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Carbon and nitrogen allocation and partitioning in traditional and modern wheat genotypes under pre-industrial and future CO2 conditions

  • Aljazairi López, Salvador
  • Arias, Claudia
  • Nogués Mestres, Salvador
The results of a simultaneous 13C and 15N labelling experiment with two different durum wheat cultivars, Blanqueta (a traditional wheat) and Sula (modern), are pre- sented. Plants were grown from the seedling stage in three fully controllable plant growth chambers for one growing season and at three different CO2 levels (i.e. 260, 400 and 700 ppm). Short-term isotopic labelling (ca. 3 days) was performed at the anthesis stage using 13CO2 supplied with the chamber air and 15NH4-15NO3 applied with the nutrient solution, thereby making it possible to track the allocation and par- titioning of 13C and 15N in the different plant organs. We found that photosynthesis was up-regulated at pre-industrial CO2 levels, whereas down-regulation occurred under future CO2 conditions. 13C labelling revealed that at pre-industrial CO2 carbon investment by plants was higher in shoots, whereas at future CO2 levels more C was invested in roots. Furthermore, the modern genotype invested more C in spikes than did the traditional genotype, which in turn invested more in non-reproductive shoot tissue. 15N labelling revealed that the modern genotype was better adapted to assimi- lating N at higher CO2 levels, whereas the traditional genotype was able to assimilate N more efficiently at lower CO2 levels.

Breaking the Silence at Spanish Universities: Findings From the First Study of Violence Against Women on Campuses in Spain

  • Valls, Rosa
  • Puigvert, Lídia
  • Melgar Alcantud, Patrícia
  • Garcia Yeste, Carme
The first research conducted on violence against women in the university context in Spain reveals that 62% of the students know of or have experienced situations of this kind within the university institutions, but only 13% identify these situations in the first place. Two main interrelated aspects arise from the data analysis: not identifying and acknowledging violent situations, and the lack of reporting them. Policies and actions developed by Spanish universities need to be grounded in two goals: intransigence toward any kind of violence against women, and bystander intervention, support, and solidarity with the victims and with the people supporting the victims.

The design of a maternal education program based on analysis of needs and collaborative work

  • Fuentes-Peláez, Núria
  • Amorós, Pere
  • Molina, M. Cruz (María Cruz)
  • Jané, Mireia
  • Martínez Bueno, Cristina
This article presents the most important findings concerning the socialeducational needs as expressed by adolescents in kinship foster care (KFC) in the study carried out I+D SEJ-026575 in Spain between 2005 and 2008. The data for the study was collected from discussion groups with adolescents in kinship foster care AFE (n=57) from different autonomous communities in Spain. In the needs assessment the data was collected in the following categories: characteristics of Foster care in kinship family; family history; foster family and foster child; biological family and foster child; self-awareness; healthy family life; free time; the future after fostering. In the results found the following needs stand out: emotional family stability; overcoming problems related to the generation gap with the Foster family, greater openness and clarity dealing with family history, establishing norms and limits, increasing the frequency and quality of parents visits, finding ways of aiding relationships between the foster family and the biological parents, providing support and resources to the foster family, affronting in an educational way subjects such as sexuality, drug addiction, pro-social activities and lastly preparation to face the future after foster care. Incorporating these elements in the support programme for adolescents in KFC can contribute in a positive way to the cognitive, emotional and behavioral development of these adolescents.

Aplicación de sellante de fibrina en pacientes operados por cáncer diferenciado de tiroides. ¿Qué mejoramos?, Application of fibrin sealant in patients operated on for differentiated thyroid cancer. What do we improve?

  • Vidal-Pérez, Óscar
  • Flores-Siguenza, Luis
  • Valentini, Mauro
  • Astudillo Pombo, Emiliano H.
  • Fernández-Cruz, Laureano
  • García-Valdecasas Salgado, Juan Carlos
Antecedentes En los últimos años han aparecido diferentes publicaciones que demuestran que los nuevos sellantes adhesivos, como Tissucol®, que son aplicados en el espacio tiroideo reducen las complicaciones locales tras tiroidectomías complejas. Objetivos Mostrar la eficacia del adhesivo de fibrina Tissucol® en la reducción de la estancia hospitalaria postoperatoria de los pacientes intervenidos de carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides en quienes se realizó tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento ganglionar central y unilateral. Material y métodos Realizamos un estudio prospectivo y aleatorizado, durante el periodo comprendido entre mayo de 2009 y octubre de 2013, en pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides con metástasis ganglionares cervicales, para la realización de cirugía programada. Se formaron 2 grupos: en los que se utilizó Tissucol® (grupo caso) y en los que no (grupo control). Los pacientes fueron operados por cirujanos especialmente dedicados a patología quirúrgica endocrina, utilizando la misma técnica en todos ellos. Resultados Realizamos 60 tiroidectomías totales con vaciamiento ganglionar: 30 en el grupo caso, que se compararon con 30 del grupo control. No observamos diferencias significativas en la mayoría de las variables estudiadas; no obstante, el grupo caso presentó una menor estancia hospitalaria respecto al grupo control, con una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p<0.05). Conclusión La aplicación del Tissucol® ha permitido reducir la estancia hospitalaria de los pacientes operados de tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento cervical, lo que representa para el hospital una reducción de costos, sin que ello influya en la aparición de complicaciones relacionadas con la intervención.

FoxA and LIPG endothelial lipase control the uptake of extracellular lipids for breast cancer growth

  • Slebe, Felipe
  • Rojo, Federico
  • Vinaixa Crevillent, Maria
  • García Rocha, Mar
  • Testoni, Giorgia
  • Guiu, Marc
  • Planet, Evarist
  • Samino, Sara
  • Arenas, Enrique J.
  • Beltran, Antoni
  • Rovira, Ana
  • Lluch, Ana
  • Salvatella i Giralt, Xavier
  • Yanes, Oscar
  • Albanell Mestres, Joan
  • Guinovart, Joan J. (Joan Josep), 1947-
  • Gomis i Cabré, Roger
The mechanisms that allow breast cancer (BCa) cells to metabolically sustain rapid growth are poorly understood. Here we report that BCa cells are dependent on a mechanism to supply precursors for intracellular lipid production derived from extracellular sources and that the endothelial lipase (LIPG) fulfils this function. LIPG expression allows the import of lipid precursors, thereby contributing to BCa proliferation. LIPG stands out as an essential component of the lipid metabolic adaptations that BCa cells, and not normal tissue, must undergo to support high proliferation rates. LIPG is ubiquitously and highly expressed under the control of FoxA1 or FoxA2 in all BCa subtypes. The downregulation of either LIPG or FoxA in transformed cells results in decreased proliferation and impaired synthesis of intracellular lipids.

ATM meets ERK5

  • Angulo Ibáñez, María
  • Espel Masferrer, Enric
  • Rovira Clavé, Xavier
The complexity of the living cell is supported by the multitasking activity of its protein constituents. The kinase Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated ATM)is a clear example. Not only does it orchestrate the DNA damage response but also sustains cellular homeostasis, including metabolism, control of oxidative stress, autophagy and apoptosis [1]. [...]

A hands-on genetics teaching approach at university level.

  • Mestres i Naval, Francesc
  • Adell i Creixell, Teresa
  • Araújo, Sofia J.
  • Balanyà, J.
  • Papaceit Vidal, Montserrat
  • Pascual Berniola, Marta
  • Riutort León, Marta
  • Romero, R.
  • Segarra Robert, Carmen
Teaching general Genetics is a cornerstone of a large number of university degrees. Being a scientific topic, laboratory classes are an essential element in student-centered learning. Here, we present our experience in implementing new material for teaching hands-on genetics, a subject of interest for other academic professionals in the field of Genetics. Our students carry out a genetic analysis of the su (sense ulls) mutation of Drosophila melanogaster, which produces a drastic eye reduction. The complete strain description can be found in Mestres et al. (2016a). The aim of the course is to give students the appropriate genetics tools to answer the three following questions: 1) Is the su mutation dominant or recessive? 2) In which chromosome is su located? 3) Can we identify in which gene the su mutation is?

A metabolomics-driven approach to predict cocoa product consumption by designing a multimetabolite biomarker model in free-living subjects from the PREDIMED study

  • Garcia Aloy, Mar
  • Llorach, Rafael
  • Urpí Sardà, Mireia
  • Jáuregui Pallarés, Olga
  • Corella Piquer, Dolores
  • Ruiz-Canela, Miguel
  • Salas Salvadó, Jordi
  • Fitó Colomer, Montserrat
  • Ros Rahola, Emilio
  • Ramon Estruch Riba
  • Andrés Lacueva, Ma. Cristina
SCOPE: The aim of the current study was to apply an untargeted metabolomics strategy to characterize a model of cocoa intake biomarkers in a free-living population. METHODS AND RESULTS: An untargeted HPLC-q-ToF-MS based metabolomics approach was applied to human urine from 32 consumers of cocoa or derived products (CC) and 32 matched control subjects with no consumption of cocoa products (NC). The multivariate statistical analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) showed clear differences between CC and NC groups. The discriminant biomarkers identified were mainly related to the metabolic pathways of theobromine and polyphenols, as well as to cocoa processing. Consumption of cocoa products was also associated with reduced urinary excretions of methylglutarylcarnitine, which could be related to effects of cocoa exposure on insulin resistance. To improve the prediction of cocoa consumption, a combined urinary metabolite model was constructed. ROC curves were constructed to evaluate the model and individual metabolites. The AUC values (95% CI) for the model were 95.7% (89.8-100%) and 92.6% (81.9-100%) in training and validation sets, respectively, whereas the AUCs for individual metabolites were <90%. CONCLUSIONS: The metabolic signature of cocoa consumption in free-living subjects reveals that combining different metabolites as biomarker models improves prediction of dietary exposure to cocoa.

Brownian dynamics computational model of protein diffusion in crowded media with dextran macromolecules as obstacles

  • Blanco, Pablo M.
  • Via Nadal, Mireia
  • Garcés, Josep Lluís
  • Madurga Díez, Sergio
  • Mas i Pujadas, Francesc
The high concentration of macromolecules (i.e., macromolecular crowding) in cellular environments leads to large quantitative effects on the dynamic and equilibrium biological properties. These effects have been experimentally studied using inert macromolecules to mimic a realistic cellular medium. In this paper, two different experimental in vitro systems of diffusing proteins which use dextran macromolecules as obstacles are computationally analyzed. A new model for dextran macromolecules based on effective radii accounting for macromolecular compression induced by crowding is proposed. The obtained results for the diffusion coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent exhibit good qualitative and generally good quantitative agreement with experiments. Volume fraction and hydrodynamic interactions are found to be crucial to describe the diffusion coefficient decrease in crowded media. However, no significant influence of the hydrodynamic interactions in the anomalous diffusion exponent is found.

What makes one person paranoid and another person anxious? The differential prediction of social anxiety and persecutory ideation in an experimental situation

  • Freeman, D.
  • Gittins, M.
  • Pugh, K.
  • Antley, Angus
  • Slater, Mel
  • Dunn, G.
The study shows that social anxiety and persecutory ideation share many of the same predictive factors. Non-clinical paranoia may be a type of anxious fear. However, perceptual anomalies are a distinct predictor of paranoia. In the context of an individual feeling anxious, the occurrence of odd internal feelings in social situations may lead to delusional ideas through a sense of" things not seeming right". The study illustrates the approach of focusing on experiences such as paranoid thinking rather than diagnoses such as schizophrenia.

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