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Paisaje vegetal y clima durante el Pleistoceno Medio en la cuenca media (Valdocarros) y alta (Redueña) del río Jarama (Madrid), a través del análisis polínico

  • Ruiz Zapata, María Blanca
  • Gil García, M. José
  • Rubio Jara, Sara
  • Pérez-González, Alfredo
Se presentan los datos palinológicos, procedentes de dos depósitos de origen fluvio-lacustre, localizados en la cuenca alta (Redueña) y media (Valdecarros), del valle del río Jarama (Madrid). En ambas secuencias, la abundancia de industria lítica y de restos óseos de macro y micromamíferos, evidencian que se trata de yacimientos relacionados con campamentos de sociedades cazadoras. Dichos campamentos, funcionales durante el Pleistoceno Medio (500 a 130 ka), bajo un clima generalizado de carácter cálido, eran estacionales, asociados a las zonas de ribera de los ríos, por tratarse de áreas con excelentes recursos. Bajo esta perspectiva el objetivo principal, es recrear el contexto paleoambiental, en el que se desarrollaron los citados campamentos, y establecer las similitudes y diferencias que la posición geográfica, imprime sobre la vegetación.
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SHARDS: constraints on the dust attenuation law of star-forming galaxies at z∼2

  • Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo
  • Alcalde Pampliega, Belén
  • Domínguez Sánchez, Helena
  • Eliche Moral, María del Carmen
  • Espino Briones, Néstor
  • Hernán Caballero, Antonio
We make use of the Survey of High-z Absorption Red and Dead Sources, an ultradeep (<26.5AB) galaxy survey that provides optical photospectra at resolution R similar to 50, via medium-band filters (FWHM similar to 150 angstrom). This data set is combined with ancillary optical and NIR fluxes to constrain the dust attenuation law in the rest-frame NUV region of star-forming galaxies within the redshift window 1.5 < z < 3. We focus on the NUV bump strength (B) and the total-to-selective extinction ratio (R-V), targeting a sample of 1753 galaxies. By comparing the data with a set of population synthesis models coupled to a parametric dust attenuation law, we constrain R-V and B, as well as the colour excess, E(B - V). We find a correlation between R-V and B, which can be interpreted either as a result of the grain size distribution, or a variation of the dust geometry among galaxies. According to the former, small dust grains are associated with a stronger NUV bump. The latter would lead to a range of clumpiness in the distribution of dust within the interstellar medium of star-forming galaxies. The observed wide range of NUV bump strengths can lead to a systematic in the interpretation of the UV slope beta typically used to characterize the dust content. In this study, we quantify these variations, concluding that the effects are Delta beta similar to 0.4.
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Nonequilibrium and nonperturbative dynamics of ultrastrong coupling in open lines

  • Peropadre, B.
  • Zueco, D.
  • Porras Torres, Diego
  • Garcı´a-Ripoll, J. J.
The time and space resolved dynamics of a qubit with an Ohmic coupling to propagating 1D photons is studied, from weak coupling to the ultrastrong coupling regime. A nonperturbative study based on matrix product states shows the following results, (i) The ground state of the combined systems contains excitations of both the qubit and the surrounding bosonic field. (ii) An initially excited qubit equilibrates through spontaneous emission to a state, which under certain conditions is locally close to that ground state, both in the qubit and the field. (iii) The resonances of the combined qubit-photon system match those of the spontaneous emission process and also the predictions of the adiabatic renormalization [A. J. Leggett et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 1 (1987)]. Finally, nonperturbative ab initio calculations show that this physics can be studied using a flux qubit galvanically coupled to a superconducting transmission line.
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Evaluación de la técnica de sonificación para el diagnóstico microbiológico de infecciones asociadas al uso de implantes

  • Prieto Borja, Laura
La sonicación para el diagnóstico de infecciones asociadas al uso de implantes es una técnica útil, si bien en infección del sitio quirúrgico tras implantación de tubo de drenaje abdominal no se dispone en la actualidad de diagnóstico microbiológico basado en el procesamiento del drenaje. Hipótesis: • La recuperación de bacterias viables mediante sonicación es tiempo-dependiente. • La sonicación de las prótesis articulares aumenta la sensibilidad manteniendo la especificidad para el diagnóstico de IP. • La sonicación de espaciadores proporciona información útil sobre el pronóstico y diagnóstico de la infección. • La sonicación de tubos de drenaje representa un método útil de diagnóstico y un marcador del pronóstico de la infección del sitio quirúrgico. Objetivos: • Determinar in vitro el tiempo óptimo de exposición a ultrasonidos para la recuperación del mayor número posible de bacterias viables. • Evaluar la eficacia de una PCR múltiple y del cultivo a partir del sonicado de la prótesis para el diagnóstico de IP. • Analizar la utilidad del cultivo de espaciadores sonicados para el diagnóstico y pronóstico de esta infección. • Evaluar la utilidad del cultivo de tubos de drenaje abdominales sonicados para el diagnóstico y pronóstico de infección del sitio quirúrgico...
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Proyecto de gestión de un servicio de cirugía general en un hospital de nueva creación. Análisis del funcionamiento

  • Rodríguez Prieto, Ignacio
Un servicio clínico es un conjunto funcional definido por la actividad asistencial que realiza dentro de los conocimientos y técnicas de una especialidad concreta. Los responsables de los Servicios hospitalarios reciben la denominación de Jefes de Servicio. La especialidad de Cirugía General y del Aparato Digestivo (CGD) abarca varios ámbitos de aplicación, destacando toda la patología quirúrgica de los siguientes aparatos, órganos y sistemas: digestivo, endocrino, mama, abdomen, piel y partes blandas, cabeza y cuello. Un Servicio hospitalario de CGD cumple con todas aquellas funciones asistenciales, organizativas, docentes, investigadoras y de gestión relacionadas con dicha especialidad. La gestión clínica como elemento teórico se sustenta en el análisis de la información y busca especialmente la eficiencia en las actuaciones sanitarias. La puesta en práctica de las teorías de la gestión no siempre es fácil; dichas teorías no sirven de igual manera para todos los hospitales. Las peculiaridades de los dirigentes, de los profesionales y de los pacientes hacen que se tengan que adaptar ciertos parámetros en los que se basa la gestión clínica. Los criterios en que se basa la gestión de un servicio médico son los siguientes: proyecto bien estructurado y realizable, perfil del jefe de unidad, liderazgo, conocimientos en gestión, perfil de los facultativos, conocimientos de la especialidad y habilidades técnicas, motivación y satisfacción de los profesionales, etc. En Sanidad a los profesionales les corresponde ser efectivos y a los directivos ser eficientes, ya que se introduce el concepto del coste. Ese nuevo cambio en el paradigma obliga a conocer y colaborar en la gestión e intentar ser eficientes. En la actualidad al Jefe de Unidad se le exigen conocimientos de la especialidad y de gestión. El jefe debe asumir la parte correspondiente de la responsabilidad y de los riesgos de la gestión, pero respaldado por la dirección. Destaca la importancia del equipo sanitario y no sanitario con el que se trabaja. Es vital la implicación en los objetivos comunes y el grado de satisfacción es importante en el trabajo diario. En el año 2007 la Presidencia de la Comunidad de Madrid decidió que se pusieran en marcha 6 nuevos hospitales con el fin de facilitar la asistencia a los pacientes. Su cartera de servicios no sería completa, para lo cual necesitarían de hospitales de referencia. Estos hospitales nacieron como Empresas Públicas y, además, con una gestión mixta, que consistía en que la parte sanitaria era responsabilidad de la Consejería de Sanidad y la no sanitaria era gestionada por los equipos de las empresas constructoras del centro. La creación de una Unidad de CGD dentro de un nuevo proyecto de asistencia sanitaria especializada constituye una situación que puede presentar un cierto grado de complejidad, ya que debe integrar una gran cantidad de factores...
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En torno al pensamiento italiano de la diferencia sexual. El orden simbólico de la madre

  • Diego Lagar, Belen
El presente trabajo hará un recorrido por el pensamiento de la diferencia sexual italiano. Para ello, primero se explicarán los orígenes del conocido como feminismo de la diferencia. A continuación, se hablará de los textos precursores de este movimiento en Italia para centrarse luego en el propio movimiento y en su máxima representante, Luisa Muraro. De esta se analizará su obra cumbre, El orden simbólico de la madre (1994). Tras estudiar el movimiento se plantearán las diversas críticas que ha recibido por parte del llamado feminismo de la igualdad a través de tres autoras: Lia Cigarini, Luisa Posada y Celia Amorós. El trabajo finalizará con las conclusiones obtenidas por la autora tras la lectura crítica de los textos más importantes de este pensamiento italiano de la diferencia sexual.
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Dentine morphology of Atapuerca‐Sima de los Huesos lower molars: Evolutionary implications through three‐dimensional geometric morphometric analysis

  • Hanegraef, Hester
  • Martinón-Torres, María
  • Martínez de Pinillos, Marina
  • Martín-Francés, Laura
  • Vialet, Amélie
  • Arsuaga, Juan Luis
  • Bermúdez de Castro, José María
Objectives This study aims to explore the affinities of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) population in relation to Homo neanderthalensis, Arago, and early and contemporary Homo sapiens. By characterizing SH intra‐population variation, we test current models to explain the Neanderthal origins. Materials and Methods Three‐dimensional reconstructions of dentine surfaces of lower first and second molars were produced by micro‐computed tomography. Landmarks and sliding semilandmarks were subjected to generalized Procrustes analysis and principal components analysis. Results SH is often similar in shape to Neanderthals, and both groups are generally discernible from Homo sapiens. For example, the crown height of SH and Neanderthals is lower than for modern humans. Differences in the presence of a mid‐trigonid crest are also observed, with contemporary Homo sapiens usually lacking this feature. Although SH and Neanderthals show strong affinities, they can be discriminated based on certain traits. SH individuals are characterized by a lower intra‐population variability, and show a derived dental reduction in lower second molars compared to Neanderthals. SH also differs in morphological features from specimens that are often classified as Homo heidelbergensis, such as a lower crown height and less pronounced mid‐trigonid crest in the Arago fossils. Discussion Our results are compatible with the idea that multiple evolutionary lineages or populations coexisted in Europe during the Middle Pleistocene, with the SH paradigm phylogenetically closer to Homo neanderthalensis. Further research could support the possibility of SH as a separate taxon. Alternatively, SH could be a subspecies of Neanderthals, with the variability of this clade being remarkably higher than previously thought.
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Comparison of RS/GIS analysis with classic mapping approaches for siting low-yield boreholes for hand pumps in crystalline terrains. An application to rural communities of the Caimbambo province, Angola

  • Martín Loeches, Miguel Martín
  • Reyes López, Jaime
  • Ramírez Hernández, Jorge
  • Temiño Vela, Javier
  • Martínez Santos, Pedro
In poverty-stricken regions of Sub-Saharan Africa, groundwater for supply is often obtained by means of hand pumps, which means that low-yield boreholes are acceptable. However, boreholes are often sited without sufficient hydrogeological information due to budget constraints, which leads to high failure rates. Cost-effective techniques for borehole siting need to be developed in order to maximize the success rate. In regions underlain by granite, weathered formations are usually targeted for drilling, as these are generally presented as a better cost-benefit ratio than the fractured basement. Within this context, this research focuses on a granite region of Angola. A comparison of two mapping techniques for borehole siting-groundwater prospect is presented. A classic hydrogeomorphological map was developed first based on aerial photographs, field mapping and a geophysical survey. This map represents a considerable time investment and was developed by qualified technicians. The second map (RS/GIS) is considerably simpler and more cost-effective. It was developed by the integration in a GIS platform of six maps of equal importance-slope, drainage density, vegetation vigor, presence of clay in the soil, lineaments and rock outcrops-prepared from Landsat 8 imagery and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Similar results were obtained in both cases. By means of a supervised classification of Landsat images, RS/GIS analysis allows for the identification of granitic outcrops, house clusters and sandy alluvial valleys. This in turn allows for the delineation of low-interest or contamination-prone areas, thus contributing additional qualitative information. The position of a well that is going to be powered by a handpump is chosen also upon social and local matters as the distance to the stakeholders, information that are not difficult to integrate in the GIS. Although the second map needs some field inputs (i.e. surveys to determine the thickness of the weathered pack), results show that RS/GIS analyses such as this one provide a valuable and cost-effective alternative for siting low-yield boreholes in remote regions.
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Functional meaning of asymmetrical commissures in Coniacian (Upper Cretaceous) rhynchonellide brachiopods from Northern Spain

  • Berrocal Casero, Melani
  • Barroso Barcenilla, Fernando
  • García Joral, Fernando
  • Segura, Manuel
The functional meaning of asymmetry in brachiopods has been a matter of discussion for over a century. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain why these morphologies appear, the predominant idea in the literature being that it might be a non-adaptive characteristic. Here we present an in-depth study of the asymmetry present in the commissure of the rhynchonellide brachiopod Cyclothyris aff. globata from three Upper Cretaceous sections of northern Spain, with the aim to establish whether it is correlated to some kind of palaeoenvironmental factor. A new hypothesis interpreting this asymmetry as a functional feature is proposed after the results obtained from the palaeoecological and taphonomical study of the specimens. A noteworthy aspect of the asymmetry displayed by this species is that juvenile forms are fully symmetric while adult specimens are asymmetrical, but internal structures remain symmetric throughout ontogeny. In adult forms, asymmetry is expressed as the division of the shell into two vertically displaced lobes, one of which is invariably shorter than the other. Characteristically, the beak is twisted towards the shorter lobe, and in some individuals the larger lobe is seen to be completely flattened due to burial and compaction. When the occurrence of these asymmetrical forms was analyzed, it became evident that they appeared wherever the lithology was mainly marly, thus seeming to be related to the predominance of fine detrital components in the sediments (soft bottom). These features enable us to suggest that C. aff. globata lived partially buried, with one side of the shell placed inside the soft sediment. Asymmetry developed gradually as the shell grew, being evident once it attained a certain size. This hypothesis fits well with the morphological and structural features displayed by this species and, particularly with its relationship with the consistency of the substrate in which these asymmetric brachiopods lived, corresponding to an adaptation of the growing to soft and unstable bottom conditions. Although this paper does not aim to conduct a systematic review of the species, the geometric morphometric analysis performed in order to describe the asymmetry provided results that give a basis for the discussion of the taxonomic relationships between certain Upper Cretaceous asymmetric Cyclothyris species.
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Dynamic variational study of chaos: spin glasses in three dimensions

  • Billoire, A.
  • Fernández Pérez, Luis Antonio
  • Maiorano, A.
  • Martín Mayor, Víctor
  • Moreno Gordo, J.
  • Parisi, G.
  • Ricci-Tersenghi, F.
  • Ruiz Lorenzo, J. J.
We have introduced a variational method to improve the computation of integrated correlation times in the Parallel Tempering Dynamics, obtaining a better estimate (a lower bound, at least) of the exponential correlation time. Using this determination of the correlation times, we revisited the problem of the characterization of the chaos in temperature in finite dimensional spin glasses spin by means of the study of correlations between different chaos indicators computed in the static and the correlation times of the Parallel Tempering dynamics. The sample-distribution of the characteristic time for the Parallel Tempering dynamics turns out to be fat-tailed and it obeys finite-size scaling.
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