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Chitosán más clorhexidina (Bexident®Post) en el control del dolor y la inflamación posoperatoria en implantología oral: estudio piloto

  • López López, José, 1958-
  • Jané Pallí, Enric
  • Princep Arisó, C.
  • Ayuso Montero, Raúl
  • Estrugo-Devesa, Albert
  • Jané Salas, Enric
Objetivos: Evaluación de la eficacia del chitosán más la clorhexidina en el control del dolor y la inflamación posoperatoria en cirugía implantológica oral. Material y métodos: Es un estudio clínico piloto prospectivo en pacientes a los que se les colocan implantes. A todos los pacientes se les pauta después de la cirugía Bexident®Post en gel, tres veces al día durante siete días. Se valora la inflamación, la apertura bucal, el nivel de dolor, el grado de cicatrización y la opinión sobre el producto. Resultados: Se han colocado 138 implantes en 54 pacientes. El 64% eran varones y la media de tiempo quirúrgico fue de 76 minutos. La inflamación y apertura bucal pre y postoperatoria no es significativa con una p= 0,000. Se han consumido 11 unidades analgésicas de media en los 7 días del posoperatorio. El EVA ha sido de 3,0 (DS= 2,0) a las 6 horas, 2,0 (DS= 2,0) a las 24 horas, 2,02 (DS= 1,0) el segundo día, 1,0 (DS= 1,0) el tercer y cuarto día y 0,0 el quinto, sexto y séptimo día. El grado de cicatrización es bueno en el 88,9% (48 pacientes); regular, en el 7,4% (4 pacientes) y malo, en el 3,7% (2 pacientes). 45 pacientes (83,3%) responden positivamente a todas las preguntas referentes al producto. Conclusiones: El producto se muestra fácil de usar, el sabor es adecuado y en este estudio la inflamación, el dolor y el consumo de medicamentos han sido mínimos

Estudio comparativo de la microfiltración marginal entre los adhesivos dentinarios prisma y XR. Bond

  • Navarro Majó, José Luis
  • Basilio Monné, Juan
  • Roig Cayón, Miguel
  • Jané Noblom, Luis
  • Sentís Vilalta, Juan
Se estudia si se presenta filtración marginal al obturar con composite Prisma APH cavidades tipo Il y V en dientes extraídos, utilizando como adhesivo dentinario Prisma Universal bond 2 en la mitad de los casos y en la otra mitad XRbond. Con ambos adhesivos se observan filtraciones marginales, por lo que se deduce que no consiguen contrarrestar la fuerza de contracción de polimerización del composite en la cavidad.

Air quality forecasts at kilometer scale grid over Spanish complex terrains

  • Pay Pérez, María Teresa
  • Martínez, F.
  • Guevara, M.
  • Baldasano Recio, José M. (José María)
The Caliope Air Quality Forecast System (CALIOPE-AQFS) represents the current state of the art in air quality forecasting systems of high-resolution running on high-performance computing platforms. It provides a 48 h forecast of NO2, O3, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, CO, and C6H6 at a 4 km horizontal resolution over all of Spain, and at a 1 km horizontal resolution over the most populated areas in Spain with complex terrains (the Barcelona (BCN), Madrid (MAD) and Andalusia (AND) domains). Increased horizontal resolution from 4 to 1 km over the aforementioned domains leads to finer textures and more realistic concentration maps, which is justified by the increase in NO2/O3 spatial correlation coefficients from 0.79/0.69 (4 km) to 0.81/0.73 (1 km). High-resolution emissions using the bottom-up HERMESv2.0 model are essential for improving model performance when increasing resolution on an urban scale, but it is still insufficient. Decreasing grid spacing does not reveal the expected improvement in hourly statistics, i.e., decreasing NO2 bias by only ~ 2 μg m−3 and increasing O3 bias by ~ 1 μg m−3. The grid effect is less pronounced for PM10, because part of its mass consists of secondary aerosols, which are less affected than the locally emitted primary components by a decreasing grid size. The resolution increase has the highest impact over Barcelona, where air flow is controlled mainly by mesoscale phenomena and a lower planetary boundary layer (PBL). Despite the merits and potential uses of the 1-km simulation, the limitations of current model formulations do not allow confirmation of their expected superiority close to highly urbanized areas and large emissions sources. Future work should combine high grid resolutions with techniques that decrease subgrid variability (e.g., stochastic field methods), and also include models that consider urban morphology and thermal parameters.

A Public Health Paradox: The Women Most Vulnerable to Malaria Are the Least Protected

  • González, Raquel
  • Sevene, Esperança Júlia Pires
  • Jagoe, George
  • Slutsker, Laurence
  • Menéndez, Clara
Raquel Gonzalez and colleagues highlight an urgent need to evaluate antimalarials that can be safely administered to HIV-infected pregnant women on antiretroviral treatment and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis.

Rhizodeposition of organic carbon by plants with contrasting traits for resource acquisition: responses to different fertility regimes

  • Baptist, Florence
  • Aranjuelo Michelena, Iker
  • Legay, Nicolás
  • López-Sangil, Luis
  • Molero, Gemma
  • Rovira, Pere
  • Nogués Mestres, Salvador
Background and aims Rhizodeposition plays an important role in mediating soil nutrient availability in ecosystems. However, owing to methodological difficulties (i.e., narrow zone of soil around roots, rapid assimilation by soil microbes) fertility-induced changes in rhizodeposition remain mostly unknown. Methods We developed a novel long-term continuous 13C labelling method to address the effects of two levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization on rhizodeposited carbon (C) by species with different nutrient acquisition strategies. Results Fertility-induced changes in rhizodeposition were modulated by root responses to N availability rather than by changes in soil microbial biomass. Differences among species were mostly related to plant biomass: species with higher total leaf and root biomass also had higher total rhizodeposited C, whereas species with lower root biomass had higher specific rhizodeposited C (per gram root mass). Experimental controls demonstrated that most of the biases commonly associated with this type of experiment (i.e., long-term steady-state labelling) were avoided using our methodological approach. Conclusions These results suggest that the amount of rhizodeposited C from plants grown under different levels of N were driven mainly by plant biomass and root morphology rather than microbial biomass. They also underline the importance of plant characteristics (i.e., biomass allocation) as opposed to traits associated with plant resource acquisition strategies in predicting total C rhizodeposition.

Géométrie de l'aquifère du Haouz oriental et Tassaout amont, Maroc occidental: approche géophysique et hydrogéologique

  • Rochdane, Samia
  • El Mandour, Abdennabi
  • Jaffal, Mohammed
  • Himi, Mahjoub
  • Casas i Ponsatí, Albert
  • Amrhar, Mostafa
  • Karroum, Morad
The aim of the present study is to improve the knowledge of the geometry and hydrogeology of the eastern Haouz aquifer and part of the Upper Tassaout aquifer, using the analysis and interpretation of boreholes, gravimetric analysis, seismic reflection and piezometric data. The examination of the gravity data shows that the Bouguer anomaly map is affected by a regional gradient increasing from the southeast to northwest. This gradient was determined and subtracted from the original data, to provide a residual gravity map which shows clearly highlighted anomalies. These anomalies generally reflect outcrop areas of the basement and the variation in thickness of the sedimentary cover across the study area. The seismic reflection profile confirms the gravity results, and shows that the region is formed by a horst which corresponds to the exposed bedrock of Jebilets in the north of Haouz basin, and a subsidence area where coverage is widespread in the south of the plain of Haouz. In this area, the large thickness of the cover allows the accumulation of water and provides the recharge of the groundwater reservoir. The rise of the basement in the north of the Haouz basin imposes a dividing line of two groundwater flow direction.

The effect on lower spine muscle activation of walking on a narrow beam in virtual reality

  • Antley, Angus
  • Slater, Mel
To what extent do people behave in immersive virtual environments as they would in similar situations in a physical environment? There are many ways to address this question, ranging from questionnaires, behavioral studies, and the use of physiological measures. Here, we compare the onsets of muscle activity using surface electromyography (EMG) while participants were walking under three different conditions: on a normal floor surface, on a narrow ribbon along the floor, and on a narrow platform raised off the floor. The same situation was rendered in an immersive virtual environment (IVE) Cave-like system, and 12 participants did the three types of walking in a counter-balanced within-groups design. The mean number of EMG activity onsets per unit time followed the same pattern in the virtual environment as in the physical environment-significantly higher for walking on the platform compared to walking on the floor. Even though participants knew that they were in fact really walking at floor level in the virtual environment condition, the visual illusion of walking on a raised platform was sufficient to influence their behavior in a measurable way. This opens up the door for this technique to be used in gait and posture related scenarios including rehabilitation.

Paranoia and post-traumatic stress disorder in the months after a physical assault: a longitudinal study examining shared and differential predictors.

  • Freeman, D.
  • Thompson, C.
  • Vorontsova, N.
  • Dunn, G.
  • Carter, L.-A.
  • Garety, P.
  • Kuipers, E.
  • Slater, Mel
  • Antley, Angus
  • Glucksman, E.
  • Ehlers, A.
Background: Being physically assaulted is known to increase the risk of the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms but it may also skew judgements about the intentions of other people. The objectives of the study were to assess paranoia and PTSD after an assault and to test whether theory-derived cognitive factors predicted the persistence of these problems. Method: At 4 weeks after hospital attendance due to an assault, 106 people were assessed on multiple symptom measures (including virtual reality) and cognitive factors from models of paranoia and PTSD. The symptom measures were repeated 3 and 6 months later. Results: Factor analysis indicated that paranoia and PTSD were distinct experiences, though positively correlated. At 4 weeks, 33% of participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD, falling to 16% at follow-up. Of the group at the first assessment, 80% reported that since the assault they were excessively fearful of other people, which over time fell to 66%. Almost all the cognitive factors (including information-processing style during the trauma, mental defeat, qualities of unwanted memories, self-blame, negative thoughts about self, worry, safety behaviours, anomalous internal experiences and cognitive inflexibility) predicted later paranoia and PTSD, but there was little evidence of differential prediction. Conclusions: Paranoia after an assault may be common and distinguishable from PTSD but predicted by a strikingly similar range of factors.

El precariat davant la crisi: reptes i oportunitats

  • Arenas Conejo, Míriam
La crisi econòmica, política i social desplegada arran del col·lapse financer de 2008 ha aguditzat els processos de precarització que venien produint-se a Europa a les darreres dècades. Aquesta expansió de la precarietat ha impulsat la popularitat del concepte de precariat que, inicialment utilitzat en les anàlisis de les transformacions del mercat de treball, s'ha anat convertint en un marc de referència des del qual fer convergir les lluites polítiques de diversos col·lectius. Així, el text proposa una anàlisi de la situació de les persones amb feines precàries en relació amb la d'altres grups socials: les persones que no viuen directament del seu treball (perquè reben una prestació social) o aquelles que es dediquen a realitzar treballs no remunerats (com les tasques domèstiques i de la cura). L'objectiu és reflexionar sobre els reptes i oportunitats del precariat com a potencial subjecte polític orientat al canvi social des de l'heterogeneïtat d'aquestes experiències de la precarietat.

Probability and visual aids for assessing intervention effectiveness in single-case designs: A field test

  • Manolov, Rumen
  • Jamieson, Matthew
  • Evans, Jonathan J.
  • Sierra, Vicenta
Single-case data analysis still relies heavily on visual inspection and, at the same time, it is not clear to what extent the results of different quantitative procedures converge in identifying an intervention effect and its magnitude when applied to the same data; this is the type of evidence provided here for two procedures. One of the procedures, included due to the importance of providing objective criteria to visual analysts, is a visual aid fitting and projecting split-middle trend while taking into account data variability. The other procedure converts several different metrics into probabilities making their results comparable. In the present study we study to what extend these two procedures coincide in the magnitude of intervention effect taking place in a set of studies stemming from a recent meta-analysis. The procedures concur to a greater extent with the values of the indices computed and with each other and, to a lesser extent, with our own visual analysis. For the distinctions smaller and larger effects the probability-based approach seems somewhat better suited. Moreover, the results of the field test suggest that the latter is a reasonably good mechanism for translating different metrics into similar labels. User friendly R code is provided for promoting the use of the visual aid, together with a quantification based on nonoverlap and the label provided by the probability approach.

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