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PUBLIC ART AND ARTICULATION WITH THE WATERFRONT IN LISBON, ARTE PÚBLICA E ARTICULAÇÃO COM A FRENTE DE ÁGUA NA CIDADE DE LISBOA

  • Ochoa, Rita
The paper is based on the study of the relationship between the inner city and the waterfront, from the case of Lisbon, by means of the urban structures that link these two realities, called structures of articulation with the waterfront. The starting point is the identification of a territorial system underlying the urban structure: the comb structure, consisting of two logics: the horizontal logic (urban axes parallel to the waterfront) and the vertical logic (urban axes transverse to the waterfront). In this system, public space plays an important role, because of its articulating properties and of the way it physically and visually allows the connection with the waterfront. But this is also a symbolic system. This research assumes that the different ways of physical and visual connection are related with one key factor: the existence of public art in those structures of articulation. Assuming the articulation with the waterfront as a complex reality, that should be observed by the crossing of different disciplines and analysed from its different aspects, which characterize it, this paper focuses on one of these aspects: the relationship between public art and the structures of articulation. First, the article quantifies the elements of public art in each of the 20 transversal axes and throughout the territory, observing the most charged areas. It also analyzes the different historical moments of placing (focusing on the date of placement in the public space, no on the date of the production of the different works), relating the chronology of placement of public art with the chronology of the interventions in the city. Then, it focuses on the belonging of the different elements, in each transversal axis, to the scope here defined as waterfront (the areas with a morphological unity within the overall organization of the respective cities, which correspond to the corridor of contact with the dividing line between land and water). Finally, the article explores the different ways of placement in their respective public spaces and along the structures of articulation, identifying and establishing parallels with other ways of placement, in different space-time contexts. At the same time, as a matter of background, it is intended here to prove that the placement of public art in the transverse axes is a way to enhance its physical and visual articulation with the waterfront, contributing also to the construction of a proper identity in port cities., O presente artigo tem como base o estudo da relação entre a cidade e a frente de água, a partir do caso de Lisboa e através das estruturas urbanas que ligam estas duas realidades, denominadas, neste contexto, como estruturas de articulação com a frente de água. Este trabalho parte da identificação de um sistema territorial subjacente à malha urbana: a estrutura em pente, constituída por duas lógicas morfologicamente distintas mas interligadas: a lógica horizontal (eixos urbanos paralelos à frente de água) e a lógica vertical (eixos urbanos transversais à frente de água). Neste sistema, o espaço público desempenha um importante papel, pelas suas propriedades articuladoras e pela maneira como permite relacionar – física e visualmente – a cidade interior com a sua frente de água. Este é também um sistema simbólico; as diferentes formas de relação física e visual estão ligadas a um factor fundamental: a presença de arte pública nas estruturas de articulação. Assumindo a articulação com a frente de água como uma realidade complexa, que deve ser analisada mediante o cruzamento de diferentes disciplinas e interpretada a partir das suas diferentes vertentes, que, como uma justaposição de factores, a caracterizam, o presente artigo centra-se na exploração de uma dessas vertentes: a relação entre a arte pública e as estruturas de articulação. Primeiramente, quantificam-se os elementos de arte pública em cada uma das 20 estruturas em estudo e ao longo no território, observando as áreas mais carregadas. São também analisados os diferentes momentos históricos de colocação (interessando aqui a data de colocação no espaço público e não a data de elaboração das peças), relacionando-se a cronologia da colocação de arte pública com a própria cronologia das intervenções na cidade. Seguidamente, observa-se, dentro de cada eixo transversal, a pertença das diferentes obras ao âmbito definido como frente de água (áreas com uma unidade territorial morfológica dentro da organização geral das respectivas cidades, que correspondem ao corredor de contacto com a linha de separação entre a terra e a água). Finalmente, são sistematizados os diferentes modos como a arte pública se posiciona nos respectivos espaços públicos e ao longo das estruturas, procurando-se identificar modelos de colocação e estabelecer paralelismos com outras formas de posicionamento, em contextos espácio-temporais diferentes. Como questão de fundo, procura-se comprovar que a colocação de arte pública nos eixos transversais constitui uma forma de valorizar a respectiva articulação física e visual com a frente de água, contribuindo, por sua vez, para a construção de uma identidade própria em cidades portuárias.
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Convidando amigos – a importância das redes sociais e de conhecimento na colaboração entre arquitectos e artistas

  • Andrade, Inês
This paper is focused on the introduction of the principles of modern movement in Lisbon in a period between 1945 and 1965. This process was accompanied, later, by the arrival of a trend in vogue in post-war world’s debates: the synthesis or integration of the arts.An important event was the Third IUA – International Union of Architects – Congress held in Lisbon in 1953, where the synthesis of the arts was debated. Here, the participants stressed the importance of the collaboration between architects and artists since the beginning of the creative process and emphasized that artists should always be chosen by the architect. The final resolutions of the congress concerning the synthesis of the arts seem to have had direct impact on the city hall’s art commissioning, but would also meet former reflections of artists and architects in Lisbon.In this particular context, this paper concentrates on a specific aspect, which seems to be a relevant matter in the production of “integrated art”: the personal relationships between architects and artists and the social and knowledge networks that connected them. Based on a series of oral testimonies of artists and architects, this paper seeks to enumerate some of the places and events, in Lisbon, where these relationships were established.In a context of ideological isolation and cultural stagnation, the assumption of the modern movement was almost always led by opponents to the dictatorial regime. Personal relationships, which we have referred, were thus reinforced by a feeling of political and aesthetic affinities. Artists and architects who believed in the social function of art and architecture and in the benefits of collaboration were, thus, a small elite. In this small group everybody knew each other and everybody frequented the same places.The School of Fine Arts, where many of the artists and architects were trained, the SNBA - National Society of Fine Arts, the most important association of artists, the EGAPS - General Exhibitions of Plastic Arts 1946-1956, a series of exhibitions with emphasis on the social purpose of art and architecture, and finally, the cafes, or coffee shops,  collective spaces where all people could meet and share ideas.In spite of being omitted in archive documents, works of art in public buildings and spaces have invisible links to other dimensions of reality – such as personal relationships between artists and architects – that should not be neglected in a comprehensive understanding of the phenomena.
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Public space, time and space of change: Lisbon and Barcelona, Espaço público, tempo e espaço de uma mudança: Lisboa e Barcelona

  • Sisti, Claudia
During last decades, public space has undergone a major renovation of experience at international level, specially in Europe. This is an experience marked by great diversity not only of project intervention, but also of conceptual approaches to public space design. Analysis of various interventions, it is clear how the different conditions of locality focus heavily on how public space is treated.Spain and Portugal, represent a special field of analysis, because both countries share a common recent history (dictatorships, democratic transition, accession to the EEC, etc. ..), but at the same time ‘live’ situations that urbanly, socialy and politically are substantially different . It is the aim of this article to provide a historical summary of the framework decades of eighties and nineties, in Barcelona and Lisbon, in what regards to urban development and policies for public space, evaluating in a global way the common lines, trends and most significant steps. Secondly, supported by timelines of ‘Plans, Projects and Procurement’ we refer to most significant cases for each of the cities, focusing on achievements brought to term.Using this method of analysis space / time allows us to demonstrate how different contexts and times of intervention, correspond to different types of public space and how the concept of public space is to metamorphose paradigms that can be set in a short time. What next?, Durant les últimes dècades, l’espai públic ha patit una important renovació d’experiència a nivell internacional, especialment a Europa.Aquesta és una experiència marcada per una gran diversitat no només dels projectes d’intervenció, sinó també dels enfocaments conceptuals per al disseny de l’espai públic. L’anàlisi de les diferents intervencions, evidencia com les diferents condicions de la localitat se centren en gran mesura en com l’espai públic es tracta.Espanya i Portugal, representen un camp d’anàlisi, donat que ambdós països comparteixen una història recent (la dictadura, la transició democràtica, l’adhesió a la CEE, etc ..), però al mateix temps “viuen” situacions que urbana, social i políticament són substancialment diferents. És l’objectiu d’aquest article oferir un resum històric del marc de les dècades dels vuitanta i noranta, a Barcelona i Lisboa, pel que fa al desenvolupament urbà i a les polítiques d’espai públic, avaluar de manera global les línies comunes, tendències i les mesures significatives. En segon lloc, amb el suport línies el temps sobre plans, projectes i realitzacions ens referim als casos més significatius per a cada una de les ciutats, centrant-se en els èxits duts a terme.L’ús d’aquest mètode d’anàlisi espacial i temporal que ens permet demostrar com els diferents contextos i temps d’intervenció, corresponen a diferents tipus d’espai públic i com el concepte d’espai públic és metamorfoseja en paradigmes que poden establir-se en un curt període de temps. Què seguirà?
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Public Space and Territorial Cohesion - The Case of the "Rambla de La Mina", Espaço Público e Coesão Territorial – O Caso da “Rambla de La Mina”

  • Pinto, Ana Júlia
The urban structure hosts an enormous variety of factors and interactions that, on one hand, reveal its interest and uniqueness but, on the other hand, leads to some of today’s problems of territorial cohesion.Public spaces have a fundamental role in the urban structure and city life, as they allow for formal and environmental continuity, accessibility, visibility, contributing to the reinforcement of social and economical centralities. Therefore it is fundamental to think of public spaces as important instruments on promoting territorial cohesion. The need to adapt public spaces to each site’s specificities, in a local perspective as well as on the broader scale (city, region) becomes evident, highlighting the necessity for the articulation of both scales, in the way of promoting a cohese and inclusive territories.It is on the often unstructured cities’ peripheries, with their peculiar urban characteristics, that these interventions assume a greater importance, as with the case of the Barrio de La Mina, in Barcelona., La estructura urbana alberga una enorme variedad de factores e interacciones que, por una parte, ponen de manifiesto su interés y su singularidad, pero, por otro lado, generan algunos de los problemas actuales de cohesión territorial.Los espacios públicos tienen un papel fundamental en la estructura urbana y la vida de la ciudad, ya que para la educación formal y permitir la continuidad del medio ambiente, la accesibilidad, la visibilidad, lo que contribuye al fortalecimiento de centralidades sociales y económicas. Por lo tanto, es fundamental pensar en los espacios públicos como instrumentos importantes en la promoción de la cohesión territorial. La necesidad de adaptación de los espacios públicos a las especificidades de cada sitio, en una perspectiva local, así como en una mayor escala (ciudad, región) se hace evidente, poniendo de relieve la necesidad de la articulación de ambas escalas, para promover unos territorios cohesos e inclusivos.Es, a menudo, en la no estructurada periferia de las ciudades, con sus peculiares características urbanas, que estas intervenciones de asumen una mayor importancia, como en el caso del Barrio de La Mina, en Barcelona.
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SPACE IN THE INDUSTRIAL RIVERFRONT OF LISBON. PROCESSES OF SPATIAL FORMATION, Espacio en la ribera del periodo industrial de Lisboa. PROCESOS DE formación espacial

  • Costa, João Pedro
Being a plural space – in space and in time – the Lisbon riverfront is composed of multiple spaces with its own logic and distinctcharacteristics, being its pre-existent areas or spaces conquered to the river, located by the water or separated from the riversomewhere in time.At first occupied by the industry of the city, by the port or by the new accessibility infrastructure, this riverfront has knownvariable dynamics of use through time.Specifically during the industrial period, a large expansion of the riverfront occurred, resulting simultaneously (1) in the creationof the new port, industrial and urban areas, and (2) on the separation of the former riverfront areas from the Tagus River.During this period different process of territorial formation occurred:1. The formation building by building;2. The structure of pier, street and warehouse;3. The spontaneous growth supported by corridors of accessibilities (streets and railway);4. The project of the industrial company;5. The master plan of the port in front of the city;6. The industrial allotment;7. The large and autonomous industrial complexWithin this complex reality, several types of public space were also created, being the axes of accessibility or the structure ofsquares, both verifying a graduation of different levels of importance.This article tries to present a typological classification of this reality in the Lisbon riverfront formation during the industrialperiod.Later, with the post-industrial transformation of the Lisbon’s riverfront, new public space was also created; this contemporaneousdynamics will be object of analysis in a subsequent publication.This research is supported by a previous work, focused on the identification of a group of common patterns in the formation andtransformation of the riverfront starting in the industrial period; these patterns were identified in the Lisbon case study andconfirmed in four other working cases – the riverfronts of Rotterdam, Shanghai, Duisburg and Hamburg.Studying the territory and its several primary and secondary fonts, it was divided in two parts. The first, specifically, proposed thedefinition of the seven formation processes of the industrial riverfront – identifying for each its predominant period in time –, andanalysed the forms of creation and different characteristics of the resulting public space.This article is a dissemination of parts of an author’s previous research (2006), the «Riverfront between projects», available inSpanish on: http://www.tesisenxarxa.net/TDX-0322107-120012/, Siendo un espacio plural - en el espacio y en el tiempo - el río de Lisboa está compuesto por múltiples espacios con su propia lógica y características distintas, siendo sus áreas de pre-existencia espacios conquistados para el río, situados sobre el agua o separados por el río en alguna parte en el tiempo.En un primer momento ocupado por la industria de la ciudad, por el puerto o por la nueva infraestructura de accesibilidad, este río ha conocido variables dinámicas de uso en el tiempo.En concreto, durante la era industrial, se produjo una gran expansión de la orilla del río, lo que al mismo tiempo supuso (1) la creación del nuevo puerto, la industria y las zonas urbanas, y (2) sobre la separación de la ex zonas de la ribera del río Tajo.Durante este periodo ocurrieron los diferentes procesos de formación territorial:1. La formación edificio por edificio;2. La estructura del muelle, calle y almacén;3. El crecimiento espontáneo de los corredores de accesibilidad de apoyo (calles y ferrocarril);4. El proyecto de la empresa industrial;5. El plan director del puerto frente a la ciudad;6. La parcelación industrial;7. Los grandes y autónomos complejos industrialesDentro de esta compleja realidad, también fueron creados varios tipos de espacio público, siendo los ejes de la accesibilidad o laestructura de plazas, tanto la verificación de una graduación de los diferentes niveles de importancia.Este artículo trata de presentar una clasificación tipológica de esta realidad en la formación de la ribera de Lisboa durante el período industrial.Más tarde, con la etapa posterior a la transformación industrial de la ribera de Lisboa, el nuevo espacio público también se ha creado, con lo que la dinámica contemporánea será objeto de análisis en una publicación posterior.Esta investigación se apoya en un trabajo anterior, que se centró en la identificación de un grupo de pautas comunes en la formación y la transformación de la orilla del río en la era industrial, estos patrones fueron identificados en el estudio de caso de Lisboa y confirmados en otros cuatro casos: los riverfrontsde Rotterdam, Shangai, Duisburgo y Hamburgo.El estudio del territorio y de sus diversas fuentes primarias y secundarias, se divide en dos partes. La primera, en concreto, propone la definición de los siete procesos de formación industrial en el río - la identificación de cada período y de su predominio en el tiempo -, y se analizan las formas de creación y las diferentes características de los espacios públicos resultantes.Este artículo es una revisión de parte de una investigación anterior del autor (2006), el «La Ribera entre proyectos», disponible en español en: : http://www.tesisenxarxa.net/TDX-0322107-120012/
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JUAN SORIANO IN THE MAIN SQUARE (ZÓCALO): AN EXPERIENCE OF CONTEMPORARY ART AT HISTORICAL TOWN CENTRE FROM PUEBLA-MÉXICO, Juan Soriano en e Zócalo: Una experiencia de arte contemporáneo en el centro histórico de Puebla

  • Hernández, Adriana
This research is trying to spread the experience of a temporary exhibition of contemporary art in the most important public site from the historical City of Puebla-Mexico, named “Los sueños moldeados de Juan Soriano” (The manageable dreams from Juan Soriano) carried out by Instituto Municipal de Arte y Cultura (Municipal Institute of Art and Culture) from the Town Council of Puebla City, from April 21st to June 26th, 2006, within the setting of the festivities for the 475 years of the City foundation, This space from XVI century was selected inorder to show great sculptures (monuments) carried out by the Mexican artist Juan Soriano (1920-2006)1, Esta investigación trata de difundir la experiencia de una exposición temporal de arte contemporáneo muy importantes en el sitio público de la histórica ciudad de Puebla-Mexico, llamada “Los sueños MOLDEADOS de Juan Soriano” fue llevada a cabo por el Instituto Municipal de Arte y Cultura del Ayuntamiento de la Ciudad de Puebla, entre el 21 de abril y el 26 de junio de 2006, en el marco de las festividades de los 475 años de la fundación de la ciudad. Este espacio del s. XVI fue seleccionado con el fin de mostrar grandes esculturas (monumentos), llevada a cabo por el artista mexicano Juan Soriano (1920-2006), con un total de doce piezas de bronce fundido, tales como: 1 .- Dos Caras de aves, 2.-Dafne, 3 Amarillo .- Gallo, 4 .- Ofrenda II, 5 .- El Pato, 6 .- Paloma, 7 .- Máquina de Hacer Dinero, 8 .- Paseos de aves, 9 .- Aves en la Onda, 10 .- Planta, 11 .- Bull, 12.-Gallo con bola. Cada escultura de la colección CONACULTA- INBA A.C,y Juan Soriano y Marek Keller, AC. Esta gran experiencia no se lleva a cabo muy a menudo en este lugar histórico y en un espacio tan representativo; esta es la primera exposición de arte contemporáneo y con un largo período (dos meses). Estos hechos nos dan la motivación para llevar a cabo una investigación y una encuesta de opinión sobre este tipo de eventos en un sector considerado como Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad por la UNESCO.
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IRANIAN CITIES PUBLIC ART MOVEMENT, EL MOVIMIENTO DE ARTE PÚBLICO EN LAS CIUDADES IRANIS

  • Kanami Moghadam, Hoda
Despite European cities with a long history in public art -such as the city of Rome with numerous sculptures in it’s urban spacespublic art in Iranian cities is recently going to be developed and new movements are being seen. After a long time with nonsculpture urban spaces-because of some islamic religious beliefs-the new Sculpture gardens , the sculptures which are being installed daily in Iranian cities, the amount of art orders by municipatities, Tehran international sculpture symposium , Site specific public art in shiraz, children wallpainting with the help of artists in Kerman….all these events together show this movement in the cities of Iran. This paper discusses main issues of this movement and presents some of it’s well done works.It is structured as follows . first, investigates changes throughout the time which took place in the viewpoints about the artforms with the focuse on sculpture ; second , talks about obstacles; third, the cultural ,political and bureaucratic context in connection with public art in Iranian cities are considereds; fourth , suggests the relations between place,people and public Art and argues the importance of having in hand guidelines and principles for public art project and process in Iran; Fifth,introduces precisely a wide range of activities that can be defined as public art and then presents conventional definition of public art in Iranian citie’s and artforms which have become so common there; sixth , three main governmental sectors who order and support and implement public art projects are introduced ;seventh , speaks about the optimistic future of the public art in Iranian cities and some of endevours in this filed are considered;In the conclusion ,some points which are nessesary to be taken into consideration for Iran’s public art development are suggested.This paper carried out by the present situation analysis as well as interviews with Teharan municipality key officers , art council members and artists., A pesar de que las ciudades europeas con una larga historia en arte público como la ciudad de Roma con numerosas esculturas en sus espacios urbanos públicos, el arte reciente en las ciudades iraníes está en desarrollo vinculado a nuevos movimientos. Tras mucho tiempo sin escultura en los espacios urbanos, debido a algunas creencias religiosas islámicas-los nuevos jardines de escultura, las esculturas que están siendo instaladas a diario en las ciudades iraníes, la cantidad de pedidos de arte por parte de los municipios, el simposio internacional de escultura de Teherán, el arte público “site specific” en Shiraz, los murales realizados por niños con la ayuda de los artistas en Kerman .... todos estos acontecimientos, demuestran este movimiento en las ciudadesde Irán. Este documento analiza las cuestiones principales de este movimiento y presenta algunos de sus trabajos. Está estructurado de la siguiente manera. En primer lugar, investiga los cambios que tuvieron lugar sobre los puntos de vista acerca del arte con especial atención a la escultura escultura. En segundo lugar, habla acerca de los obstáculos. En tercer lugar, trata de los aspectosculturales, políticos y burocráticos en relación al contexto del arte público en las ciudades iraníes. En cuarto lugar, sugiere que las relaciones entre el lugar, las personas y el arte público y defiende la importancia de disponer de las directrices y principios para el proyecto de arte público y su proceso en Irán. En quinto lugar, precisamente introduce una amplia gama de actividades quepuede definirse como arte público y, a continuación, se presenta la definición convencional de arte público en las ciudades iranís, un arte que se ha vuelto tan común allí. En sexto lugar, se introducen tres grandes sectores gubernamentales encargados del apoyo y la realización de proyectos de arte público. En séptimo lugar, habla sobre el futuro optimista del arte público en las ciudades iraníes, y se presentan alguno de sus logros. En la conclusión, se sugieren algunos puntos que deben, necesariamente, tenerse en cuenta para el desarrollo del arte público en Irán. This paper se basa en el análisis de la situación actual, así como en entrevistas con funcionarios clave del municipio de Teharan, miembros del consejo de arte y artistas.
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