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Normativa sobre accesibilidad y personas con discapacidad

  • García Lorente, Josefa
Mi primera intención es plantear el tratamiento legal de la materia, es decir la normativa sobre accesibilidad y personas con discapacidad partiendo del artículo 49 de la constitución española del 78, encuadrado en el Capítulo Tercero, (De los principios rectores de la política social y económica), afirma que: “Los poderes públicos realizarán una política de previsión, tratamiento, rehabilitación e integración de los disminuidos físicos, sensoriales y psíquicos a los que prestarán la atención especializada que requieran y los ampararán especialmente para el disfrute de los derechos que este Título otorga a todos los ciudadanos” concepto de disminuido que implica una carga peyorativa que hay que desterrar del vocabulario, ya que la semántica tiene sentido en la medida en que el concepto acaba aceptando una determinada imagen de la situación; por ello está en marcha una modificación del citado precepto que responda a la realidad social.
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Identificación de hogares vulnerables a partir del concepto pobreza energética. Indicador y modelo de evaluación

  • Castaño Rosa, Raúl
oder identificar aquellos hogares en una situación de vulnerabilidad, entendida como aquella situación determinada por factores físicos, sociales, económicos, ambientales, y de confort que podría aumentar el riesgo de padecer problemas de salud y bienestar social, es la principal barrera para abordar la problemática social definida como pobreza energética. La gran variedad de factores que influyen en el funcionamiento de un hogar muestra la dificultad encontrada actualmente para determinar de forma clara una situación de vulnerabilidad. La investigación parte del análisis de los diferentes indicadores de pobreza energética existentes, en un ámbito nacional e internacional, y su relación al sector residencial, justificando sus debilidades y fortalezas a la hora de evaluar una situación de pobreza energética. Dicho análisis permite elaborar un modelo de evaluación de hogares vulnerables, a partir del cual definir un novedoso indicador de aplicación internacional, el Índice de Hogares Vulnerables (IHV), que analiza una situación más allá de la pobreza energética. El IHV unifica diferentes indicadores utilizados hasta el momento con el uso de sus tres variables: monetaria, energética y confort térmico. La variable monetaria analiza la vulnerabilidad en relación a los ingresos netos disponibles para afrontar el día a día, la variable energética relaciona las características constructivas de la vivienda, y el confort térmico evalúa la temperatura interior de la vivienda y su percepción por los inquilinos. La combinación de los diferentes valores resultantes y su relación a la calidad de vida de los inquilinos permite establecer niveles de vulnerabilidad del hogar. Como resultado, se obtiene un indicador multidimensional que incluye el aspecto técnico (características de la vivienda) y el aspecto social (calidad de vida de los inquilinos). El uso de este indicador permitirá evaluar un hogar, sea o no identificado en una situación de pobreza energética, identificando qué variable requiere una mayor atención: económica, energética o de confort térmico. Dicho análisis hace posible incluir la viabilidad económica y técnica de una rehabilitación energética, junto a la reducción de la situación de vulnerabilidad de un hogar.
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Energy modelling and calibration of building simulations: A case study of a domestic building with natural ventilation

  • Aparicio Fernández, Carolina Sabina
  • Vivancos, José Luis
  • Cosar Jorda, Paula
  • Buswell, Richard A.
In this paper, the building energy performance modelling tools TRNSYS (TRaNsient SYstem Simulation program) and TRNFlow (TRaNsient Flow) have been used to obtain the energy demand of a domestic building that includes the air infiltration rate and the effect of natural ventilation by using window operation data. An initial model has been fitted to monitoring data from the case study, building over a period when there were no heat gains in the building in order to obtain the building infiltration air change rate. After this calibration, a constant air-change rate model was established alongside two further models developed in the calibration process. Air change rate has been explored in order to determine air infiltrations caused by natural ventilation due to windows being opened. These results were compared to estimates gained through a previously published method and were found to be in good agreement. The main conclusion from the work was that the modelling ventilation rate in naturally ventilated residential buildings using TRNSYS and TRNSFlow can improve the simulation-based energy assessment. © 2019 by the authors.
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The influence of replacing aggregates and cement by LFS on the corrosion of steel reinforcements

  • Prieto Barrio, María Isabel
  • González García, María de las Nieves
  • Rodríguez Sáiz, Ángel
  • Cobo Escamilla, Alfonso
The aim of this study is to investigate the corrosion behavior of steel reinforcement embedded in mortar specimens in which both the aggregate and cement are partially replaced by ladle furnace slag (LFS) and different percentages of chloride ions by weight of cement are introduced into the mix at the time of kneading. The corrosion behavior was studied by using electrochemical techniques in order to evaluate the corrosion rate and the symptoms produced in steels of specimens with and without slag LFS. From the analysis of the results, it is concluded that the use of LFS in a partial replacement of aggregate and cement in mortar specimens does not compromise the behavior of the mortar with regard to corrosion of the steel reinforcement; consequently, partial replacement by LFS is fully feasible from this standpoint. © 2019 by the authors.
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Calculation of the risk of lawsuits over construction flaws in flat roofs

  • Carretero Ayuso, Manuel Jesús
  • Rodríguez Jiménez, Carlos Eugenio
In order to achieve sustainability objectives in the use of a building, its elements' operating problems should be minimized. From this premise, a total of 497 cases related to construction flaws in flat roofs were analyzed in this research. A matrix was developed indicating the risk of lawsuits by owners according to the degree of nuisance resulting from the construction flaws studied, their technical importance, and the type of pathological origin. Based on these factors, it is possible to predict a greater or lesser probability of an owner filing a lawsuit-risk factor (F). A wide range was found for this probability, with the largest value being 865 times greater than the smallest value. The value of F was divided into 5 categories to classify the diverse results obtained and determine the number of cases and interrelations ascribed to each category. Additionally, the level of presence of said cases was calculated through the analysis of 3 different demographic aspects, it being noted that a greater purchasing power and a higher concentration of urban population lead to more stringent requirements and, subsequently, to a greater number of lawsuits. With all these results, building quality can be improved while resulting in greater constructive-financial sustainability and in a reduction of the economic resources required of society (fewer lawsuits and associated human resources). © 2019 by the authors.
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Flexible 3D printed molds for educational use. Digital fabrication of 3D typography

  • Bonnet de León, Alejandro
  • Saorín Pérez, José Luis
  • Torre Cantero, Jorge de la
  • Meier, Cecile
  • Cabrera Pardo, María
One of the drawbacks of using 3D printers in educational environments is that the creation time of each piece is high and therefore it is difficult to manufacture at least one piece for each student. This aspect is important so that each student can feel part of the manufacturing process. To achieve this, 3D printers can be used, not to make pieces, but to make the molds that students use to create replicas. On the other hand, for a mold to be used to make several pieces, it is convenient to make it with flexible material. However, most used material for 3D printers (PLA) is very rigid. To solve this problem, this article designs a methodology that allows the use of low-cost 3D printers (most common in school environments) with flexible material so that each mold can be used to manufacture parts for several students. To print flexible material with low-cost printers, it is necessary to adapt the machine and the print parameters to work properly. This article analyzes the changes to be made with a low cost 3D printer and validates the use of molds in school environments. A pilot test has been carried out with 8 students of the subject of Typography, in the School of Art and Superior of Design of Tenerife. During the activity, the students carried out the process of designing a typography and creating digital molds for 3D printing with flexible material. The designs were made using free 3D modeling programs and low-cost technologies. © 2019, iJOE.
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Diseño de hormigón autocompactante con aditivos sintéticos de 4ª generación

  • Sáez Pérez, María Paz
  • Verdú Vázquez, Amparo
  • Patón Aguilera, Mercedes
Por definición el hormigón autocompactante se reconoce como un hormigón cuya principal característica es la de fluir y rellenar el volumen a hormigonar por la acción de su propio peso, sin necesidad de vibrado. La composición material es la misma que para un hormigón convencional (cemento, áridos, adiciones, aditivos y agua). Su autocompactabilidad se debe principalmente al alto contenido en finos, al bajo contenido en gruesos y a las altas dosis de aditivos. El presente trabajo aborda la investigación sobre hormigón autocompactante y los aditivos químicos utilizados en su fabricación, concretamente los llamados de última generación o superplastificantes conocidos como aditivos de cuarta generación o policarboxilatos. Diferenciándolos a estos, no en función de la marca o del fabricante sino en función de su estructura molecular, lo que da lugar a la creación de aditivos de cadena larga o aditivos de cadena corta. La clave para obtener un buen HAC radica en la correcta optimización de la combinación superplastificante-aditivo (modificador de viscosidad). Por ello los materiales empleados han sido la parte principal de este estudio para poder conseguir los objetivos propuestos, garantizando la compatibilidad entre ellos, la relación agua/cemento y la consecución de resistencias establecidas. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto la bondad de los aditivos de última generación y demuestran que el empleo de una correcta curva granulométrica junto con el empleo de aditivos de cadena corta o cadena larga nos aporta una notable variación en la resistencia del hormigón. Dando, a veces, la opción de prescindir del uso de adiciones como el humo de sílice.
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Dataset on solar contributions by thermal solar systems in Chile applying Chilean and Spanish regulations

  • López Ochoa, Luis María
  • Verichev, Konstantin Sergeevich
  • Heras Casas, Jesús las
  • Carpio de los Pinos, Antonio José
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Solar domestic hot water regulation in the Latin American residential sector with the implementation of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive: The case of Chile” (López-Ochoa et al., 2019), which evaluates the possibility of adapting Spanish solar domestic hot water regulations in Chile, with the objective of presenting the potential impact of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive in Latin America. This dataset was made publicly available to show the possible energy savings with the thermal solar systems proposed to enable the use of these data by other researchers as well as designers, installers and decision-makers. © 2019 The Authors
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A Fully Interactive Visualization Method for Building Condition Assessment

  • Banaszek, Anna
  • Banaszek, Sebastián
  • Cellmer, Anna
  • Gibert Armengol, Vicente
  • Serrat Pie, Carles
The aim of the paper is to introduce a tool for the accurate assessment of the technical condition of buildings. The proposed methodology is becoming an efficient strategy for the massive inspection of building stocks, in big residential areas. The authors have developed an utility based on high-performance images captured by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The flights of the UAVs have been technically protocolized in order to get the proper high-quality information about the real condition of the building. After collecting the images a 3D model is generated and orthophotos of building facades are created. The graphical information is connected with tables of attributes which allow the interactive geo-referenced management and assessment. Main requirements and advantages of this visualization technique will be presented by analyzing a particular case study. The selected example will allow the illustration of the methodology. Ongoing developments and technical details about the information system and the analysis platform connected with the visualization tool will be also reported. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd., LAMA Energy Group,LAMA Gas and Oil,Prague City Tourism
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Sustainable valuation of land for development. Adding value with urban planning progress. A Spanish case study

  • Codosero Rodas, José María
  • Castanho, Rui Alexandre
  • Cabezas Fernández, José
  • Naranjo Gómez, José Manuel
This article presents a valuation model of land for development in a sustainable way, based on the design and execution of urban planning. Using this method, one can obtain, at any given point in time, the added value progress of the urbanization process. For each year during the plan's execution, the value of land has been estimated. The free cash-flow method was applied in order to estimate the land valuation of any given year. From the estimate for each of those years, and using regression analysis, the most suited value added function was obtained, for the increase of value across time up to the point of finalized, fully urbanized land. The results show that this is an exponential growth function, such that during the initial years the progress of valuation is slow, but it accentuates during final years of execution as the land becomes urbanized, at which point the land achieves maximum value. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd
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