüència del canvi climàtic, el temps de residència de l’aigua al sistema s’allargarà considerablement. Això té implicacions biogeoquímiques molt rellevants, amb la prevalença de processos anaeròbics que produeixen gasos amb efecte d’hivernacle, com ara l’òxid nitrós, fruit de la desnitrificació, o el metà. També s’espera que s’afavoreixi la respiració de la matèria orgànica respecte de la producció de nova biomassa, fet que entenem com un afavoriment progressiu de l’heterotròfia. La biodiversitat dels sistemes aquàtics continentals pot ser afectada pel canvi climàtic. Els ecosistemes aquàtics mediterranis presenten una diversitat elevada de fauna i flora, i per bé que la biota s’ha adaptat als canvis hidrològics extrems, l’increment d’aquests pot posar-la al límit de la capacitat de resiliència. Això pot empitjorar les condicions vitals dels organismes i, a mitjà termini, deixar nínxols buits i exposats a la invasió per espècies no natives. En pot resultar l’homogeneïtzació de les comunitats i la disminució del nombre d’espècies endèmiques, ara per ara molt més abundants que en moltes altres regions climàtiques. L’acció humana directa pot tenir un efecte sinèrgic en les conseqüències potencials del canvi climàtic. La capacitat de retenció de nutrients dels rius (el procés d’autodepuració) disminueix quan se n’incrementa la concentració, ja que el sistema se sobresatura de nutrients. Les entrades contínues procedents de les depuradores d’aigües residuals contribueixen a un excés de nutrients, fet que augmenta en condicions de cabal baix. La derivació i la regulació (per mitjà de canals, preses i embassaments), o el confinament de les masses d’aigua, interfereixen en les dinàmiques hidrològiques i sedimentàries dels ecosistemes respectius, compliquen la interpretació de l’efecte del canvi climàtic i, fins i tot, posen en segon pla l’efecte que el canvi climàtic exerceix sobre aquests ecosistemes. Es tracta de l’anomenat canvi global, el qual inclou tant els efectes del canvi climàtic com les alteracions que l’home realitza a escales temporals i espacials diferents
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Ecological classification of a set of Mediterranean reservoirs applying the EU Water Framework Directive: A reasonable compromise between science and management

  • Navarro, Enrique
  • Caputo, L.
  • Marcé Romero, Rafael
  • Carol Bruguera, Joaquim
  • Benejam Vidal, Lluís
  • García-Berthou, Emili
  • Armengol Bachero, Joan
The Water Framework Directive EU2000/60/EC (WFD) was implemented for reservoirs at a regional scale (northeastern Spain). Twenty-one reservoirs were monitored quarterly over the course of a year. Using principal component analysis, the reservoirs were classified into types according to their geological and morphometric features. The Ecological Quality (EQ) of the reservoirs was assessed by integrating values of total chlorophyll a, cyanophyta chlorophyll a concentration, fish metrics, Secchi depth, averaged hypolimnetic oxygen concentration and total phosphorus. For each reservoir type, a reference condition of quality was selected. When possible, this reference was the reservoir displaying the best EQ; otherwise expert judgment was used. To allow comparison of quality among reservoirs belonging to different types, thus identifying intrinsic differences, an Ecological Quality Ratio (EQR) was calculated by dividing the EQ value of each reservoir by that of its reference. According to EQR, the majority of the reservoirs accomplished the quality criteria of the WFD. This study identified a number of useful indicators for EQ assessment. Moreover, because the references were chosen among similar reservoirs, low EQR values are indicative of specific problems, such as untreated or wastewater spills or droughts. The results also demonstrate that expert judgment is a reasonable compromise when the low number of water bodies available for the study prevents statistical approaches
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Invasive Alien Species - Prioritising prevention efforts through horizon scanning: ENV.B.2/ETU/2014/0016: Final report

  • Roy, Helen E.
  • Adriaens, Tim
  • Aldridge, David
  • Bacher, Sven
  • Bishop, John
  • Blackburn, Tim M.
  • Branquart, Etienne
  • Brodie, Juliet
  • Carboneras, Carles
  • Cook, Elizabeth J.
  • Copp, Gordon H.
  • Dean, Hannah
  • Eilenberg, Jørgen
  • Essl, Franz
  • Gallardo, Belinda
  • Garcia, Mariana
  • García-Berthou, Emili
  • Genovesi, Piero
  • Hulme, Philip E.
  • Kenis, Marc
  • Kerckhof, Francis
  • Kettunen, Marianne
  • Minchin, Dan
  • Nentwig, Wolfgang
  • Nieto, Ana
  • Pergl, Jan
  • Pescott, Oliver
  • Peyton, Jodey
  • Preda, Cristina
  • Rabitsch, Wolfgang
  • Roques, Alain
  • Rorke, Steph
  • Scalera, Riccardo
  • Schindler, Stefan
  • Schönrogge, Karsten
  • Solarz, Wojciech
  • Stewart, Alan
  • Tricarico, Elena
  • Vanderhoeven, Sonia
  • Velde, Gerard van der‏
  • Vilà, Montserrat
  • Wood, Christine
  • Zenetos, Argyro
The European Union Regulation (EU) 1143/2014 on invasive alien species (IAS) establishes an EU-wide framework for action to prevent, minimise and mitigate the adverse impacts of IAS on biodiversity and centres around the development of a list of IAS of EU Concern. The initial list of IAS of EU concern will be based on available risk assessments compliant with agreed minimum standards but horizon scanning is seen as critical to inform future updating of the list, in order to prioritise the most threatening new and emerging IAS. A workshop was held with the overarching aim of reviewing and validating an approach to horizon scanning to derive a ranked list of IAS which are likely to arrive, establish, spread and have an impact on biodiversity or related ecosystem services in the EU over the next decade. The agreed horizon scanning approach involved two distinct phases: i) Preliminary consultation between experts within five thematic groups to derive initial scores; ii) Consensus-building across expert groups including extensive discussion on species rankings coupled with review and moderation of scores across groups. The outcome of the horizon scanning was a list of 95 species, including all taxa (except microorganisms) within marine, terrestrial and freshwater environments, considered as very high or high priority for risk assessment, Le Règlement de l’Union Européenne (UE) 1143/2014 sur les espèces notices envahissantes (EEE) établit un cadre d’actions à l’échelle européenne pour prévenir, réduire au minimum et atténuer les impacts négatifs des EEE sur la biodiversité, et se concentre sur le développement d’une liste d’EEE de préoccupation européenne. La liste initiale d’EEE de préoccupation européenne est basée sur les analyses de risque disponibles conformes aux standards minimums reconnus. Mais l’horizon scanning est essentiel pour informer les mises à jour futures de la liste, dans le but de prioritiser les EEE nouvelles et émergentes les plus menaçantes. Un workshop a été organisé avec pour but général d’évaluer et de valider une approche d’horizon scanning en vue de produire une liste ordonnée d’EEE susceptibles d’arriver, de s’établir, de se disperser et de présenter un impact sur la biodiversité et les services écosystémiques associés dans l’UE durant la prochaine décennie. L’approche d’horizon scanning avalisée comprenait deux phases distinctes: i) Une consultation préliminaire entre experts au sein de cinq groups thématiques pour produire des scores initiaux ii) L’établissement de consensus au travers des groups d’experts incluant une discussion approfondie sur les classements des espèces, combinée à une évaluation et une modération des scores entre groupes. Le résultat de l’horizon scanning consistait en une liste de 95 espèces, comprenant tous les types taxonomies (excepté des microorganismes) au sein des environnements marins, terrestres et d’eau douce, et considérées comme étant de priorité très élevée à élevée pour la réalisation d’analyses de risque
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Effect of hydraulic retention time and substrate availability in denitrifying bioelectrochemical systems

  • Pous Rodríguez, Narcís
  • Puig Broch, Sebastià
  • Balaguer i Condom, Maria Dolors
  • Colprim Galceran, Jesús
Denitrifying bioelectrochemical systems (BES) allow safe nitrate treatment in waters with low organic carbon content without chemical requirements and at a competitive cost. However, this technology should move towards scaling-up by improving removal rate capabilities. In this study, a novel tubular design was used to evaluate whether the hydraulic retention time and the influent nitrate concentration influence the nitrate removal rate of denitrifying BES. A nitrate consumption rate of up to 849 g N mNCC−3 d−1 was reached without accumulation of nitrites at a HRT of 28 minutes. Nitrate removal activity was evaluated under different nitrate influent concentrations and under different HRTs. Results suggested preeminence of HRT on modulating the denitrifying activity. Therefore, this study presents an innovative design for nitrate removal using denitrifying BES and it demonstrates that operation at low HRTs increases the nitrate removal rate. It suggests that an appropriate approximation of scaling-up denitrifying BES would be the implementation of compact reactors connected in series operated at low HRTs, This research was financially supported by the Spanish Government (CTQ2014-53718-R and CTM2015-71982-REDT) and the University of Girona (MPCUdG2016/137)
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Long-term assessment of the six-stacked scaled-up MFCs treating swine manure with different electrode materials

  • Vilajeliu Pons, Anna
  • Puig Broch, Sebastià
  • Salcedo Dávila, Inmaculada
  • Balaguer i Condom, Maria Dolors
  • Colprim Galceran, Jesús
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) technology is a bio-approach to remove organic matter and nitrogen from wastewater with concomitant production of renewable electricity. Nowadays, it exists a clear interest in moving MFCs towards application. This study aimed to demonstrate MFCs technology feasibility treating swine manure. A couple of 6-stacked MFCs presenting a total volume of 115 L were designed and operated to treat swine manure at 50 L·d-1 for more than 6 months. Two different electrodes were tested, one for each stacked MFC: Granular graphite (GG-MFC) and stainless steel mesh (SS-MFC). Organic matter was oxidised in the anode compartments, ammonium was oxidized to nitrate in an external aerated reactor, and nitrate was reduced to dinitrogen gas in the biocathodes. GG and SS-MFCs reached similar organic matter and nitrogen removal rates (1.9±0.3 kg COD m-3 d-1; 0.35±0.02 kg N m-3 d-1) with power densities between 2-4 Wm-3, being the central units the most electroactive. However, the GG-MFC performance declined overtime due to electrode crushing and the clogging of granular graphite which reduced its applicability in comparison with stainless steel. The application of stacked SS-MFC with mixed electric circuit is a feasible strategy to maintain or even improve treatment efficiencies and power densities when scaling-up MFCs, This research was financially supported by the 532 Company Abengoa Water within the TEcoAgua project (CIEN-20091028), the Spanish 533 Government (CTQ2014-53718-R) and the Catalan Government (2014 FI-B 00093)
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Rational Design of Cyclic Antimicrobial Peptides Based on BPC194 and BPC198

  • Díaz i Cirac, Anna
  • Torné, Maria
  • Badosa Romañó, Esther
  • Montesinos Seguí, Emilio
  • Salvador Sedano, Pedro
  • Feliu Soley, Lídia
  • Planas i Grabuleda, Marta
A strategy for the design of antimicrobial cyclic peptides derived from the lead compounds c(KKLKKFKKLQ) (BPC194) and c(KLKKKFKKLQ) (BPC198) is reported. First, the secondary β-structure of BPC194 and BPC198 was analyzed by carrying out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Then, based on the sequence pattern and the β-structure of BPC194 or BPC198, fifteen analogues were designed and synthesized on solid-phase. The best peptides (BPC490, BPC918, and BPC924) showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values <6.2 μM against Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, and an MIC value of 12.5 to 25 μM against Erwinia amylovora, being as active as BPC194 and BPC198. Interestingly, these three analogues followed the structural pattern defined from the MD simulations of the parent peptides. Thus, BPC490 maintained the parallel alignment of the hydrophilic pairs K1–K8, K2–K7, and K4–K5, whereas BPC918 and BPC924 included the two hydrophilic interactions K3–Q10 and K5–K8. In short, MD simulations have proved to be very useful for ascertaining the structural features of cyclic peptides that are crucial for their biological activity. Such approaches could be further employed for the development of new antibacterial cyclic peptides, This work was supported by the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) [grant numbers AGL2009-13255-C02-02/AGR, AGL2012-39880-C02-02 and AGL2015-69876-C2-2-R].
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