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Tumores de la glándula parótida

  • Gay Escoda, Cosme
  • Berini Aytés, Leonardo
Los tumores de las glándulas salivales constituyen una patología de especial interés, ya que plantean una serie de problemas desde dis­tintos puntos de vista del diagnóstico y de la terapéutica. Su relativa frecuencia, del 1 al 2 por ciento de toda la patología tumoral del orga­nismo, justifica su interés, aumentando todavía más para el cirujano, puesto que constituyen el mayor porcentaje de indicaciones quirúrgicas de esta región. El conocimiento de las características biológicas de cada variedad de tumor y la posibilidad no rara de encontrar una disociación cito­biológica en algunos de ellos, hace más apasionante el estudio de este tipo de patología.

Probiotics and oral health: A systematic review

  • Seminario-Amez, Maria
  • López López, José, 1958-
  • Estrugo-Devesa, Albert
  • Ayuso Montero, Raúl
  • Jané Salas, Enric
Background: Probiotics are microorganisms, mainly bacteria, which benefit the host's health. Many studies support the role of probiotics as a contributor to gastrointestinal health, and nowadays many authors are trying to prove its influence in oral health maintenance. Objectives: To review the published literature with the purpose of knowing the importance of using probiotics as a preventive and therapeutic method for oral infectious diseases management. Material and Methods: An electronic search in PubMed database with the keywords 'oral health AND probiotics AND dentistry' was conducted. The inclusion criteria were: randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that assess the action of any probiotic strain in the treatment and / or prevention of an infectious oral disease, RCTs that assess the action of any probiotic strain on counting colony forming units (CFU) of oral pathogens, systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The Jadad scale was used to assess the high quality of RCTs. Results: Fifteen articles were considered for this review. Of which, 12 were RCTs of good / high quality (Jadad scale), two meta-analysis and one systematic review. Conclusions: The literature reviewed suggests probiotics usage could be beneficial for the maintenance of oral health, due to its ability to decrease the colony forming units (CFU) counts of the oral pathogens. However, randomized clinical trials with long-term follow-up periods are needed to confirm their efficacy in reducing the prevalence/ incidence of oral infectious diseases. Furthermore, the recognition of specific strains with probiotic activity for each infectious oral disease is required, in order to determine exact dose, treatment time and ideal vehicles.

Detecting similar binding pockets to enable systems polypharmacology

  • Duran Frigola, Miquel
  • Siragusa, Lydia
  • Ruppin, Eytan
  • Barril Alonso, Xavier
  • Cruciani, Gabriele
  • Aloy, Patrick, 1972-
In the era of systems biology, multi-target pharmacological strategies hold promise for tackling disease-related networks. In this regard, drug promiscuity may be leveraged to interfere with multiple receptors: the so-called polypharmacology of drugs can be anticipated by analyzing the similarity of binding sites across the proteome. Here, we perform a pairwise comparison of 90,000 putative binding pockets detected in 3,700 proteins, and find that 23,000 pairs of proteins have at least one similar cavity that could, in principle, accommodate similar ligands. By inspecting these pairs, we demonstrate how the detection of similar binding sites expands the space of opportunities for the rational design of drug polypharmacology. Finally, we illustrate how to leverage these opportunities in protein-protein interaction networks related to several therapeutic classes and tumor types, and in a genome-scale metabolic model of leukemia.

The value of repeat biopsy in lupus nephritis flares

  • Narváez García, Francisco Javier
  • Ricse, Milagros
  • Gomà, Montse
  • Mitjavila Villeró, Francesca
  • Fulladosa, Xavier
  • Capdevila, Olga
  • Torras Ambròs, Joan
  • Juanola, Xavier
  • Pujol Farriols, Ramon
  • Nolla Solé, Joan Miquel
Whether a repeat renal biopsy is helpful during lupus nephritis (LN) flares remains debatable. In order to analyze the clinical utility of repeat renal biopsy in this complex situation, we retrospectively reviewed our series of 54 LN patients who had one or more repeat biopsies performed only on clinical indications. Additionally, we reviewed 686 well-documented similar cases previously reported (PubMed 1990-2015). The analysis of all patients reviewed showed that histological transformations are common during a LN flare, ranging from 40% to 76% of cases. However, the prevalence of transformations and the clinical value of repeat biopsy vary when they are analyzed according to proliferative or nonproliferative lesions. The great majority of patients with class II (78% in our series and 77.5% in the literature review) progressed to a higher grade of nephritis (classes III, IV, or V), resulting in worse renal prognosis. The frequency of pathological conversion in class V is lower (33% and 43%, respectively) but equally clinically relevant, since almost all cases switched to a proliferative class. Therefore, repeat biopsy is highly advisable in patients with nonproliferative LN at baseline biopsy, because these patients have a reasonable likelihood of switch to a proliferative LN that may require more aggressive immunosuppression. In contrast, the majority of patients (82% and 73%) with proliferative classes in the reference biopsy (III, IV or mixed III/IV + V), remained into proliferative classes on repeat biopsy. Although rebiopsy in this group does not seem as necessary, it is still advisable since it will allow us to identify the 18% to 20% of patients that switch to a nonproliferative class. In addition, consistent with the reported clinical experience, repeat biopsy might also be helpful to identify selected cases with clear progression of proliferative lesions despite the initial treatment, for whom it is advisable to intensify inmunosuppression. Thus, our experience and the literature data support that repeat biopsy also brings more advantges than threats in this group. The results of the repeat biopsy led to a change in the immunosuppresive treatment in more than half of the patients on average, intensifying it in the majority of the cases, but also reducing it in 5% to 30%.

Two Rate constant kinetic model for the chromium(III)-EDTA complexation reaction by numerical simulations

  • Pérez de Benito, Joaquín F.
The complexation reaction of Cr(III) ion in the presence of a large excess of EDTA does not follow a pseudo-first-order kinetics as sometimes suggested. There are two causes for the deviation from this simple behavior: the involvement of a long-lived intermediate, precluding the application of the steady-state approximation, and the autoinhibition provoked by the release of hydrogen ions from the organic ligand to the medium as the final Cr(III)-EDTA violet complex is formed. Numerical simulations have allowed obtaining for each kinetic experiment the values of two rate constants, k1 (corresponding to the formation of the long-lived intermediate from the reactants) and k2 (corresponding to the formation of the final complex product from the long-lived intermediate), as well as the number of hydrogens liberated per molecule of final complex product formed (Hkin). The results indicate that k1 is associated to a fast step (Ea = 87 ± 4 kJ mol-1) and k2 to a slow step (Ea = 120 ± 2 kJ mol-1), whereas the number of hydrogen ions lies within the range 0 < Hkin < 2 in all the kinetic runs. A mechanism in accordance with the experimental data has been proposed.

Reflexions de Gabriele Turi sobre la biografia històrica

  • Cattini, Giovanni C., 1972-
La tardor de 2006, Gabriele Turi1, professor d'Història contemporània a la Universitat de Florència, es va desplaçar fins a Barcelona per participar en un cicle de conferències. CERCLES. REVISTA D'HISTÒRIA CULTURAL va aprofitar l'ocasió per fer-li una entrevista. La dilatada trajectòria professional del professor Turi i l¿evolució dels seus treballs el converteixen en un observador privilegiat de l'evolució de la historiografia europea contemporània, especialment de la italiana.

Soldats perpetuats en l'oblit

  • Solé, Queralt
L'article es pregunta i respon quin fou el tracte envers els soldats morts al camp de batalla durant la Guerra Civil espanyola (1936-1939); el sistema d'inhumació que reberen en funció de l'exèrcit al qual pertanyien tant durant la guerra com després, i constata com les fosses comunes de soldats són arreu, tant a l'Estat com a Catalunya.

Norberto Bobbio: el dubte, entre la malenconia i el compromís

  • Casassas, Jordi, 1948-
At the occasion of the recent death of the Italian philosopher Norberto Bobbio, the author approaches to the main lines of his analytical reflection about politics, state theory and cultural history. The Bobbio's biography is also presented as a significant example of the Italian Twentieth Century intellectual experience.

Capdetrey, L.; Hasenohr, C. (textes réunis par). Agoranomes et édiles. Institutions des marchés antiques. Bordeaux: Ausonius Éditions, 2013. Scripta Antiqua 44. 314. págs. [17 x 24].

  • Pérez González, Jordi
Los estudios aquí reunidos corresponden a los trabajos de dos reuniones científicas: la primera, organizada por el GRDI del CNRS con título "Les Marchés dans le monde antique: espaces, antiques, institutions", en Burdeos los días 8 y 9 de marzo de 2007, y una segunda, el 24 de noviembre de 2007, con la colaboración de Ausonius, y del Centre Gustave Glotz (desde ese momento conocido como ANHIMA). Los organizadores de las jornadas, Raymond DESCAT, Jean ANDREAU y Christel MÜLLET consiguieron reunir un elenco de notables historiadores y juristas especialistas en el mundo griego y romano capaces de abordar el tema de las instituciones de los mercados en un cuadro geográfico y cronológico muy basto.

Justel-Vicente, Daniel (ed.). Niños en la Antigüedad. Estudios sobre la infancia en el Mediterráno antiguo. Zaragoza: Prensas de la Universidad de Zaragoza, 2012. 269 págs.

  • Pérez González, Jordi
Como bien indica el editor de la obra en el primer capítulo: "El estudio de la infancia en el mundo antiguo" (pp.16-29), el tema de la infancia no ha sido objeto preferente de estudio en la historiografía tradicional, de ahí que la realización de este volumen, ligado al conocimiento de los niños en la antigüedad, se convierta en una interesante novedad.

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