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Female Ageing: Revising Reifungsroman in Doris Lessing's The Summer Before the Dark and Love, Again, Envejecimiento femenino: Revisando Reifungsroman en The Summer Before the Dark and Love, Again en Doris Lessing

  • Oró Piqueras, Maricel
The ageing process is usually perceived as a time of loss and decline, especially for women. The first signs of ageing are shown in the external body. In Western societies, wrinkles, white hair, impending falling jaws and limbs are seen, both by ageing women themselves and by their communities, as a straight and unstoppable road into invisibility that will end up in social exclusion. This is the first reaction the main female characters in Doris Lessing's The Summer Before the Dark (1973) and Love, Again (1996) experiment when they scrutinise their faces and bodies in front of the mirror and fail to recognise them as their real ones, the ones that defined them in their youth, just a few years ago. Parting from Barbara Frey Waxman's concept of Reifungsroman (1988), this paper intends to analyse how the female protagonists in Doris Lessing's The Summer Before the Dark and Love, Again perceive the changes going on inside them as their bodies are increasingly losing the virtues of youth and how they come to terms with those changes and succeed in undermining cultural conceptions of ageing in women.
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Crinivirus replication and host interactions

  • Kiss, Zsofia Agnes
  • Medina Piles, Vicente
  • Falk, Bryce W.
Criniviruses comprise one of the genera within the family Closteroviridae. Members in this family are restricted to the phloem and rely on whitefly vectors of the genera Bemisia and/or Trialeurodes for plant-to-plant transmission. All criniviruses have bipartite, positive-sense single-stranded RNA genomes, although there is an unconfirmed report of one having a tripartite genome. Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) is the type species of the genus, the best studied so far of the criniviruses and the first for which a reverse genetics system was developed. LIYV RNA 1 encodes for proteins predicted to be involved in replication, and alone is competent for replication in protoplasts. Replication results in accumulation of cytoplasmic vesiculated membranous structures which are characteristic of most studied members of the Closteroviridae. These membranous structures, often referred to as Beet yellows virus (BYV)-type vesicles, are likely sites of RNA replication. LIYV RNA 2 is replicated in trans when co-infecting cells with RNA 1, but is temporally delayed relative to RNA 1. Efficient RNA 2 replication also is dependent on the RNA 1-encoded RNA-binding protein, P34. No LIYV RNA 2-encoded proteins have been shown to affect RNA replication, but at least four, CP (major coat protein), CPm (minor coat protein), Hsp70h, and P59 are virion structural components and CPm is a determinant of whitefly transmissibility. Roles of other LIYV RNA 2-encoded proteins are largely as yet unknown, but P26 is a non-virion protein that accumulates in cells as characteristic plasmalemma deposits which in plants are localized within phloem parenchyma and companion cells over plasmodesmata connections to sieve elements. The two remaining crinivirus-conserved RNA 2-encoded proteins are P5 and P9. P5 is 39 amino acid protein and is encoded at the 5′ end of RNA 2 as ORF 1 and is part of the hallmark closterovirus gene array. The orthologous gene in BYV has been shown to play a role in cell-to-cell movement and indicated to be localized to the endoplasmic reticulum as a Type III integral membrane protein. The other small protein, P9, is encoded by ORF 4 overlaps with ORF 3 that encodes the structural protein, P59. P9 seems to be unique to viruses in the genus Crinivirus, as no similar protein has been detected in viruses of the other two genera of the Closteroviridae.
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Interpretación semántica de esquemas sintácticos

  • Vázquez García, Glòria
  • Fernández Montraveta, Ana María
En este artículo presentamos una propuesta para el tratamiento de la interfaz entre la sintaxis y la semántica que no se restringe al estudio de la estructura argumental, sino que también tiene en cuenta otros elementos que contribuyen al significado oracional, como son por ejemplo la semántica del predicado o el aspecto. Se propone una tipología de interpretaciones semánticas y para cada una se enumeran las estructuras sintácticas básicas del español. Los datos demuestran que no se da una correspondencia unívoca, sino que un mismo patrón sintáctico puede tener más de una interpretación semántica y, al revés, patrones sintácticos distintos pueden expresar el mismo significado oracional. Este artículo pretende ser una contribución al tratamiento de un tipo de ambigüedad, la sintáctica, que no ha sido muy estudiada. Consideramos que la descripción semántica de la sintaxis es esencial en determinadas aplicaciones como la traducción automática.
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Surgically induced weight loss by gastric bypass improves non alcoholic fatty liver disease in morbid obese patients

  • Vargas, Víctor
  • Allende, Helena
  • Lecube Torelló, Albert
  • Salcedo, Maria Teresa
  • Baena-Fustegueras, Juan A
  • Fort, José Manuel
  • Rivero, Joaquín
  • Ferrer, Roser
  • Catalán, Roberto
  • Pardina, Eva
  • Ramón y Cajal, Santiago
  • Guardia, Jaime
  • Peinado-Onsurbe, Julia
AIM: To evaluate the effects of surgical weight loss (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with a modified Fobi-Capella technique) on non alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese patients. METHODS: A group of 26 morbidly obese patients aged 45 ± 2 years and with a body mass index > 40 kg/m2 who underwent open surgical weight loss operations had paired liver biopsies, the first at surgery and the second after 16 ± 3 mo of weight loss. Biopsies were evaluated and compared in a blinded fashion. The presence of metabolic syndrome, anthropometric and biochemical variables were also assessed at baseline and at the time of the second biopsy. RESULTS: Percentage of excess weight loss was 72.1% ± 6.6%. There was a reduction in prevalence of metabolic syndrome from 57.7% (15 patients) to 7.7% (2 patients) (P < 0.001). Any significance difference was observed in aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase between pre and postsurgery. There were improvements in steatosis (P < 0.001), lobular (P < 0.001) and portal (P < 0.05) inflammation and fibrosis (P < 0.001) at the second biopsy. There were 25 (96.1%) patients with non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in their index biopsy and only four (15.3%) of the repeat biopsies fulfilled the criteria for NASH. The persistence of fibrosis (F > 1) was present in five patients at second biopsy. Steatosis and fibrosis at surgery were predictors of significant fibrosis postsurgery. CONCLUSION: Restrictive mildly malabsorptive surgery provides significant weight loss, resolution of metabolic syndrome and associated abnormal liver histological features in most obese patients.
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Left carotid adventitial vasa vasorum signal correlates directly with age and with left carotid intima-media thickness in individuals without atheromatous risk factors

  • Arcidiacono, Maria V.
  • Rubinat, Esther
  • Borràs, Mercè
  • Betriu i Bars, M. Àngels
  • Trujillano Cabello, Javier
  • Vidal, Teresa
  • Mauricio Puente, Dídac
  • Fernández i Giráldez, Elvira
Objective: The early identification of the onset of subclinical atheromatosis is essential in reducing the high mortality risk from cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide. Although carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is the most commonly used early predictor of ongoing atherosclerosis, an experimental model of atherosclerosis, demonstrated that increases in adventitial microvessels (vasa vasorum (VV)) precede endothelial dysfunction. Using the reported accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) to measure carotid adventitial VV, this study assessed whether measurements of carotid adventitial VV serve as a marker of subclinical atherosclerotic lesions in a control population with none of the classical risk factors for CVD. Methods and results: Measurements of cIMT (B-mode ultrasound) and adventitial VV (CEU) were conducted in 65 subjects, 30–70 years old, 48% men, with none of the classical risk factors for CVD. Adventitial VV strongly correlated with its own cIMT only in the left carotid artery. Importantly, the left carotid adventitial VV directly correlated with age. Conclusions: The increases with age in left carotid adventitial VV in individuals with zero risk for atheromatosis suggest that the measurement of carotid adventitial VV could be an accurate and sensitive marker for the diagnosis of subclinical atheromatosis and therefore a prominent tool for monitoring the efficacy of anti-atheromatous therapies. Keywords: Atheromatosis, Vasa vasorum, Contrast-enhanced ultrasound, Carotid arteries, Adventitial layer, This study was funded by grants No. PI09/1999; No. PS09/01035 and PI12/00183, from the Health Institute Carlos III, Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, Spain.
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Abdominal tuberculosis mimicking Crohn’s disease’s exacerbation: a clinical, diagnostic and surgical dilemma. A case report

  • Papis, Davide
  • Branchi, Vittorio
  • Gómez Quiles, Luis
  • Herrerias, Fernando
  • Vilardell, Felip
  • Gonzalez, Marta
  • Olsina Kissler, Jorge Juan
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis in Europe is a health public problem, which has increased constantly over the last few decades. The most common clinical manifestation of tuberculosis is pulmonary. The diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis can be challenging and clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal tuberculosis are unspecific and can mimic other pathologies. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A young Chinese man, who had recently been diagnosed with Crohn’s disease, was admitted to the emergency room of our hospital with a one-month history of diffuse abdominal pain and weight loss. The patient initially presented with epigastric pain, which had been constantly increasing over the last 48 h. Other symptoms included diarrhea, nausea, and fever. The patient was then admitted with the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease exacerbation, and a treatment with corticosteroids, azathioprine, mesalazine, adalimumab, and antibiotic therapy was started. The symptoms were due to an initially misdiagnosed case of abdominal tuberculosis. DISCUSSION: Intestinal tuberculosis is mainly localized at the ileocecal level in 85% of patients. Medical therapy is the treatment of choice and surgery is not required if it is diagnosed at an early stage.’ CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis still remains a challenge for both internists and surgeons. Before starting a therapy with adalimumab, every patient should be tested for latent tuberculosis infection.
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Capecitabine and irinotecan with bevacizumab 2-weekly for metastatic colorectal cancer: the phase II AVAXIRI study

  • Garcia-Alfonso, Pilar
  • Chaves, Manuel
  • Muñoz, Andrés
  • Salud Salvia, Maria Antonieta
  • García-Gonzalez, Maria
  • Grávalos, Cristina
  • Massuti, Bartomeu
  • González-Flores, Encarna
  • Queralt, Bernardo
  • López-Ladrón, Amelia
  • Losa, F.
  • Gómez, Maria Jose
  • Oltra, Amparo
  • Aranda, Enrique
Background: The optimal sequence of chemotherapeutic agents is not firmly established for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This phase II multi-centre study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of a standard capecitabine plus irinotecan (XELIRI) regimen with bevacizumab in previously untreated patients with mCRC. Methods: Patients received intravenous irinotecan 175 mg/m2 on day 1 and oral capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 (800 mg/m2 for patients >65 years of age) twice daily on days 2–8, followed by a 1-week rest, and bevacizumab 5 mg/kg as an intravenous infusion on day 1 every 2 weeks. Results: Seventy-seven patients were included in the intention-to-treat and safety populations. Progression-free survival at 9 months was 61%. The overall response and disease control rates were 51% and 84%, respectively. Median progression-free and overall survival times were 11.9 and 24.8 months, respectively. 48 patients (62%) had at least one grade 3/4 adverse event, the most common being asthenia, diarrhoea and neutropenia. Quality of life varied little over the study period with mean visual analogue scale general health scores ranging from 71 to 76 over cycles 1–11. Conclusion: Our study found irinotecan and capecitabine administered fortnightly with bevacizumab in patients with mCRC to be an effective and tolerable regimen. Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00875771. Trial registration date: 04/02/2009. Keywords: Irinotecan, Capecitabine, Bevacizumab, Metastatic colorectal cancer, Chemotherapy
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La calidad de las aplicaciones de los productos fitosanitarios

  • Planas de Martí, Santiago
La multinacional BASF, en colaboración con la constructora de maquinaria agrícola Ilemo-Har- di y la comercial Safi Ibérica, distribuidora de las boquillas de pulverización Albuz, está desa- rrollando un interesante trabajo de sensibilización sobre el uso correcto de los equipos de tratamientos fitosanitarios. EI motivo principal de este trabajo es preconizar todo tipo de actuación encaminada a mejorar las técnicas de aplicación de fitosanitarios, habida cuenta de sus efectos beneficiosos sobre la eficacia de los tratamientos, la protección medioambiental y la prevención de riesgos de los aplicadores. En el marco de dicha actuación, el Centro de Mecanización Agraria de la Generalitat de Ca- taluña ha colaborado en las sesiones teórico-prácticas que han tenido lugar en el Delta del Ebro, la Albufera valenciana y la provincia de Huesca. Se trata de tres zonas con presencia destacada del cultivo del arroz. La iniciativa coincide con el período de introducción en el mercado español del herbicida Aura, específico para el control de especies adventicias de hoja estrecha en los arrozales. EI preparado que se aplica en postemergencia, es especialmente activo contra malas hierbas de difícil control, como es el caso, entre otras, de las diferentes especies del género Echinochloa. Los mecanismos de acción del herbicida están liga dos a las condiciones de aplicación, precisando el empleo de equipos de distribución que se ajusten a ciertos niveles de calidad.
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Alternancias diatéticas relacionadas con el aspecto

  • Fernández, Ana
  • Vázquez García, Glòria
  • Martí, M. Antònia
En este artículo presentamos el análisis de un conjunto de estructuras sintácticas que hemos agrupado teniendo en cuenta la información que aportan en relación con el aspecto. Se trata de estructuras de tipo relacional en las que la predicación se basa en la asignación de propiedades que caracterizan una entidad o un evento. Como resultado del análisis realizado, se revisa el concepto de estado y se amplía el número de construcciones sintácticas.
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Normas para la correcta aplicación de productos fitosanitarios

  • Planas de Martí, Santiago
Los criterios técnicos y la percepción social sobre el empleo de los productos fitosanitarios están evolu- cionando en el sentido de disponer de las máximas garan- tías sobre la salud de las perso- nas y el medio ambiente. Esta nueva y creciente sensibilidad está obligando a modificar las normas técnicas y reglamenta ciones de los Estados miembros de la UE y de la propia legislación comunitaria
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