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Poesia, ritual i cant per a la festa: l'univers creatiu i festiu dels poemes de vesticions i professions al convent de carmelites descalces de Barcelona (segle XVII) = Poetry, ritual and chant for celebrations: the creative and festive universe of the poems of vesticions and professions in the convent of Discalced Carmelites of Barcelona (17th century)

  • Zaragoza, Verònica
In this essay we address one of the most important poetic subgenres in the tradition of Carmelite women: the works composed for ceremonies of vestition and solemn profession in which the nuns left behind his mundane life and opened a new life as the wife of Jesus. First of all, we provide a general overview of the customs and functions of the poetry in the Discalced Carmelites, which has been already analysed in the context of the Hispanic literature, but rarely from the perspective of the Catalan area. Secondly, we present and contextualize a corpus of twenty-five unpublished compositions on vestitions and professions, copied in the manuscript of the Discalced Carmelites of Barcelona, En aquest treball analitzem les composicions escrites per a les cerimònies de presa d’hàbit i vel i la professió solemne al convent de la Immaculada Concepció de Barcelona. Aquests poemes amb què les religioses deixaven enrere la seva vida seglar i inauguraven un nou camí com a esposa de Jesucrist, amb una nova identitat construïda en la clausura, formen part d’un dels “subgèneres” poètics més importants i amb una presència més arrelada en la tradició poètica carmelitana femenina. Per a estudiar-los, en primer lloc, oferim una caracterització general necessària dels usos i funcions de la poesia i el cant al Carmel Descalç femení, aspecte que rarament havia estat tractat des d’una perspectiva catalana. En segon lloc, presentem i emmarquem un corpus tancat de vint-i-cinc composicions inèdites sobre vesticions i professions, que foren escrites per les monges mateixes i copiades posteriorment en el manuscrit de les carmelites descalces de Barcelona, recentment exhumat. N’analitzem les formes d’expressió poètica i els temes presents, per tractar d’extreure’n una identitat femenina carmelitana en el marc d’una tradició hispànica més àmplia
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Isoconversional analysis of copper recrystallization

  • Pérez, Abel
  • López-Olmedo, Joan Pere
  • Farjas Silva, Jordi
  • Roura Grabulosa, Pere
Recrystallization of Cu deformed under compression has been monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) with experiments carried out at constant heating rate. From these experiments, an isothermal crystallization process has been predicted by the classical Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) kinetics and by model-free isoconversional analysis. Whereas prediction by KJMA does not match the experimental curve, the isoconversional prediction is successful. The paper also highlights the need to correct the raw DSC curves to obtain the actual sample temperature and to avoid curve distortion due to thermal inertia, This work was partially funded by the Spanish Programa Nacional de Materiales through projects MAT2014-51778-C2-2-R
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Measuring thermal conductivity of powders with differential scanning calorimetry

  • Pujula, Miquel
  • Sánchez-Rodríguez, Daniel
  • López-Olmedo, Joan Pere
  • Farjas Silva, Jordi
  • Roura Grabulosa, Pere
This paper simplifies a recently proposed method for measuring the thermal conductivity of powders using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (Sa´nchez-Rodríguez et al. in J Therm Anal Calorim 121:469-473, 2015). With this method, a crucible is filled with powder and a spherical metal reference is partially sunk into it. The thermal resistance between the metal and the crucible wall at the metal melting point is obtained from the DSC melting peak slope. In the simplified method outlined in this paper, a cylindrical pan is substituted for the original hemispherical crucible. The equivalence of both methods is demonstrated with alumina powder and commercial cylindrical crucibles of several sizes and aspect ratios, This work was partially funded by the Spanish Programa Nacional de Materiales through project MAT2014-51778-C2-2-R
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L'Herbari de la Universitat de Girona: 40 anys d'història d'una col·lecció única a les nostres comarques

  • Rodríguez Prieto, Concepció
  • Vilar Sais, Lluís
  • Bou Manobens, Jordi
Enguany es commemoren els 40 anys de la fundació de l'Herbari de la Universitat de Girona, una col·lecció que abasta la diversitat vegetal de les macroalgues i les plantes terrestres de les comarques de Girona, però també de Catalunya i d'altres indrets de la península
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Solució mental i solució motriu en la iniciació als esports col·lectius en l'Educació Primària

  • Castejón Oliva, Francisco Javier
  • López Ros, Víctor
The adjustment of the teaching learning contents in Physical Education, requires of a rigorous analysis that permits to adjust them to the maximum with the educational needs of the student body. It has been approached an investigation study in the one which have intervened pupils, boys and girls, of two different populations, Girona and Madrid in order to prove and analyse the motor and mental components of the student body in the real situation of the game. The hypothesis that we have treated are:if it exists differences between the boys and girls of the educational levels studied in the motor and mental solution in the sports initiation, additionally, the differences that they can exist between the courses and what distance is verified between the study ages to approach a physical activity that implies an initial step to the hour of teaching the collective sports in the classes of Physical education. They have been employed three measure instruments: the first permits to analyse the mental solution without need of practice employing situation photographs of the real game with those which the pupils must choose to who to happen; the second is a pass test that permits to prove the technical dominance to use in a collective sport and the third is a real game situation that permits to put in manifesto the relationship between the mental behaviour and the motor of the pupil. This real game situation is ‘the game of ten pass’ (Blázquez,1986; Torres,1993). The results demonstrate that it do not exist differences between the two sexes in the study ages. In the case of the technical execution level, there is a considerable increase with the age and it is slightly greater in the kids that in the girls. In the case of the real game, we find ourselves with a great variability in the results and we cannot conclude that there are relative differences to the sex in none of the three courses. Respect at participation level during the game is confirmed that the pupils that more participate are not the pupils than more balls lose, what permits to guarantee the idea of the fact that it is convenient to use the real game practice as direct learning element. Finally, there is no a high correlation between the execution level measured in the test of technical execution and the decision execution during the game, El procés d'adaptació dels continguts d'ensenyament- aprenentatge en Educació Física requereix d'una anàlisi rigorosa que permeti ajustar-los a les necessitats educatives dels alumnes. Hem portat a terme un estudi d'investigació on han intervingut alumnes de diverses poblacions de les províncies de Girona i Madrid, a fi i efecte de comprovar i analitzar l'ús dels components motors i cognitius davant una situació real de joc esportiu. Les hipòtesis que hem tractat de comprovar han estat: d'una banda, si existeixen diferències entre els nens i les nenes dels nivells educatius estudiats respecte a la solució mental i motriu en la iniciació esportiva; d'altra banda, les diferències que poden existir entre diversos cursos (4t, 5è i 6è) respecte al nivell d'incidència que té l’execució tècnica i la presa de decisions en la iniciació esportiva, així com la relació que existeix entre aquests aspectes en l'ensenyament dels esports col•lectius a les classes d'Educació Física. Per portar a terme l'esmentat estudi s'han utilitzat tres instruments de mesura: el primer, permet d'analitzar la solució mental sense necessitat de la pràctica utilitzant fotografies de situacions de joc real en les quals els alumnes han d'indicar a qui passarien la pilota si es trobessin en la situació indicada; el segon, és una prova de passada que permet comprovar el domini tècnic a utilitzar en un esport col·lectiu, i el tercer, és una situació real de joc que permet fer palesa la relació entre la conducta mental i el motor de l'alumne. Aquesta situació real ve definida pel joc de "les 10 passades' (Blázquez, 1986; Torres, 1993). Els resultats demostren que no existeixen diferències entre els dos sexes en les edats d'estudi. En el cas de la prova del nivell de domini tècnic, hi ha un increment apreciable amb l'edat i és lleugerament superior en els nois que en les noies. Pal que fa al joc real, ens trobem amb una gran variabilitat en els resultats i no podem concloure que hi hagi diferències relatives al gènere en cap dels tres cursos. Respecte al nivell de participació durant el joc, es confirma que els alumnes que més participen no són els que més pilotes perden, cosa que permet afirmar la idea que és convenient utilitzar la pràctica de joc real com a element d'aprenentatge directe. Finalment no hi ha una alta correlació entre el nivell d'execució mesurat amb la prova de passada de domini tècnic i l'execució/decisió durant el joc
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Modelos de intervención global en personas con trastorno del espectro autista

  • Salvadó Salvadó, Berta
  • Palau Baduell, Montserrat
  • Clofent Torrentó, Mariona
  • Montero Camacho, Mario
  • Hernández Latorre, Miguel A.
The steady increase in the number of children with autism spectrum disorders, has led to a better social awareness but also to a higher demand for specific interventions. This has questioned what the most appropriate and effective procedures for detection, diagnosis and treatment are. Aim. To review different approaches and classifications of interventions with individuals with autism spectrum disorders based on scientific evidence. Development. According to the latest revisions, there are three types of classifications to categorize evidence-based interventions: practice-based intervention, comprehensive models of treatment and drug treatments. There are difficulties in comparing results of different methods of intervention, however, some common elements to prove their effectiveness have been identified. Conclusions. All intervention models should include functional communication skills, meaningful learning, carried out in various contexts, addressing challenging behaviors through positive behavioral support, promoting activities with peers and emphasize the role of parents in the planning and implementation of the objectives., El progresivo aumento del número de niños con trastornos del espectro autista ha propiciado un aumento de la conciencia social y la demanda de servicios de atención específica. Este hecho ha planteado cuáles son los procedimientos de detección, diagnóstico y tratamiento más apropiados y eficaces. Objetivo. Revisar la información bibliográfica más significativa y reciente acerca de las diferentes aproximaciones y clasificaciones de las intervenciones de personas con trastornos del espectro autista, para ofrecer una descripción más actualizada y acorde con el criterio de práctica basada en la evidencia, comentando, a su vez, las dificultades que implica compararlas e integrarlas en una clasificación debido a la gran heterogeneidad de intervenciones. Desarrollo. Según las revisiones más recientes, existen tres tipos de clasificaciones para categorizar las intervenciones basadas en la evidencia: las prácticas basadas en la intervención, los modelos globales de tratamiento y el tratamiento farmacológico. Existen dificultades para comparar los resultados de los distintos métodos de intervención; sin embargo, se han identificado unos elementos comunes para demostrar su eficacia. Conclusiones. Todos los modelos de intervención deben integrar habilidades de comunicación funcional, aprendizajes significativos, llevarse a cabo en diversos contextos, abordar las conductas problemáticas mediante el apoyo conductual positivo, potenciar actividades con iguales, y enfatizar el papel de la familia en la planificación e implementación de los objetivos de los programas.
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The role of biofilms as environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance

  • Balcázar, José Luis
  • Subirats, Jéssica
  • Borrego i Moré, Carles
Antibiotic resistance has become a significant and growing threat to public and environmental health. To face this problem both at local and global scales, a better understanding of the sources and mechanisms that contribute to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance is required. Recent studies demonstrate that aquatic ecosystems are reservoirs of resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes as well as potential conduits for their transmission to human pathogens. Despite the wealth of information about antibiotic pollution and its effect on the aquatic microbial resistome, the contribution of environmental biofilms to the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance has not been fully explored in aquatic systems. Biofilms are structured multicellular communities embedded in a self-produced extracellular matrix that acts as a barrier to antibiotic diffusion. High population densities and proximity of cells in biofilms also increases the chances for genetic exchange among bacterial species converting biofilms in hot spots of antibiotic resistance. This review focuses on the potential effect of antibiotic pollution on biofilm microbial communities, with special emphasis on ecological and evolutionary processes underlying acquired resistance to these compounds, This work has been supported by the European Communities seventh Framework Programme Funding under Grant agreement no. 603629-ENV-2013-6.2.1-GLOBAQUA. JB acknowledges the Ramon y Cajal research fellowship (RYC-2011-08154) from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness
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Comparison of the thermal decomposition processes of several aminoalcohol-based ZnO inks with one containing ethanolamine

  • Gómez Núñez, Alberto
  • Roura Grabulosa, Pere
  • López, Concepción
  • Vilà, Anna
Four inks for the production of ZnO semiconducting films have been prepared with zinc acetate dihydrate as precursor salt and one among the following aminoalcohols: aminopropanol (APr), aminomethyl butanol (AMB), aminophenol (APh) and aminobenzyl alcohol (AB) as stabilizing agent. Their thermal decomposition process has been analyzed in situ by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and evolved gas analysis (EGA), whereas the solid product has been analysed ex-situ by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Although, except for the APh ink, crystalline ZnO is already obtained at 300 ºC, the films contain an organic residue that evolves at higher temperature in the form of a large variety of nitrogen-containing cyclic compounds. The results indicate that APr can be a better stabilizing agent than ethanolamine (EA). It gives larger ZnO crystal sizes with similar carbon content. However, a common drawback of all the amino stabilizers (EA included) is that nitrogen atoms have not been completely removed from the ZnO film at the highest temperature of our experiments (600 ºC), This work was partially funded by the Spanish Programa Nacional de Materiales through project MAT2014-51778-C2-2-R
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Determination of a broad spectrum of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in biofilm from a waste water treatment plant-impacted river

  • Huerta Buitrago, Belinda
  • Rodríguez Mozaz, Sara
  • Nannou, Christina
  • Nakis, L.
  • Ruhí i Vidal, Albert
  • Acuña i Salazar, Vicenç
  • Sabater, Sergi
  • Barceló i Cullerés, Damià
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are one of the main sources of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in freshwater ecosystems, and several studies have reported bioaccumulation of these compounds in different organisms in those ecosystems. River biofilms are exceptional indicators of pollution, but very few studies have focused on the accumulation of these emerging contaminants. The objectives of this study were first to develop an efficient analytical methodology for the simultaneous analysis of 44 pharmaceuticals and 13 endocrine disrupting compounds in biofilm, and second, to assess persistence, distribution, and bioaccumulation of these contaminants in natural biofilms inhabiting a WWTP-impacted river. The method is based on pressurized liquid extraction, purification by solid-phase extraction, and analysis by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS) in tandem. Recoveries for pharmaceuticals were 31-137%, and for endocrine disruptors 32-93%. Method detection limits for endocrine disruptors were in the range of 0.2-2.4ng g-1, and for pharmaceuticals, 0.07-6.7ng g-1. A total of five endocrine disruptors and seven pharmaceuticals were detected in field samples at concentrations up to 100ng g-1, This study has been co-financed by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the project WATER-Fate (CTM2012-38314-C0201), by the EU through the FP7 project GLOBAQUA (Grant agreement No. 603629) and by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). This work was partly supported by the Economy and Knowledge Department of the Catalan Government (Consolidated Research Group 2014 SGR 291 - ICRA)
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Emission factor estimation of ca. 160 emerging organic microcontaminants by inverse modeling in a Mediterranean river basin (Llobregat, NE Spain)

  • Banjac, Zoran
  • Ginebreda, Antoni
  • Kuzmanović, Maja
  • Marcé Romero, Rafael
  • Nadal, Martí
  • Riera, Josep M.
  • Barceló i Cullerés, Damià
Starting from measured river concentrations, emission factors of 158 organic compounds out of 199 analyzed belonging to different groups of priority and emerging contaminants [pesticides (25), pharmaceuticals and hormones (81), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) (18), industrial compounds (12), drugs of abuse (8) and personal care products (14)] have been estimated by inverse modeling. The Llobregat river was taken as case study representative of Mediterranean rivers. Industrial compounds and pharmaceuticals are the dominant groups (range of 104mg·1000inhab-1·d-1). Personal care products, pesticides, PFASs and illegal drugs showed a load approximately one order of magnitude smaller. Considered on a single compound basis industrial compounds still dominate (range of ca. 103mg·1000inhab-1·d-1) over other classes. Generally, the results are within the range when compared to previously published estimations for other river basins. River attenuation expressed as the percentage fraction of microcontaminants eliminated was quantified. On average they were around 60-70% of the amount discharged for all classes, except for PFASs, that are poorly eliminated (ca. 20% on average). Uncertainties associated with the calculated emissions have been estimated by Monte-Carlo methods (15,000 runs) and typically show coefficients of variation of ca. 120%. Sensitivities associated with the various variables involved in the calculations (river discharge, river length, concentration, elimination constant, hydraulic travel time and river velocity) have been assessed as well. For the intervals chosen for the different variables, all show sensitivities exceeding unity (1.14 to 3.43), tending to amplify the variation of the emission. River velocity and basin length showed the highest sensitivity value. Even considering the limitations of the approach used, inverse modeling can provide a useful tool for management purposes facilitating the quantification of release rates of chemicals into the aquatic environment, This study has been financially supported by the EU through the FP7 project GLOBAQUA (Grant Agreement No. 603629), by the Spanish Ministry of Economyand Competitiveness [project Consolider-Ingenio 2010 SCARCE CSD2009-00065] and by the Generalitat de Catalunya (Consolidated Research Groups: 2014 SGR 418−Water and Soil Quality Unit and 2014 SGR 291−ICRA)
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