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A study on the history of urban morphology in China based on discourse analysis

  • Zhang, Limeng
  • Lu, Andong
[EN] Urban morphology is a method widely used in China in the field of urban design and urban conservation. Since its first introduction to the Chinese context about 30 years ago, the key ideas and concepts of urban morphology underwent a significant phenomenon of ‘lost in translation’. Different origins of morphological thoughts, different versions of translation, as well as different disciplinary context, have all together led to a chaotic discourse. This paper reviews the key Chinese articles in the field of urban morphology since 1982 and draws out a group of persistent keywords, such as urban form, growth mechanism, evolution and axis that characterize the morphological approach to urban issues, to find unusual evolutionary process. By reviewing the transformation of the definition of these keywords, this paper aims to generate an evolutionary diagram of landmark ideas and concepts.
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Self-organization in planned Danwei and Dayuan: A case study of the transitional Houzaimen neighborhood of Nanjing in urban China

  • Zhao, Qian
[EN] The dualism of top-down planning versus self-organization has dominated the paradigm on the evolvement of urban morphology. However, the coexistence of the both can be observed in different scale phenomena, such as the locality of city, states, or even global contexts. In the network of the global economy, urban places as spatial effects of globalization result from negotiations between international capitals and local powers. At the same time, the transitional city form also responds to changing regulations under the state socio-economic regime. Due to economic competitiveness, the entrepreneurial turn in the municipal governance reflects the role shift of local authorities from passive regulation operators to active agents for investment attractiveness and high fiscal incomes. Those changes have particular impacts on city planning while self-organization emerges in urban places. Thus, we study the socioeconomic strata within contemporary urban China's territories to discover dynamics of urban morphology, interacting factors and quantitative signatures for self-orgtanization apart from top-down interventions and finally to reveal the place-shaping mechanism. In the well-reserved Houzaimen neighborhood of Nanjing, the extremely close system-danwei and dayuan has gradually changed into the new community-xiaoqu. By site surveys and measurement approaches, the recognized pattern in residential ownerships, the allocation of commercial activities, accessibility and connectivity of residential areas, and fractal distributions in urban fabrics can help to compare self-organizing xiaoqu with planned dayuan for systematic openness and complexity towards sustainability. Meanwhile, dimension spectrum of the fractal structure reveals the mechanism of city evolvement. The result shows the open system fostering self-organization has higher value of fractal dimensions than the segregated one, while it may not necessarily be highly connected small-world networks. In addition, the identical fractal structure discovered in dayuan proves selforganization can emerge from the planned system
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Citizen Participation Plan for València Parcs de Barri

  • Sosa Espinosa, Asenet|||0000-0001-9068-4263
  • Portalés Mañanós, Ana María|||0000-0001-7457-3520
  • Urios Mondéjar, David
  • Colomer Alcácer, Juan
[EN] The multifunctional role of neighbourhoodscale parks is vital within the urban system. They are not neutral spaces in terms of the functions attributed to them by the social collectivity. This causes them to be analyzed, evaluated and projected in interdependence with the physical and social environment where they are located or can be located. València parcs de barri is a web platform that arises from a teaching project developed by the Teaching and Research Group TUR (urban planning workshop), within the studies of Degree in Architecture at the Universitat Politècnica de València. It is born worried about the improvement in the project decisions of the neighbourhood parks.It considers that these public spaces have not been designed with sensitivity towards the social function that they fulfil. This social function is established by the daily uses that the population makes and what the park means to them. Among the objectives of this platform are to open the University to society, involve students in a social project and listen to the user. In addition, it is necessary to diagnose and design the parks with and for the subject-user, because this is the true protagonist of the public space. This paper collects the need to establish a plan to be followed by València Parcs de Barri in the coming years. The plan is a road map that defines the strategic lines and phases to be followed in a community based research project, applying the methodologies of participatory action.
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Heterotopic space characteristics of urban village in China: Take Guandongdian district in Beijing as an example

  • Lu, Tingying
  • LI, Jiali
  • Peng, Ning
[EN] For the first time in the history of China, more of its mainland population are living in cities than in rural villages. The land acquisition and real estate development have caused rapid disappearance and decline of a large number of traditional villages, resulting in "urban villages" in China. They seem chaotic, but contain rich and colorful social life. The living environment is really harsh, but people always maintain close relationship with each other. They are different from neither the modern urban nor traditional villages, but they have their own unique vitality. Such heterogeneous space is always a symbol of historical change and cultural collision which, according to the French philosopher Michel Foucault, can be called Heterotopias. In order to study this heterotopic phenomenon, the triangular area of Guandongdian district in Beijing has been chosen as the object of this case study. With the in-depth investigation of interviews, observation, statistics and sketches, this paper is trying to interpret the characteristics of the heterotopic state of the urban village from three aspects of social form, urban morphology and architectural feature. Eventually, in order to keep the complexity and diversification of urban village, several strategies are put forward for reference to future transforming practice.
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Transformative Urban Railway: Ankara Commuter Line and Lost Landscape

  • Bas Butuner, Funda
  • Alanyalı Aral, Ela
  • Çavdar, Selin
[EN] Being major transportation infrastructure of the 19th and early 20th centuries, the impacts of railways on cities have highly directed urban discourses; deforming material edge of cities, encouraging urban extension, formation of new territories, and speeding up urban development. However, in recent decades, with newly emerging discussions on landscape infrastructure, a new idea for a more integrated infrastructure and urban system has started to be formulated. Railway strips, occurring as terrains where solid-void morphology of cities becomes illegible, emerge as generators in the formation of new urban green network. Within this framework, Ankara commuter line that mark outs a route approximately 37 kilometers in length in the city, is a remarkable case for a motivating discussion on railway and landscape confrontation. Penetrating the city in east-west direction, the commuter line integrated with a rural landscape –covering vegetable gardens and creeks- that was serving as a recreational field for citizens until 1950s. However, the transformative nature of the railway, encouraged the development of new urban lands, industrial areas and neighborhoods along its route, and erased the characteristic landscape along the railway. The continuous landscape integrated with green, water and railway infrastructure became fragmented covering only some splits of green and water. In this respect, this study dwells on the lost landscape of the commuter line by mapping the fragmented continuity of the railway, green and water infrastructure from 1950’s until today to show the limited, but potential interaction of these three systems in the current urban fabric., This article is based on a scientific research project entitled "Demiryolunun Peyzaj ve Kentsel Tasarim Unsuru Olarak Potansiyelinin Tespiti ve Tasarim Ilkelerinin Gelistirilmesi: Sincan-Kayas Banliyo Hatti" and was financed by Middle East Technical University (2015-2016). Project Coordinatos: Funda Bas Bütüner Team Members: Ela Alanyali Ara, Selin Çavdar.
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Practices and forms of open space at territorial scale: A comparison between two cities crossed by minerals rivers

  • Camardelli, Marialucia
  • Mininni, Mariavaleria
  • Vigil De Insausti, Adolfo|||0000-0003-0984-7534
[EN] A scientific reading of the transformations of Matera starting from the urban re-activation in a social and spatial perspective in its neighbourhoods. The redevelopment of urban voids starts by the metaphor of the ecological network in an urban scale to update the connection system of open spaces in the light of new practices and flows for an innovative idea of urban resilience. The key role is re-see the neighbourhood: (i) on a local scale, focusing on the practices and customs, in the centre like in the industrial areas, starting processes of recovery and reuse but also of innovation (that result from the opportunity to be the European Capital of Culture 2019); (ii) on a urban scale with the transition space and threshold, identifying those natural and mineral signs representing a transition of porosity. The value of the "suburbs" enters as re-starting for rebirth of the city projects counting on the creativity of practices into the open spaces. The reformist project of Matera as original "laboratory" of architectural and urban experiments changes. Neighbourhoods were born from the same idea of “vicinato” (neighbour) but adapted to a new social identity, able to work on embryos of community, in the same way in Valencia in which natural elements (Turia) lead to rediscover the sense of belonging and making community. In both cases, urban policies are oriented towards innovative and spontaneous processes able to change the urban approach to a multi-purpose city although representative of culture and identity.
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Urban form and the social of space

  • Iribarne, Jorge
[EN] The essential purpose of any Urban Project is to shape Public Space. Buildings role, no matter their architectural qualities, is to shape that void and give it character. The failure of CIAM´s urbanism was its disregard for public space, merely a left over emptiness between isolated building blocks and highways. A good instrument to understand this fact is the Figure/ Ground plans that show in black and white the basic shape of buildings and voids. In the traditional city, the public spaces have a clear definition, a presence of its own. In a CIAM design, the public realm is shapeless, with no hint about either use or limits. These concepts are broadly accepted today, but two adverse conditions affect entire populations: 1. In poor Countries, there is an urgent need to make slums part of the city structure and services, with little budget left for public space. 2. In Asian Cities, mainly in China, immense areas are demolished overnight; its historic fabric replaced by endless rows of anonymous high rise blocks amid elevated traffic structures, with no place left for pedestrians.
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Stages of territorial configuration in the non-planned occupation of the Huerta de Murcia, 1929-2015

  • Ros, Marcos
  • García, Fernando
[EN] The “Huerta de Murcia” is an agricultural area of about 10,000 Ha in size, originated in the ninth century, and linked to an extensive network of canals dependent from Segura River. Such system provides a much divided and fragmented agrarian morphology, around the city of Murcia, in the southeast of Spain, basically dedicated to the agriculture. The city of Murcia has experimented an important growth in the last five decades, substituting hundreds of hectares of agrarian land, into urban. But even more important than this, the periurban area has suffered along the past 90 years a periurbanization process, caused by the unscheduled appearance of buildings. Most of them have emerged in the last 4 decades, whose use is mainly family housing and holyday homes, and have not been planned by standard planning procedures. This causes a spontaneous phenomenon of dispersed territory occupation. The paper shows, through an analysis methodology based on orto-photographical series and cadastral data, the existence of different stages along the studied period (1929-2015). These stages are substantially different each other in two ways: the patterns and zones affected by this process, on one hand, and the intensity of this process, which vary along each studied period, on the other hand. The analyses of these patterns, as well as a proposed classification, and the quantification of the process in each period, are the subjects of the paper, which allows authors to set appropriate relations between the city of Murcia and its periurban territory, to afford the globalization age.
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The University-Residence Hall paradigm. Urban transformation of Alcalá de Henares in the Renaissance, El Paradigma Universidad-Colegio. Transformación urbana de Alcalá de Henares en el Renacimiento

  • Gil Campuzano, Miguel
  • Palomares Figueres, María
[EN] Once deployed the Bolognese University model, springs an emerging educational building typology. Due to the lack of board and lodge in the brand new Alcalá University, the Cardinal Cisneros’ University-Residence Hall model is born. A changing step is unveiled, proceeding side-by-side with the climax of previous building experiences in the cities of Salamanca and Valladolid. Such new category forges the concept of “Colegio Mayor” with a greater ambition than those existing in the mainland, and able to address the new requirements of an early Modern-Age borough. The growth regime is hierarchized through new cloisters. These patios organize all the fixtures of the whole. A rising town takes up, showing off the avant-garde investigation spotlight which it (later on) proved it had become. In its town planning, the constitution of a sort of “Ensanche” -Urban Expansion Plan- of an early medieval old town is focused, overarching equally either the educational, residential or public facility buildings. This was a red-hot experience, and could be credited as the first-planned to a certain extent- University Town in the history. It had a great trend projection and international influence, having the widest reaching in South American cities. And by the recent 1998, this University Campus was admitted together with the Old Town of Alcalá de Henares in the Unesco World Heritage List., [ES] Con la creación del modelo universitario boloñés en España nace una tipología docente de nueva implantación. Ante la falta de alojamiento en la reciente creada Universidad Alcalaina, nace el modelo Colegio-Universidad implantado por el Cardenal Cisneros. Se inaugura una nueva etapa al mismo tiempo que se culminan experiencias edificatorias anteriores en las ciudades de Salamanca y Valladolid. El nuevo tipo forja el concepto de Colegio Mayor con una ambición mayor que los ya existentes en el país y capaz de responder a nuevas necesidades de una ciudad de principios de la Edad Moderna. El sistema de crecimiento se jerarquiza a través de nuevos claustros. Estos patios organizan todos los elementos del conjunto. Nace una nueva urbe, convirtiendose ésta en foco investigador de primera magnitud. En su planificación, destaca la constitución de una especie de “ensanche” de época temprana del casco medieval, comprendiendo los edificios tanto docentes como residenciales y de equipamientos. Esta es una experiencia novedosa, se podría atribuir como la primera ciudad universitaria, planificada en cierta medida, de la historia. Tuvo una gran proyección e influencia internacional, teniendo el mayor énfasis en ciudades sudamericanas. Y en la actualidad, en 1998 es incluído este recinto universitario junto al casco antiguo de Alcalá de Henares en la lista Patrimonio Mundial de la Unesco.
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Dual-Fuel Dual-Mode combustion strategy to achieve high thermal efficiency, low NOx and smoke emissions in compression ignition engines

  • Boronat Colomer, Vicente|||0000-0001-7585-1449
Elevada eficiencia térmica y mínimas emisiones contaminantes impuestas por las restrictivas normativas anticontaminación en motores alternativos representan el principal objetivos de los fabricantes de motores. La estrategia de combustión diésel convencional es ampliamente utilizada en el mundo gracias a su excelente economía en el consumo de carburante. Esta estrategia permite operar con mezclas pobres de combustible y aire proporcionando elevada eficiencia térmica. Además, este tipo de combustión puede ser aplicada desde motores tanto para vehículos ligeros como en motores marinos. Sin embargo, este proceso de combustión conlleva a la generación de elevadas emisiones de NOx y emisiones de partículas (comúnmente llamado hollín en los diésel), siendo imposible reducir ambos contaminantes de forma simultánea. Por tanto, los fabricantes han incorporado sistemas de post-tratamiento con el objetivo de cumplir con las normativas de emisiones, cuya intención es la de proveer emisiones más limpias y elevada eficiencia. Por el contrario, este tipo de sistemas para mitigar las emisiones contaminantes incrementan la complejidad del motor dado el complejo proceso llevado a cabo durante el post-tratamiento y una aumento en los costes tanto de producción como operativos a lo largo del ciclo de vida del motor. La comunidad científica continua desarrollando soluciones alternativas a la combustión diésel convencional manteniendo los beneficios de este proceso de combustión mientras que las emisiones son reducidas (principalmente NOx y hollín). La comunidad científica ha encontrado en las estrategias de combustión de baja temperatura un proceso de combustión capaz de proporcionar elevada eficiencia térmica y emisiones ultra bajas de NOx y humo. En este sentido, la revisión bibliográfica dice que estos tipos de combustión permiten la reducción simultánea de ambas emisiones, rompiendo así el tradicional "trade-off" existente en la combustión diésel convencional. Sobre todas las estrategias, la que muestra un potencial superior es la estrategia conocida como combustión dominada por la reactividad del combustible. Este proceso de combustión se caracteriza por emplear dos combustibles, siendo capaz de solucionar los principales problemas de las estrategias de baja temperatura tales como el fasado de la combustión. Sin embargo, esta estrategia de combustión también presenta algunos inconvenientes como el elevado nivel de monóxido de carbono e hidrocarburos inquemados a baja carga y elevado gradiente de presión y presión en cámara a elevada carga que limitan el rango de operación. El objetivo general de la presente investigación es proveer de una estrategia de combustión "dual-fuel" capaz de operar sobre todo el rango de operación de un motor proporcionando igual o mejores eficiencia térmica que el diésel convencional y emisiones ultra bajas de NOx y humos. Adicionalmente, esta investigación implica una exploración delas emisiones de las partículas del concepto de combustión ya que el número de partículas se encuentra actualmente regulado por la normativa anticontaminante. El proceso de combustión que responde a este objetivo es "Dual-Mode Dual-Fuel". Este concepto de combustión emplea dos combustibles y cambia de combustión premezclada a baja carga a combustión de naturaleza difusiva a plena carga. Con el deseo de explorar las capacidades de la estrategia de combustión, se han empleado dos configuraciones de "hardware" y se ha realizado un estudio de la distribución por tamaños de las partículas. Finalmente, considerando los principales resultados de la investigación, el último capítulo pretende resumir las principales bondades del concepto de combustión así como sus limitaciones y trabajos futuros., Elevada eficiència tèrmica i mínimes emissions contaminants impostes per les normatives anticontaminants en motores alternatius representen el principal objectiu dels fabricants de motors. La estratègia de combustió diésel convencional es àmpliament utilitzada per tot el mon gracies al excel·lent consum de carburant. Esta estratègia permet operar el motor amb dosatges pobres que resulten en elevada eficiència tèrmica. A més, aquest tipus de combustió pot ser aplicada tant a els motor mes lleugers con als motor per aplicacions marines. No obstant això, aquest procés de combustió implica la generació de elevats nivells de emissió de NOx i sutja, que no es poden reduir simultàniament. Per tant, els fabricants han incorporat sistemes de post-tractament amb el objectiu de acomplir les normatives anticontaminació, que pretenen obtindre motors en emissions mes netes i mes eficients. Per el contrari, aquest tipus de sistemes per a reduir les emissions incrementen la complexitat del motor i els costos tant de producció com operatius al llarg del cicle de vida del motor. La comunitat científica continua desenvolupant solucions alternatives a la combustió dièsel mantenint els beneficis d¿aquest tipus de combustió però reduint les emissions (principalment NOx i sutja). La comunitat científica ha trobat a les estratègies de combustió de baixa temperatura un procés de combustió que te elevada eficiència tèrmica i extremadament baixes emissions de NOx y partícules. En aquest sentit, la revisió bibliogràfica constata que aquests tipus de combustions permeten la reducció simultània dels contaminants NOx i sutja, trencant el tradicional "trade-off" existent a la combustió dièsel. De entre totes les estratègies proposades de baixa temperatura, la estratègia combustió dominada per la reactivitat del combustible presenta mes potencial que les altres. Aquest procés de combustió es caracteritza per utilitzar dos combustibles, lo que li permet solventar els principals problemes que han aparegut al llarg de la investigació de les estratègies de baixa temperatura com el control de la combustió. No obstant, aquest concepte de combustió també presenta algunes limitacions com el excessiu nivell de monòxid de carbó e inquemats a baixa càrrega i el elevat gradient de pressió i elevada pressió en càmera a elevada càrrega que limiten el rang de operació del motor. El objectiu de la investigació es proposar un concepte de combustió "dual-fuel" que puga operar en tot el rang de operació de un motor proporcionant el mateix o millorant la eficiència tèrmica que el dièsel amb emissions ultra baixes de NOx y partícules. A més, aquesta investigació també implica realitzar una exploració de les partícules emitides per el concepte ja que actualment està regulat per les normatives anticontaminants. El procés de combustió que compleix el objectiu es diu "Dual-Mode Dual-Fuel". Aquest concepte de combustió utilitza dos combustibles de diferent reactivitat y modifica la combustió de totalment premesclada a baixa càrrega a combustió de natura difusiva a plena càrrega. Amb el desig de explorar les capacitats del concepte, s¿han arribat a provar dos configuracions de pistons diferent per a adequar la relació de compressió i també un anàlisi per tamanys de les partícules. Finalment, considerant els principals resultats obtinguts, el últim capítol pretén resumir les principals avantatges del concepte ací com les principals limitacions y , per tant, els treballs futurs., High thermal efficiency coupled to minimum pollutants emissions imposed by the stringent standard emissions limitations in reciprocating engines represent the main target of the engine manufacturers industry. Conventional diesel combustion strategy is widely used worldwide due to its excellent fuel economy. This combustion strategy allows operating under lean mixtures of fuel and air that provide high thermal efficiency. In addition, this type of combustion can be applied from light-duty engines to large bore marine engines. However, the combustion process leads to high NOx and particle matter emissions, being impossible to reduce both pollutants simultaneously. Hence, manufactures have incorporated aftertreatment systems in order to meet the imposed standard emissions limitations, which are aimed to provide cleaner emissions and high efficiency. By contrast, these systems required for the emissions mitigation result in a very complex processes and an increase in the engine production and operational costs. The research community continues developing alternative solutions to the conventional diesel combustion concept keeping the benefits of this combustion process while the emissions are reduced (mainly focused on NOx and soot). Research community have found in the low temperature combustion strategies the combustion process able to provide excellent high thermal efficiency and ultra-low NOx and smoke emissions. In this sense, the literature review states that this types of combustion processes allow the simultaneous reduction of NOx and smoke, breaking the traditional trade-off found in diesel engines. Amongst others, the most promising strategy is the reactivity controlled compression ignition. This combustion process is characterized by using two fuels and is able to solve the main challenges of the low temperature combustion processes such as combustion phasing control. Nonetheless, the reactivity controlled strategy also presents some challenges such as excessive carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons during low load operation and high pressure rise rate and in-cylinder pressure that limit the engine range operation. The general objective of this investigation is to provide a dual-fuel strategy able to operate over the whole range providing similar or better thermal efficiency that the conventional diesel combustion and ultra-low values of NOx and smoke. In addition, the investigation also explores the particle emissions of the concept since it is regulated by the standard emissions. The combustion process that responds to the target provided at the general objective is the Dual-Fuel Dual-Mode concept. This concept uses two fuels and switches from a dual-fuel fully premixed strategy (based on the RCCI concept) during low load operation to a diffusive nature during high load operation. In order to explore the capabilities of the concept, two hardware configurations are used and a particle size distribution exploration is performed. Finally, considering the main findings of the investigation, the last chapter is aimed to provide the benefits of the combustion process developed as well as the main limitations or future works of the concept.
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