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Reseña

  • Vargas-Urpi, Mireia
Obra ressenyada: Grupo CRITT. La práctica de la mediación interlingüística e intercultural en el ámbito sanitario. Granada: Comares, 2014. 319 p. ISBN 9788490451649
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Reseña

  • Vargas-Urpi, Mireia
Obra ressenyada: Mariana OROZCO JUTORÁN. Metodología de la traducción directa del inglés al español. Materiales didácticos para traducción general y especializada. 2a ed. Granada: Comares, 2012. 293 p.
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Protection of Spanish Ibex (Capra pyrenaica) against Bluetongue Virus Serotypes 1 and 8 in a Subclinical Experimental Infection

  • Lorca Oró, Cristina
  • Pujols, Joan
  • García-Bocanegra, Ignacio
  • Mentaberre, Gregorio
  • Granados, José Enrique
  • Solanes Foz, David
  • Fandos, Paulino
  • Galindo Cardiel, Iván
  • Domingo, Mariano
  • Lavín González, Santiago
  • López Olvera, Jorge R.
Many wild ruminants such as Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica) are susceptible to Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection, which causes disease mainly in domestic sheep and cattle. Outbreaks involving either BTV serotypes 1 (BTV-1) and 8 (BTV-8) are currently challenging Europe. Inclusion of wildlife vaccination among BTV control measures should be considered in certain species. In the present study, four out of fifteen seronegative Spanish ibexes were immunized with a single dose of inactivated vaccine against BTV-1, four against BTV-8 and seven ibexes were non vaccinated controls. Seven ibexes (four vaccinated and three controls) were inoculated with each BTV serotype. Antibody and IFN-gamma responses were evaluated until 28 days after inoculation (dpi). The vaccinated ibexes showed significant (P,0.05) neutralizing antibody levels after vaccination compared to non vaccinated ibexes. The non vaccinated ibexes remained seronegative until challenge and showed neutralizing antibodies from 7 dpi. BTV RNA was detected in the blood of non vaccinated ibexes from 2 to the end of the study (28 dpi) and in target tissue samples obtained at necropsy (8 and 28 dpi). BTV-1 was successfully isolated on cell culture from blood and target tissues of non vaccinated ibexes. Clinical signs were unapparent and no gross lesions were found at necropsy. Our results show for the first time that Spanish ibex is susceptible and asymptomatic to BTV infection and also that a single dose of vaccine prevents viraemia against BTV-1 and BTV-8 replication.
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Effect of Cattle on Salmonella Carriage, Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance in Free-Ranging Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Northeastern Spain

  • Navarro-Gonzalez, N.
  • Mentaberre, Gregorio
  • Porrero, María Concepción
  • Serrano Ferron, Emmanuel
  • Mateos, Ana
  • López-Martín, J.M.
  • Lavín González, Santiago
  • Domínguez Rodríguez, Lucas
Salmonella is distributed worldwide and is a pathogen of economic and public health importance. As a multi-host pathogen with a long environmental persistence, it is a suitable model for the study of wildlife-livestock interactions. In this work, we aim to explore the spill-over of Salmonella between free-ranging wild boar and livestock in a protected natural area in NE Spain and the presence of antimicrobial resistance. Salmonella prevalence, serotypes and diversity were compared between wild boars, sympatric cattle and wild boars from cattle-free areas. The effect of age, sex, cattle presence and cattle herd size on Salmonella probability of infection in wild boars was explored by means of Generalized Linear Models and a model selection based on the Akaike's Information Criterion. Prevalence was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle (35.67%, CI 95% 28.19-43.70) than in wild boar from cattle-free areas (17.54%, CI 95% 8.74-29.91). Probability of a wild boar being a Salmonella carrier increased with cattle herd size but decreased with the host age. Serotypes Meleagridis, Anatum and Othmarschen were isolated concurrently from cattle and sympatric wild boars. Apart from serotypes shared with cattle, wild boars appear to have their own serotypes, which are also found in wild boars from cattle-free areas (Enteritidis, Mikawasima, 4:b:- and 35:r:z35). Serotype richness (diversity) was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle, but evenness was not altered by the introduction of serotypes from cattle. The finding of a S. Mbandaka strain resistant to sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and chloramphenicol and a S. Enteritidis strain resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in wild boars is cause for public health concern.
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Las políticas monetarias de la FED y el BCE en la crisis financiera y la Gran Recesión

  • Lucas Millán, Laura
  • Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Facultat d'Economia i Empresa
El objeto del presente trabajo es estudiar y analizar las políticas monetarias implementadas por los dos Bancos Centrales más importantes del mundo, la Reserva Federal de Estados Unidos y el Banco Central Europeo, desde el inicio de la Gran Recesión en 2008 hasta la actualidad. El trabajo se divide en tres grandes apartados. En el primero de ellos, se resume con brevedad el papel de los Bancos Centrales y se presentan los instrumentos de la política monetaria. En segundo lugar, se analizan los efectos de la política monetaria empleando los modelos IS-LM y oferta y demanda agregada. Asimismo, se profundiza en el papel que han jugado la Reserva Federal y el Banco Central Europeo para afrontar la Gran Recesión, exponiendo las diferentes medidas adoptadas y la secuencia temporal seguida al aplicarlas, haciendo especial énfasis en las medidas de política monetaria no convencionales que se instrumentaron para complementar las políticas tradicionales. Finalmente, se examina la evolución del PIB, la tasa de paro y la tasa de inflación para valorar la eficacia de las políticas implementadas.
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Citation patterns in Translation Studies : a format-dependent bibliometric analysis

  • Rovira-Esteva, Sara
  • Franco Aixelá, Javier
  • Olalla-Soler, Christian
Citation distributions vary across the board among academic disciplines, which is the reason why field-oriented normalisation is necessary to compensate for this. In this vein, the aim of this study is three-fold. Firstly, to find out which document type is cited the most in translation studies (TS). Secondly, to determine the time distribution for citations and aging patterns in TS scientific literature. Thirdly, to define a discipline-weighted citation window or cited half-life, in order to establish the optimal citation window to be used in TS. Data enabling the present research will be retrieved from BITRA, which includes over 70,000 items covering the diversity of document types and languages used in TS research for all times and the citing information of over 10% of its entries. This database will thus allow us to carry out a study on citation and aging patterns in TS academic literature covering the 1960-2015 period. Both, global results, as well as a more detailed analysis focusing on different document types, will be provided. This bibliometric study aims to offer a discipline-focused approach in order to develop specific and realistic impact criteria for our discipline, while taking into account its actual research and communication practices
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Production and printing of graphene oxide foam ink for electrocatalytic applications

  • Baptista Pires, Luis Miguel
  • De la Escosura Muñiz, Alfredo
  • Balsells, Marc
  • Zuaznabar-Gardona, J.C.
  • Merkoçi, Arben
We acknowledge support from MINECO, Spain, for MAT2017-87202-P, the Severo Ochoa program (Grant No. SEV-2013-0295) and Graphene Flagship Core Project 2 (Ref: 785219). This work is also funded by the CERCA Programme/Generalitat de Catalunya., A graphene-based ink printed as a foam-like structure with open pores is reported. The production of the ink is easier and faster than using existing methods and the obtained product is stable in water suspension. Electrocatalytic applications of 3D structured electrodes printed onto plastic substrates were explored.
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A comparative study of in-flow and micro-patterning biofunctionalization protocols for nanophotonic silicon-based biosensors

  • González-Guerrero, Ana Belén
  • Álvarez, Mar
  • García Castaño, Andrés
  • Domínguez Horna, Carlos
  • Lechuga, Laura M.
Authors acknowledge financial support from M. Botín foundation. The authors also would like to acknowledge Dr. Daniel Ruiz Molina and Pablo González from Nanostructured Functional Materials Group, CIN2 (Barcelona), for assistance in AFM experiments and data analysis., Reliable immobilization of bioreceptors over any sensor surface is the most crucial step for achieving high performance, selective and sensitive biosensor devices able to analyze human samples without the need of previous processing. With this aim, we have implemented an optimized scheme to covalently biofunctionalize the sensor area of a novel nanophotonic interferometric biosensor. The proposed method is based on the ex-situ silanization of the silicon nitride transducer surface by the use of a carboxyl water soluble silane, the carboxyethylsilanetriol sodium salt (CTES). The use of an organosilane stable in water entails advantages in comparison with usual trialkoxysilanes such as avoiding the generation of organic waste and leading to the assembly of compact monolayers due to the high dielectric constant of water. Additionally, cross-linking is prevented when the conditions (e.g. immersion time, concentration of silane) are optimized. This covalent strategy is followed by the bioreceptor linkage on the sensor area surface using two different approaches: an in-flow patterning and a microcontact printing using a biodeposition system. The performance of the different bioreceptor layers assembled is compared by the real-time and label-free immunosensing of the proteins BSA/mAb BSA, employed as a model molecular pair. Although the results demonstrated that both strategies provide the biosensor with a stable biological interface, the performance of the bioreceptor layer assembled by microcontact printing slightly improves the biosensing capabilities of the photonic biosensor. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
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Electrochemical detection of plant virus using gold nanoparticle-modified electrodes

  • Khater, Mohga
  • De la Escosura Muñiz, Alfredo
  • Quesada González, Daniel
  • Merkoçi, Arben
Tristeza is one of the destructive diseases of citrus causing by citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Historically, CTV has been associated with serious outbreaks of quick decline of citrus, therefore CTV monitoring is important aspect for avoiding such re-emerging epidemics, which would threat citrus production through the world. In this context, we have designed for the first time a label-free impedimetric biosensor for the detection of nucleic acid of CTV. The sensing platform based on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was modified by electrodeposited gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which allowed to efficiently immobilizing thiolated ssDNA probes as well to enhance the electrode conductivity. The growth of AuNPs was optimized and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We investigated the behavior of thiolated ssDNA probe layer and its hybridization with target DNA onto AuNP surfaces by EIS measurements in Fe(CN₆)⁴⁻)/Fe(CN₆)³⁻ red-ox system. The main sensor design aspects such as AuNPs size, probe DNA concentration and immobilization time together with DNA hybridization time were optimized so as to achieve the best performance. Impedance values of DNA hybridization increased with Citrus tristeza-related synthetic DNA concentration, showing a logarithmic relation in the range of 0.1-10 μM. The results also indicate that the biosensor was able to selectively detect CTV nucleic acids in the presence of other non-specific DNAs. Moreover, we have demonstrated the good performance of the system in a real plant sample matrix. In addition, the sensor reproducibility enhanced after the hybridization onto MCH/poly (AT) thiolated DNA probes which was confirmed by intra- and inter-day variability assays.
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Microorganism-decorated nanocellulose for efficient diuron removal

  • Liu, Jie
  • Morales Narváez, Edén
  • Vicent i Huguet, Teresa
  • Merkoçi, Arben
  • Zhong, Guohua
The environmental impacts of diuron have generated growing interest in remediation methods to prevent the potential threat of diuron to ecosystem integrity and human beings. Here, a simple and effective nanocellulose-based biocomposite coupled with Arthrobacter globiformis D47 as a herbicide degrader is presented for the rapid elimination of diuron. First, bacterium D47 was immobilized on the fiber networks of the nanocellulose, forming a bacteria-decorated nanocellulose (BDN) that outperformed direct utilization of bacterial suspensions for diuron decomposition. More importantly, the advantageous features of BDN could remarkably broaden its applicability since the bio-hybrid material rapidly degraded diuron and its major metabolite 3,4-dichloroaniline at low concentrations (1-10 mg ⁻¹). In addition, the morphology of BDN revealed the excellent biocompatibility of nanocellulose as cell scaffolding for bacterial proliferation. Then, the adsorption capacity of the nanocellulose and the enzymatic metabolism of the bacteria were validated as a joint mechanism of the BDN biocomposites in the removal of diuron. In addition, the wide applicability of BDN was further verified by the degradation of diuron in environmental matrices and other phenylurea herbicide targets. Therefore, the novel microorganism-immobilized nanocellulose composites provide a promising alternative material combining functional microorganisms with emerging nanomaterials, which may facilitate the bioremediation of organic xenobiotic pollution in complex environments.
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