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Disfunciones territoriales municipales en Catalunya, The boundary anomalies of the municipalities of Catalonia

  • Guerrero i Lladós, Montse
  • Burgueño, Jesús
Los términos municipales pueden presentar anomalías o disfunciones en su configuración. Las más habituales son los enclaves y la superposición discordante de los límites respecto a los núcleos de población. El legislador autonómico puede corregir esas irregularidades, pero solo el territorio foral de Bizkaia ha reformado su planta municipal para suprimir todos los enclaves. Catalunya cuenta con la normativa más completa para racionalizar el mapa municipal, pero en la práctica la corrección de disfuncionalidades ha sido prácticamente nula., Municipalities may have anomalies or dysfunctions in their shape. The most common are the enclaves and the overlapping of borders in localities. Spanish laws allow autonomous communities to undertake the correction of these irregularities, but only the province of Bizkaia has reformed its municipal layout in order to suppress all enclaves. Catalonia has the most complete legislation to rationalize its municipal map but, despite this, the correction of dysfunctionalities has been practically non-existent., Proyecto de investigación CSO2017-87080-P (Ciudad y territorio en la cartografía española: una perspectiva histórica), del Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades.
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Diferencias de localización en los atractivos turísticos. Comparando imagen proyectada y percibida en Uruguay, Territorial distribution of tourist attractions. Comparing projected and perceived image in Uruguay

  • Paül i Agustí, Daniel
Se identifican las similitudes y diferencias existentes en la distribución espacial de los atractivos turísticos a partir de tres fuentes: material impreso, guías turísticas y contenidos generados por los usuarios (imágenes de Instagram). El análisis se basa en datos de Uruguay. Los resultados indican una coincidencia parcial entre imagen proyectada e imagen percibida. Este hecho apunta a que el espacio turístico es más extenso y variado que el tradicionalmente asumido por estudios realizados sobre la base de una fuente., Existing similarities and differences in the spatial distribution of tourist sights are identified. Three different media are used: institutional tourism materials, travel guides, and user-generated contents (images shared on Instagram). The analysis is based on data from Uruguay. The results indicate that there is only a very slight overlap between the locations captured in user-generated images and those of tourist sights promoted in institutional materials and travel guides. This situation suggests tourist space is more extensive and diversified than the traditionally assumed by studies conducted on the basis of a single source.
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Olga Merino: emociones encontradas ante la masculinidad, Olga Merino: Mixed Emotions in front of Masculinity

  • Mérida Jiménez, Rafael M. (Rafael Manuel)
Se propone analizar la expresión literaria de la masculinidad, de las emociones y de su recepción en Perros que ladran en el sótano (2012), tercera novela de la narradora barcelonesa Olga Merino. Con tal objetivo, se revisa su trabajo periodístico, se valoran las características formales y temáticas de esta novela y se profundiza en aquellas cuestiones que, vinculadas a la esfera del género y la sexualidad, mejor ilustran su significación ideológica. Puede afirmarse que el tapiz que reconstruye Merino en su tercera ficción refleja históricamente una tradición sociocultural española que predetermina modos particulares de ver y de sentir la masculinidad., It aims at analyzing the literary expression of masculinity and emotions, and their reception, in Perros que ladran en el sótano (2012), Olga Merino’s third novel. With such purpose, we’ll review her journalistic work, formal and thematic issues of this work as well as topics related to gender and sexuality, those which better illustrate its ideological significance. It can be argued that the tapestry reconstructed by Merino in her third fiction reflects historically a Spanish cultural tradition, but also predetermines particular modes of seeing and feeling masculinity., Este trabajo forma parte del proyecto “Diversidad de género, masculinidad y cultura en España, Argentina y México” (FEM2015-69863-P MINECO-FEDER) del Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad de España.
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Process integration of thermal energy storage systems – Evaluation methodology and case studies

  • Gibb, Duncan
  • Johnson, Maike
  • Romaní Picas, Joaquim
  • Gasia, Jaume
  • Cabeza, Luisa F.
  • Seitz, Antje
As a key tool for decarbonization, thermal energy storage systems integrated into processes can address issues related to energy efficiency and process flexibility, improve utilization of renewable energy resources and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, integration of these systems is dominated by the variety of potential processes in which the storage technologies can be deployed as well as the various benefits they deliver. Therefore, the requirements for thermal energy storage systems vary greatly depending on the chosen application, just as the systems themselves have different capabilities depending on their technical principles. This paper addresses this issue by developing a systematic methodology that approaches the challenge of characterizing and evaluating thermal energy storage systems in different applications in three concrete steps. To begin, a set of guidelines for process analysis has been created to disclose process requirements for storage integration. The methodology continues by explicitly defining the system boundary of a thermal energy storage system, as well as addressing technical and economic parameters. Finally, the approach concludes by determining the benefit of an integrated thermal energy storage system to an application and examines how key performance indicators vary based on the perspectives of different stakeholders. Within this work, the methodology is then applied to two case studies of high-temperature storage in concentrating solar power and cogeneration plants. Also introduced are the concepts of retrofit and greenfield applications, which are used to clarify differences between integrated storage systems. The paper shows how such a systematic approach can be used to consistently analyse processes for storage integration, facilitate comparison between thermal energy storage systems integrated into processes across applications and finally grasp how different interests perceive the benefits of the integrated storage system. This type of systematic methodology for technology integration has not been previously developed and as such, is a novel and important contribution to the thermal energy storage community. In the long term, this work builds the basis for a discussion on benefits of thermal energy storage system integration with diverse stakeholders including storage system designers, process owners and policy makers., This work has been partially funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy in the framework of the TESIN project (03ESP011) and the THESAN project (03ET1297). This work has also been partially funded by the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad de España (ENE2015-64117-C5-1-R (MINECO/FEDER)). The authors at the University of Lleida would like to thank the Catalan Government for the quality accreditation given to their research group (2017 SGR 1537). GREA is certified agent TECNIO in the category of technology developers from the Government of Catalonia. Jaume Gasia would like to thank the Departament d'Universitats, Recerca i Societat de la Informació de la Generalitat de Catalunya for his research fellowship (2018 FI_B2 00100). The authors are responsible for the content of this publication.
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Una revisió dels 25 anys de l'economia espanyola a la Unió Europea

  • Sala Rios, Mercè
L'objectiu d'aquest treball és analitzar l'evolució de l'economia espanyola en el marc de la Unió Europea (UE) al llarg dels primers 25 anys. Ens centrem en dos grans aspectes. En primer lloc, ens ocupem de les variables econòmiques i dels factors més significatius que han marcat la marxa de l'economia espanyola i la seva relació amb Europa. En segon lloc, presentem les principals polítiques comunitàries i les línies d'actuació més importants, analitzant què han aportat a l'economia espanyola.
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Review of Reactors with Potential Use in Thermochemical Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Power Plants

  • Zsembinszki, Gabriel
  • Solé, Aran
  • Barreneche Güerisoli, Camila
  • Prieto, Cristina
  • Fernández Renna, Ana Inés
  • Cabeza, Luisa F.
The aim of this study is to perform a review of the state-of-the-art of the reactors available in the literature, which are used for solid-gas reactions or thermal decomposition processes around 1000 ºC that could be further implemented for thermochemical energy storage in CSP (concentrated solar power) plants, specifically for SPT (solar power tower) technology. Both direct and indirect systems can be implemented, with direct and closed systems being the most studied ones. Among direct and closed systems, the most used configuration is the stacked bed reactor, with the fixed bed reactor being the most frequent option. Out of all of the reactors studied, almost 70% are used for solid-gas chemical reactions. Few data are available regarding solar efficiency in most of the processes, and the available information indicates relatively low values. Chemical reaction efficiencies show better values, especially in the case of a fluidized bed reactor for solid-gas chemical reactions, and fixed bed and rotary reactors for thermal decompositions., The work is partially funded by the Spanish government (ENE2015-64117-C5-1-R (MINECO/FEDER) and ENE2015-64117-C5-2-R (MINECO/FEDER)). The authors would like to thank the Catalan Government for the quality accreditation given to their research groups GREA (2017 SGR 1537) and DIOPMA (2017 SGR 118). GREA and DIOPMA are certified agents TECNIO in the category of technology developers from the Government of Catalonia. Dr. Aran Solé would like to thank Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad de España for Grant Juan de la Cierva, FJCI-2015-25741.
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Household appliances penetration and ownership trends in residential buildings

  • Cabeza, Luisa F.
  • Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana
  • Ürge, Daniel
  • Palacios, Anabel
  • Barreneche Güerisoli, Camila
Understanding the development of the trends in the ownership of different appliances in a historic context in various countries of the world can not only provide important insights for understanding the dynamics of adoption of different appliances, but can also help with foresight: how the future may develop for these or other, new appliances on the market. Although available literature in household appliances energy consumption, energy management and energy efficiency has seen some advances, there is a clear lack in the literature on household appliance ownership. In this paper, historic data is gathered and analysed for several groups of appliance types (white appliances, brown appliances and small appliances) for 12 countries representing four continents, when available since 1970 to date. Countries representing different parts of the world were selected to present an overview on household appliances ownership and energy consumption. One of the first conclusions of the study is that there is little or no information in many countries from South America, Africa or South Asia. Refrigerators, freezers and washing machines ownership are an example of most other white goods. Brown goods appeared in the market at very different time, depending on each one (from the 70s to the late 90s) and their ownership growth is much higher than for the previous ones. Most of small line appliances ownership has not reached saturation yet., The work is partially funded by the Spanish government (ENE2015–64117-C5-1-R (MINECO/FEDER)). The authors would like to thank the Catalan Government for the quality accreditation given to their research group GREA and DIOPMA (2014 SGR 123 and 2014 SGR 1543, respectively). GREA and DIOPMA are certified agents TECNIO in the category of technology developers from the Government of Catalonia. Dr. Camila Barreneche would like to thank Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad de España for grant Juan de la Cierva, FJCI-2014–22886.
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Advanced glycation end product precursors impair epidermal growth factor receptor signalin

  • Portero Otín, Manuel
  • Pamplona Gras, Reinald
  • Bellmunt i Curcó, Josepa
  • Cristina Ruiz, Maria
  • Prat, Joan
  • Salvayre, Robert
  • Nègre Salvayre, Anne
Formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is considered a potential link between hyperglycemia and chronic diabetic complications, including disturbances in cell signaling. It was hypothesized that AGEs alter cell signaling by interfering with growth factor receptors. Therefore, we studied the effects of two AGE precursors, glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO), on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in cultured cells. Both compounds prevented tyrosine autophosphorylation induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) in a time- and dose-dependent manner as well as phospholipase Cγ1 recruitment and subsequent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases. AGE precursors inhibit EGF-induced EGFR autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity in cell membranes and in EGFR immunoprecipitates. In addition, AGE precursors strongly inhibited cellular phosphotyrosine phosphatase activities and residual EGFR dephosphorylation. AGE precursors induced the formation of EGFR cross-links, as shown by the cross-reactivity of modified EGFR with an anti-Nε(carboxymethyl)lysine antibody, suggesting that altered EGFR signaling was related to carbonyl-amine reactions on EGFR. Aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of AGE formation, partially prevented the EGFR dysfunction induced by GO and MGO. These data introduce a novel mechanism for impaired cellular homeostasis in situations that lead to increased production of these reactive aldehydes, such as diabetes. The Maillard reaction comprises the nonenzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with molecules containing an amino group, including proteins, phospholipids, and DNA (1,2). After the reversible formation of a Schiff’s base between the reducing sugar and free amino group, this reaction proceeds to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Aldehydes such as glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO) are also able to induce AGE formation (3). GO and MGO can be generated during glycation of proteins by glucose (3); during lipid peroxidation (4); from metabolic processes, such as base-catalyzed phosphate elimination of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate; and also during the metabolism of acetone and threonine (5). During chronic complications of diabetes and aging, the levels of AGEs derived from the reaction of GO and MGO with proteins rise in plasma proteins, extracellular matrix, and lens proteins (6–8). Modification of proteins through derivatization by GO and MGO may induce interaction with specific receptors, such as the RAGE and AGE-R family (9), or directly alter protein functions. For instance, MGO inhibits mitochondrial respiration, membrane ATPases and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (10), and DNA and protein synthesis, thereby inducing growth arrest and cell death (11)
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El turismo sostenible en las marcas turísticas de Cataluña, O turismo sostible nas marcas turísticas de Cataluña

  • Torres Solé, Teresa
  • Sala Rios, Mercè
  • Farré i Perdiguer, Mariona
Las cifras macroeconómicas otorgan al sector turístico una importancia significativa dentro de la estructura económica catalana. Es por ello que el objetivo de este estudio es analizar el grado de sostenibilidad de las distintas marcas turísticas de Cataluña para determinar una ordenación entre ellas. Ese objetivo se alcanza mediante la técnica multicriterio, que permite incluir diversas variables representativas del turismo sostenible desde el punto de vista ambiental, sociocultural y económico. En concreto, se aplicaron nueve indicadores de sostenibilidad a las diez marcas que conforman el mapa turístico catalán. Las conclusiones apuntan que son pocas las que muestran un perfil turístico sostenible, evidenciándose la existencia de divergencias entre ellas. Terres de Lleida, Catalunya Central y Costa de Garraf son las que ofrecen una mayor sostenibilidad turística. Por otra parte, el análisis señala que no existe una modalidad turística que se pueda considerar más sostenible respecto del resto., The macroeconomic figures show the importance of tourism in economic structure Catalan. The aim of this study is to analyze the sustainability of Catalonian tourism brands, to determine a ranking order between them. This project is achieved via a multi-criteria technique that allows several relating factors of the sustainable tourism from the standpoint of environmental, sociocultural and economic development. Specifically nine sustainability indicators have been applied to the ten tourism brands. The findings indicate that few brands show a sustainable tourism profile and exist differences between them. Lleida, Catalonia and Costa del Garraf Central are offering a more sustainable tourism. On the other hand, the analysis notes that there isn’t a tourism model that is more sustainable than others., As cifras macroeconómicas outórganlle ao sector turístico unha importancia significativa dentro da estrutura económica catalá. É por iso que o obxectivo deste estudo é analizar o grao de sostibilidade das distintas marcas turísticas de Cataluña para determinar unha ordenación entre elas. Ese obxectivo alcánzase mediante a técnica multicriterio, que permite incluír diversas variables representativas do turismo sostible desde o punto de vista ambiental, sociocultural e económico. En concreto, aplicáronse nove indicadores de sostibilidade ás dez marcas que conforman o mapa turístico catalán. As conclusións apuntan que son poucas as que mostran un perfil turístico sostible, evidenciándose a existencia de diverxencias entre elas. Terres de Lleida, Catalunya Central e a Costa do Garraf son as que ofrecen unha maior sostibilidade turística. Por outra parte, a análise sinala que non existe unha modalidade turística que poida considerarse máis sostible respecto do resto.
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Influence of timber harvesting costs on the layout of cuttings and economic return in forest planning based on dynamic treatment units

  • Pascual, Adrián
  • Pukkala, Timo
  • Miguel Magaña, Sergio de
  • Pesonen, Annukka
  • Packalen, Petteri
Aim of study: To analyze the influence of harvesting costs on the distribution and type of cuttings when forest management planning is based on the dynamic treatment units (DTUs) approach. Area of study: A Mediterranean pine forest in Central Spain. Materials and methods: Airborne laser scanning data were used in area-based approach to predict stand attributes and delineate segments that were used as calculation units. Predicted stand attributes and existing models for diameter distribution and individual-tree growth were used to simulate alternative management schedules for each segment for a 60-year planning horizon divided into three 20-year periods. Three alternative forest planning problems were formulated. They aimed to maximize or minimize net income, or maximize timber production with a constant flow of harvested timber. Spatial goals were used in all cases to enhance the clustering of treatments. Main results: Maxizing timber production without considering harvesting costs can be costly, even close to the plan that minimized net incomes. Maximizing net incomes led to frequent use of final felling instead of thinnings, placing cuttings near forest roads and creating more compact DTUs than obtained in the plan that maximized timber production. Research highlights: Compared to previous studies on DTUs, this study integrated felling and forwarding costs, which depended on distance to road and stand attributes, in the process of creating DTUs by means of spatial optimization., University of Eastern Finland; Academy of Finland (projects FORBIO-14970 and ADAPT-14907); European Union's Horizon 2020 MultiFUNGtionality Marie Skłodowska-Curie (IF-EF No 655815 to SdM).
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