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Colaboración entre arqueólogos y restauradores en el Institut Català d’Arqueologia Clàssica

  • Bertral Arias, Anna
  • Belarte Franco, Maria Carme
  • Canela Gràcia, Joan, 1984-
En este artículo queremos presentar el Institut Català d’Arqueologia Clàssica y su relación con la conservación restauración arqueológica. Para ello hablaremos de la organización y funcionamiento del Instituto así como de algunos de los trabajos de investigación en Arqueología de la Protohistoria. Estos ejemplos son: los trabajos realizados con los materiales recuperados en un silo en la Secuita (Tarragonés) (de cronología ibérica) y el trabajo llevado a cabo tanto in situ como en el laboratorio con los materiales exhumados en la necrópolis ibérica de Les Esquarterades (Ulldecona). Queremos resaltar la toma de conciencia por parte de dicha institución mediante la inserción, en su funcionamiento, de la conservación y restauración como disciplina auxiliar de la arqueología, destacando la importancia del trabajo en común entre arqueólogos y restauradores para contribuir a la conservación del patrimonio arqueológico a largo plazo.
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La fi del món antic i els inicis de l’edat mitjana a la Catalunya Central. Economia, societat i territori entre els segles V i VIII

  • Gibert Rebull, Jordi
Prenent com a marc de referència l’àrea de l’actual Catalunya Central, aquest estudi té com a objectiu l’anàlisi de les transformacions sofertes per la societat entre els segles V i VIII. Amb aquest objectiu, es planteja una revisió i exposició crítica de les dades arqueològiques conegudes, i s’aborda la discussió d’aquestes dades a partir de tres eixos centrats en la producció econòmica, les estructures socials i l’organització del territori.L’anàlisi es focalitza inicialment en la desaparició del sistema tradicional de poblament rural provinent del món romà, representat per les grans explotacions corresponents al binomi villa-fundus. Tot seguit caracteritza els assentaments dels segles següents, en què s’observa el predomini d’establiments definits per diversos àmbits habitualment envoltats per un recinte i associats de forma recurrent a premses.En paral·lel, es comprova com la presència d’esglésies en aquesta època es redueix a casos comptats que habitualment cal associar als centres territorials del moment. Alhora s’aporten algunes dades incipients que denoten l’ocupació d’establiments fortificats en alçada, sovint sobre restes anteriors d’època protohistòrica o ibèrica.Destaca, d’altra banda, la identificació d’un gran nombre de necròpolis que constitueixen el testimoni material més evident del poblament altmedieval, delatant un procés de dispersió que es perllonga durant tot el període.Tot plegat ens dibuixa una etapa històrica ben dinàmica, durant la qual els establiments rurals disposen d’una capacitat productiva notable que reverteix en circuits econòmics que beneficien vells i nous centres territorials que podem identificar amb el que les fonts textuals d’època visigoda anomenen vici o castra.
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Estimating individual effects and their spatial spillovers in linear panel data models: Public capital spillovers after all?

  • Miranda, Karen
  • Martínez Ibáñez, Oscar
  • Manjón Antolín, Miguel C.
Individual-specific effects and their spatial spillovers are not generally identified in linear panel data models. In this paper we present identification conditions under the assumption that covariates are correlated with the individual-specific effects and derive appropriate GLS and IV estimators for the resulting correlated random effects spatial panel data model. We also illustrate the proposed estimators using a Cobb-Douglas production function specification and US state-level data from Munnell (1990). As in previous studies, we find no evidence of public capital spillovers. However, public capital does play a role in the positive "outwards" spatial contagion of the individual effects. Keywords: correlated random effects, spatial spillovers, panel data. JEL Classification: C23, R11
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Global associations between UVR exposure and current eczema prevalence in children from ISAAC phase three

  • Fuertes, Elaine
  • Flohr, Carsten
  • Silverberg, Jonathan I.
  • Standl, Marie
  • Strachan, David P.
We sought to examine the relationship globally between UVR dose exposure and current eczema prevalences. ISAAC Phase Three provided data on eczema prevalence for 13- to 14-year-olds in 214 centers in 87 countries and for 6- to 7-year-olds in 132 centers in 57 countries. Linear and nonlinear associations between (natural log transformed) eczema prevalence and the mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, and range of monthly UV dose exposures were assessed using linear mixed-effects regression models. For the 13- to 14-year-olds, the country-level eczema prevalence was positively and linearly associated with country-level monthly mean (prevalence ratio = 1.31 [95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.63] per kJ/m2) and minimum (1.25 [1.06-1.47] per kJ/m2) UVR dose exposure. Linear and nonlinear associations were also observed for other metrics of UV. Results were similar in trend, but nonsignificant, for the fewer centers with 6- to 7-year-olds (e.g., 1.24 [0.96-1.59] per kJ/m2 for country-level monthly mean UVR). No consistent within-country associations were observed (e.g., 1.05 [0.89-1.23] and 0.92 [0.71-1.18] per kJ/m2 for center-level monthly mean UVR for the 13- to 14- and 6- to 7-year-olds, respectively). These ecological results support a role for UVR exposure in explaining some of the variation in global childhood eczema prevalence., This work was supported by a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship (H2020-MSCA-IF-2015; proposal number 704268)
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The INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente-(Environment and Childhood) project: more than 10 years contributing to environmental and neuropsychological research

  • Gascon Merlos, Mireia, 1984-
  • Guxens Junyent, Mònica
  • Vrijheid, Martine
  • Torrent Quetglas, Maties
  • Ibarluzea, Jesús
  • Fano, Eduardo
  • Llop, Sabrina
  • Ballester Díez, Ferran
  • Fernandez, Mariana F.
  • Tardón, Adonina
  • Fernández-Somoano, Ana
  • Sunyer Deu, Jordi
BACKGROUND: In 2003 the INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood) project, a Spanish national network of birth cohorts including more than 3500 participants, was set up with the aim to assess the health impacts of pre- and postnatal environmental exposures on children. The project has published more than 60 papers on maternal and environmental factors related to neuropsychological development in children, one of the main research interests within the project. With the present review, we evaluate the evidence provided by the INMA project on this topic and discuss how the data can contribute to cover the challenges that children's environmental health research will face in the coming years. RESULTS: The INMA project has contributed to provide increasing evidence of the association between prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and child neuropsychological development, but it has also shown, using innovative methodologies, that postnatal exposure to these compounds does not play a role in this association. The project has also contributed to show the detrimental influence of certain air pollutants on child neuropsychological development, as well as how a balanced maternal fish intake can protect from the potential adverse effects of prenatal exposure to mercury. Also, the project has contributed to the understanding of impacts of nutritional factors including supplement intake and vitamin D levels during pregnancy and the role of breastfeeding on the neuropsychological benefits. CONCLUSIONS: INMA findings underscore the importance of continued research on the delineation of the sensitive windows of exposure both during pregnancy and postnatally and on the combined effects of environmental exposures, denoted the exposome. In terms of health policy, INMA findings have important implications for the development of public health policies to advance the health and development of children., This study was supported Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Red INMA G03/176, CB06/02/0041, 97/0588, 00/0021-2, PI04/1436, PI06/1756, PI08/1151, PS09/01958, PI12/01890, PI14/00677, MS13/00054, CP13/00054 including FIS-FEDER funds 03/1615, 04/1509, 04/1112, 04/1931, 05/1079, 05/1052, 06/1213, 07/0314, 09/02311, 09/02647, 11/0178, 11/02591, 11/02038, 13/1944, 13/2032, 13/02429, 14/0891, 14/1687, and 16/1288) and Miguel Servet-FEDER MS15/00025, Spanish Ministry of Health - CIBERESP (FIS-97/1102, FIS-PS09/00362, FIS-07/0252, FIS-PI11/00610, FISPI07/0252, FISPI11/0610, FIS-PI04/2018, FIS-PI09/02311, FIS-PI13/02429, FIS-PI06/0867, FIS-PS09/00090, FIS-PI13/02187, PI13/02406, MS13/00054), Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (SAF2012-32991 incl. FEDER funds), EU Comission (QLK4-CT-2000-00263, QLK4-1999-01422, QLK4-2002-00603 and CONTAMED FP7-ENV-212502, FP7-ENV-2011 cod 282957, 261357, 308333 and 603794 and HEALTH.2010.2.4.5-1), Generalitat de Catalunya-CIRIT 1999SGR 00241, Generalitat de Catalunya-AGAUR (2009 SGR501, 2014 SGR 822), Department of Health of the Basque Government (2005111093, 2009111069, 2013111089 and 2015111065), the Provincial Government of Gipuzkoa (DFG06/002, DFG08/001 and DFG15/221), Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía (grant number 183/07 and SAS-PI-0675-2010), Conselleria de Sanitat, Generalitat Valenciana, Andalusia Regional Government – Consejería de Salud (Grants P09-CTS-5488 Project of Excellence, and SAS PI-0133-2007; PI-0675–2010), Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire de l’Alimentation de l’Environnement et du Travail (1262C0010), beca de la IV convocatoria de Ayudas a la Investigación en Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas de La Caixa, Fundació La Caixa (97/009-00 and 00/077-00), Fundació La Marató de TV3 (090430), Obra Social Cajastur/Fundación Liberbank and University of Oviedo, and annual agreements with the municipalities of the area of study (Zumarraga, Urretxu, Legazpi, Azkoitia y Azpeitia y Beasain)
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HIV LTR-driven antisense RNA by itself has regulatory function and may curtail virus reactivation from latency

  • Kobayashi-Ishihara, Mie
  • Terahara, Kazutaka
  • Martínez Vesga, Javier Pablo
  • Yamagishi, Makoto
  • Iwabuchi, Ryutaro
  • Brander, Christian
  • Ato, Manabu
  • Watanabe, Toshiki
  • Meyerhans, Andreas
  • Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko
Latently infected T lymphocytes are an important barrier toward eliminating a persistent HIV infection. Here we describe an HIV-based recombinant fluorescent-lentivirus referred to as “rfl-HIV” that enables to analyze sense and antisense transcription by means of fluorescence reporter genes. This model virus exhibited similar transcriptional and functional properties of the antisense transcript as observed with a wild type HIV, and largely facilitated the generation of latently-infected T cells clones. We show that latently-infected cells can be divided into two types, those with and those without antisense transcription. Upon addition of latency reversal agents, only the cells that lack antisense transcripts are readily reactivated to transcribe HIV. Thus, antisense transcripts may exhibit a dominant suppressor activity and can lock an integrated provirus into a non-reactivatable state. These findings could have important implications for the development of strategies to eradicate HIV from infected individuals., This work was supported by grants from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS KAKENHI #15H06877 for MK-I, #JP17K08800 for KT), ViiV Healthcare Japan Research Grant 2015 (MK-I), Grants-in-Aid from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (H24-AIDS-008 to YT-Y) and Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED #JP17fk0410305h0103 to YT-Y and #JP18fk0410003 to KT). MK-I received Fellowships from Japan Foundation for AIDS Prevention and JSPS Oversea Research Fellow Program. AM and JM were supported by a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness and FEDER grant no. SAF2016-75505-R (AEI/MINEICO/FEDER, UE) and through the “María de Maeztu” Program for Units of Excellence in R&D (MDM-2014-0370).
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Decomposing the Changes in Water Intensity in a Mediterranean Region

  • Llop Llop, Maria
This paper proposes a simple method for decomposing the temporal changes in water intensity into different driving factors. Specifically, total changes are split into three elements that clarify some of the hidden reasons behind the changes in water use over time. The first element captures the changes in water intensity due to sectoral uses, showing the effects of modifying the water intensity of the different production sectors; the second element shows the changes in sectoral output intensity, showing the influence on water consumption of altering the production structure; finally, the third element quantifies the effects of the changes in residential water intensity, showing the contribution that changing the final water uses makes to changing water intensity. The empirical application, which is for the Spanish region of Catalonia, uses the latest available water consumption data (for 2004 and 2007). The results show a reduction in the regional water intensity resulting from a reduction in the water intensity of agriculture and industrial activities, which was greater than the increase in the water intensity by the services sectors. In addition, the production structure made a mixed contribution to final water intensity, depending on the sector under consideration. In particular, the decrease in the importance of agricultural production had the highest influence on reducing regional water intensity. Finally, the residential uses of water made a negative contribution to the total water intensity. The different directions and magnitudes of the drivers identified in this paper highlight the importance of using detailed and precise methods for studying water issues. Keywords: Sectoral Water Intensity, Sectoral Output Intensity, Residential Water Intensity, Mediterranean Region.
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A Behavioral Theory of Allocation in the Dictator Game

  • Osório, António (António Miguel)
This paper attempts to explain the behavior observed in the dictator game without explicitly assuming a utility function. Alternatively, I consider the representative behavior of a society composed of heterogeneous individuals in terms of altruism and self-interest. Based on these two principles, I present an allocation that aggregates the society's preferences. The result depends crucially on the value of the resource under dispute for the dictator. Even if the value of the resource is extremely important for the dictator, the dictator cannot justify a share of the resource larger than 3/4 of the total. An allocation proposing more than this share of the resource cannot reach social consensus. On the other extreme, if the value of the resource is sufficiently unimportant for the society, an equal split of the resource emerges in the limit. Keyword: Dictator Game; Allocation Rules; Altruism; Self-interest; Conflict Resolution. JEL classifi cation: C91, D03, D63, D74.
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Unilateral Effects Screens for Partial Horizontal Acquisitions: The Generalized HHI and GUPPI

  • Brito, Duarte
  • Osório, António (António Miguel)
  • Ribeiro, Ricardo
  • Vasconcelos, Helder,
Recent years have witnessed an increased interest, by competition agencies, in assessing the competitive effects of partial acquisitions. We propose a generalization of the two most traditional indicators used to screen unilateral anti-competitive effects - the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and the Gross Upward Price Pressure Index - to partial horizontal acquisition settings. The proposed generalized indicators are endogenously derived under a probabilistic voting model in which the manager of each firm is elected in a shareholder assembly between two potential candidates who seek to obtain utility from an exogenous rent associated with corporate office. The model (i) can cope with settings involving all types of owners and rights: owners that can be internal to the industry (rival firms) and external to the industry; and rights that can capture financial and corporate control interests, can be direct and indirect, can be partial or full, (ii ) yields an endogenous measure of the owners ultimate corporate control rights, and (iii ) can also be used - in case the potential acquisition is inferred to likely enhance market power - to devise divestiture structural remedies. We also provide an empirical application of the two proposed generalized indicators to several acquisitions in the wet shaving industry, with the objective of providing practitioners with a step-by-step illustration of how to compute them in antitrust cases. JEL Classification: L13, L41, L66. Keywords: Antitrust, Partial Horizontal Acquisitions, Oligopoly, Screening Indicators, HHI, GUPPI, Corporate Control, Banzhaf Power Index
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Phylogenetic analyses uncover a novel clade of transferrin in nonmammalian vertebrates

  • Mohd-Padil, Hirzahida
  • Mohd-Adnan, Adura
  • Gabaldón Estevan, Juan Antonio, 1973-
Transferrin is a protein super-family involved in iron transport, a central process in cellular homeostasis. Throughout the evolution of vertebrates, transferrin members have diversified into distinct subfamilies including serotransferrin, ovotransferrin, lactoferrin, melanotransferrin, the inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase, pacifastin, and the major yolk protein in sea urchin. Previous phylogenetic analyses have established the branching order of the diverse transferrin subfamilies but were mostly focused on the transferrin repertoire present in mammals. Here, we conduct a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of transferrin protein sequences in sequenced vertebrates, placing a special focus on the less-studied nonmammalian vertebrates. Our analyses uncover a novel transferrin clade present across fish, sauropsid, and amphibian genomes but strikingly absent from mammals. Our reconstructed scenario implies that this novel class emerged through a duplication event at the vertebrate ancestor, and that it was subsequently lost in the lineage leading to mammals. We detect footprints of accelerated evolution following the duplication event, which suggest positive selection and early functional divergence of this novel clade. Interestingly, the loss of this novel class of transferrin in mammals coincided with the divergence by duplication of lactoferrin and serotransferrin in this lineage. Altogether, our results provide novel insights on the evolution of iron-binding proteins in the various vertebrate groups., This work was supported by grants from the Malaysian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (07-05-MGI-GMB009), the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (BFU2009-09168), and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM-DLP-2011-027)
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