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Urgeix el canvi de model universitari

  • Canela Campos, Enric I.
Per tal que el sistema universitari català pugui parlar-se de tu a tu amb altres sistemes moderns és imprescindible que se separi de l'espanyol. No entro aquí en independència política, senzillament un sistema com el del Regne Unit, amb un sistema universitari per a cada nació. S'ha de disposar d'un finançament suficient i d'un model com ara el danès, un país petit amb bones universitats i amb un model de govern universitari que no està atrapat pel corporativisme. Sense voler ser popular, diré que sense el canvi del model de govern actual per un model més modern i europeu la universitat catalana no podrà competir realment amb els sistemes líders.
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¿Es el cáncer eficiente?

  • Esteva de Sagrera, Juan, 1948-
Eficiencia del cáncer desde el punto de vista de que la proliferación de células cancerosas supone la desaparición del sustrato bioológico que permite su desarrollo. La máxima eficiencia del cáncer supone la ineficiencia por la muerte de las células canceosas por destrucción del habitat biológico.
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Sentir el espacio: los procesos artísticos como medio de investigación educativa

  • Torres Carceller, Andrés
  • Castell Villanueva, Júlia
Es conocido por todos que el contexto influye sobre la práctica educativa y que el ambiente, el clima o el espacio son elementos que afectan a su desarrollo. Desde hace algunas décadas algunas experiencias educativas han puesto en valor estos elementos al tenerlos en cuenta, no solo como elementos facilitadores del aprendizaje, si no utilizándolos como el tema central para trabajar desde lo próximo y cotidiano, para acrecentar la experiencia educativa desde elementos cercanos y tangibles. Porque la educación no debe limitarse al raciocinio sino poder dar cabida también a lo sensorial.
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Unbiased estimation of autoregressive models for bounded sthochastic processes

  • Carrión i Silvestre, Josep Lluís
  • Gadea Rivas, María Dolores
  • Montanés, Antonio
The paper investigates the estimation bias of autoregressive models for bounded stochastic processes and the performance of the standard procedures in the literature that aim to correcting the estimation bias. It is shown that, in some cases, the bounded nature of the stochastic processes worsen the estimation bias effect, which suggests the design of bound-specific bias correction methods. The paper focuses on two popular autoregressive estimation bias correction procedures which are extended to cover bounded stochastic processes. Finite sample performance analysis of the new proposal is carried out using Monte Carlo simulations which reveal that accounting for the bounded nature of the stochastic processes leads to improvements in the estimation of autoregressive models. Finally, an illustration is given using the current account balance of some developed countries, whose shocks persistence measures are computed.
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Tracking economic growth by evolving expectations via genetic programming: A two-step approach

  • Clavería González, Óscar
  • Monte Moreno, Enric
  • Torra Porras, Salvador
The main objective of this study is to present a two-step approach to generate estimates of economic growth based on agents’ expectations from tendency surveys. First, we design a genetic programming experiment to derive mathematical functional forms that approximate the target variable by combining survey data on expectations about different economic variables. We use evolutionary algorithms to estimate a symbolic regression that links survey-based expectations to a quantitative variable used as a yardstick (economic growth). In a second step, this set of empirically-generated proxies of economic growth are linearly combined to track the evolution of GDP. To evaluate the forecasting performance of the generated estimates of GDP, we use them to assess the impact of the 2008 financial crisis on the accuracy of agents' expectations about the evolution of the economic activity in 28 countries of the OECD. While in most economies we find an improvement in the capacity of agents' to anticipate the evolution of GDP after the crisis, predictive accuracy worsens in relation to the period prior to the crisis. The most accurate GDP forecasts are obtained for Sweden, Austria and Finland.
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Incorporating creditors' seniority into contingent claim models: Applicarion to peripheral euro area countries

  • Gómez-Puig, Marta
  • Singh, Manish Kumar
  • Sosvilla Rivero, Simón, 1961-
This paper highlights the role of multilateral creditors (i.e., the ECB, IMF, ESM etc.) and their preferred creditor status in explaining the sovereign default risk of peripheral euro area (EA) countries. Incorporating lessons from sovereign debt crises in general, and from the Greek debt restructuring in particular, we define the priority structure of sovereigns' creditors that is most relevant for peripheral EA countries in severe crisis episodes. This new priority structure of creditors, together with the contingent claims methodology, is then used to derive a set of sovereign credit risk indicators. In particular, the sovereign distance-to-default indicator, proposed in this paper (which includes both accounting metrics and market-based measures) aims to isolate sovereign credit risk by using information from the public sector balance sheets to build it up. Analyzing and comparing it with traditional market-based measures of sovereign risk suggests that the measurement and predictive ability of credit risk measures can be vastly improved if we account for the changing composition of sovereigns' balance sheet risk based on creditors' seniority.
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The robustness of the sovereign-bank interconnection: Evidence from contingent claims analysis

  • Gómez-Puig, Marta
  • Singh, Manish Kumar
  • Sosvilla Rivero, Simón, 1961-
We analyze the interconnection between the sovereign and banking sector risk in the peripheral euro area countries over the 2004Q4-2013Q2 period. Applying the contingent claims methodology, we build indicators of sovereign and banking sector risk (incorporating both market and balance sheet based information) and assess their interconnection in comparison with existing market-based indicators of banking and sovereign distress. We use three different statistical measures of interconnection based on principal components analysis, Granger causality network and Diebold-Yilmaz's connectedness index, and apply them to quarterly credit risk data. The empirical results shows strong connectedness and comovement between country-level banking and sovereign risk indicators. We find evidence of bi-directional bank-sovereign linkage for Spain and Italy during the European sovereign debt crisis period. For the late crisis period, we find weak interconnection and more divergence across the various risk indicators. Our findings also suggest that secondary and derivatives market indices are more driven by common underlying factors than are contingent claim based risk measures.
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TGFβ controls ovarian cancer cell proliferation

  • Alsina Sanchís, Elisenda
  • Figueras i Amat, Agnès
  • Lahiguera, Álvaro
  • Gil-Martín, Marta
  • Pardo, Beatriz
  • Piulats, Josep M.
  • Martí, Lola
  • Ponce i Sebastià, Jordi
  • Matias-Guiu, Xavier
  • Vidal-Bel, August
  • Villanueva Garatachea, Alberto
  • Viñals Canals, Francesc
There have been no major improvements in the overall survival of ovarian cancer patients in recent decades. Even though more accurate surgery and more effective treatments are available, the mortality rate remains high. Given the differences in origin and the heterogeneity of these tumors, research to elucidate the signaling pathways involved is required. The Transforming Growth Factor (TGFβ) family controls different cellular responses in development and cell homeostasis. Disruption of TGFβ signaling has been implicated in many cancers, including ovarian cancer. This article considers the involvement of TGFβ in ovarian cancer progression, and reviews the various mechanisms that enable the TGFβ signaling pathway to control ovarian cancer cell proliferation. These mechanistic explanations support the therapeutic use of TGFβ inhibitors in ovarian cancer, which are currently in the early phases of development.
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