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Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is positively associated with sperm motility: A cross-sectional analysis

  • Salas-Salvado, Jordi
  • Bullo, Monica
  • Carrell, Douglas T
  • Babio, Nancy
  • Salas-Huetos, Albert

Nut consumption and incidence of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular disease mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

  • Salas-Salvadó J
  • Sievenpiper JL
  • Raheli? D
  • Kahleova H
  • Kendall C
  • Paz-Graniel I
  • Becerra-Tomás N
© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com. CONTEXT: Previous meta-analyses evaluating the association between nut consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) had substantial methodological limitations and lacked recently published large prospective studies; hence, making an updated meta-analysis highly desirable. OBJECTIVE: To update the clinical guidelines for nutrition therapy in relation to the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies was conducted using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to summarize the evidence of the association between total nuts, specific types of nuts, and the incidence of, and mortality from, CVD outcomes. DATA SOURCES: Relevant articles were identified by searching the PubMed and Cochrane databases. DATA EXTRACTION: Two independent researchers screened the articles to identify those that met the inclusion criteria. DATA ANALYSIS: The inverse variance method with fixed-effect or random-effects models was used to pool data across studies (expressed as risk ratio [RR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]). Heterogeneity was tested and quantified using the Cochrane Q test and I2-statistic, respectively. The GRADE system was used to assess the quality of the evidence. RESULTS: Nineteen studies were included in the analyses. The results revealed an inverse association between total nut consumption (comparing highest vs lowest categories) and CVD incidence (RR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.800.91; I2, 0%), CVD mortality (RR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.72-0.82; I2, 3%), coronary heart dise

Provably secure public-key encryption with conjunctive and subset keyword search

  • Ribes-González J
  • Farràs O
© 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. Public-key encryption with keyword search (PEKS) schemes enable public key holders to encrypt documents, while the secret key holder is able to generate queries for the encrypted data. In this paper, we present two PEKS schemes with extended functionalities. The first proposed scheme supports conjunctive queries. That is, it enables searching for encrypted documents containing a chosen list of keywords. We prove the computational consistency of our scheme, and we prove security under the asymmetric DBDH assumption. We show that it improves previous related schemes in terms of efficiency and in terms of index and trapdoor size. The second proposed scheme supports subset queries and some more general predicates. We prove the computational consistency of our scheme, and we prove our scheme secure under the p-BDHI assumption. We show that it improves previous related schemes in terms of efficiency and expressiveness. Moreover, unlike previous related schemes, it admits an arbitrary keyword space.

A Wearable Paper-Based Sweat Sensor for Human Perspiration Monitoring

  • Andrade, Francisco J
  • Blondeau, Pascal
  • Ferre, Jordi
  • Guinovart, Tomas
  • Parrilla, Marc

Association of Birth Weight With Type 2 Diabetes and Glycemic Traits: A Mendelian Randomization Study

  • , Huang T, Wang T, Zheng Y, Ellervik C, Li X, Gao M, Fang Z, Chai JF, Ahluwalia TVS, Wang Y, Voortman T, Noordam R, Frazier-Wood A, Scholz M, Sonestedt E, Akiyama M, Dorajoo R, Zhou A, Kilpeläinen TO, Kleber ME, Crozier SR, Godfrey KM, Lemaitre R, Felix JF, Shi Y, Gupta P, Khor CC, Lehtimäki T, Wang CA, Tiesler CMT, Thiering E, Standl M, Rzehak P, Marouli E, He M, Lecoeur C, Corella D, Lai CQ, Moreno LA, Pitkänen N, Boreham CA, Zhang T, Saw SM, Ridker PM, Graff M, van Rooij FJA, Uitterlinden AG, Hofman A, van Heemst D, Rosendaal FR, de Mutsert R, Burkhardt R, Schulz CA, Ericson U, Kamatani Y, Yuan JM, Power C, Hansen T, Sørensen TIA, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Delgado G, Cooper C, Djousse L, Rivadeneira F, Jameson K, Zhao W, Liu J, Lee NR, Raitakari O, Kähönen M, Viikari J, Grote V, Langhendries JP, Koletzko B, Escribano J, Verduci E, Dedoussis G, Yu C, Tham YC, Lim B, Lim SH, Froguel P, Balkau B, Fink NR, Vinding RK, Sevelsted A, Bisgaard H, Coltell O, Dallongeville J, Gottrand F, Pahkala K, Niinikoski H, Hyppönen E, Pedersen O, März W, Inskip H, Jaddoe VWV, Dennison E, Wong TY, Sabanayagam C, Tai ES, Mohlke KL, Mackey DA, Gruszfeld D, Deloukas P, Tucker KL, Fumeron F, Bønnelykke K, Rossing P, Estruch R, Ordovas JM, Arnett DK, Meirhaeghe A, Amouyel P, Cheng CY, Sim X, Teo YY, van Dam RM, Koh WP, Orho-Melander M, Loeffler M, Kubo M, Thiery J, Mook-Kanamori DO, Mozaffarian D, Psaty BM, Franco OH, Wu T, North KE, Davey Smith G, Chavarro JE, Chasman DI, Qi L BIRTH-GENE (BIG) Study Working Group
Importance: Observational studies have shown associations of birth weight with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and glycemic traits, but it remains unclear whether these associations represent causal associations. Objective: To test the association of birth weight with T2D and glycemic traits using a mendelian randomization analysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This mendelian randomization study used a genetic risk score for birth weight that was constructed with 7 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The associations of this score with birth weight and T2D were tested in a mendelian randomization analysis using study-level data. The association of birth weight with T2D was tested using both study-level data (7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable) and summary-level data from the consortia (43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable). Data from 180 056 participants from 49 studies were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits. Results: This mendelian randomization analysis included 49 studies with 41 155 patients with T2D and 80 008 control participants from study-level data and 34 840 patients with T2D and 114 981 control participants from summary-level data. Study-level data showed that a 1-SD decrease in birth weight due to the genetic risk score was associated with higher risk of T2D among all participants (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% CI, 1.69-2.61; P = 4.03 × 10-5), among European participants (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.71; P = .04), and among East Asian participants (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.62; P = .04). Similar results were observed from summary-level analyses. In addition, each 1-SD lower birth weight was associated with 0.189 SD higher fasting glucose

Early Pleistocene enamel proteome from Dmanisi resolves Stephanorhinus phylogeny

  • Cappellini E, Welker F, Pandolfi L, Ramos-Madrigal J, Samodova D, Rüther PL, Fotakis AK, Lyon D, Moreno-Mayar JV, Bukhsianidze M, Rakownikow Jersie-Christensen R, Mackie M, Ginolhac A, Ferring R, Tappen M, Palkopoulou E, Dickinson MR, Stafford TW, Chan YL, Götherström A, Nathan SKSS, Heintzman PD, Kapp JD, Kirillova I, Moodley Y, Agusti J, Kahlke RD, Kiladze G, Martínez-Navarro B, Liu S, Sandoval Velasco M, Sinding MS, Kelstrup CD, Allentoft ME, Orlando L, Penkman K, Shapiro B, Rook L, Dalén L, Gilbert MTP, Olsen JV, Lordkipanidze D, Willerslev E
The sequencing of ancient DNA has enabled the reconstruction of speciation, migration and admixture events for extinct taxa1. However, the irreversible post-mortem degradation2 of ancient DNA has so far limited its recovery-outside permafrost areas-to specimens that are not older than approximately 0.5 million years (Myr)3. By contrast, tandem mass spectrometry has enabled the sequencing of approximately 1.5-Myr-old collagen type I4, and suggested the presence of protein residues in fossils of the Cretaceous period5-although with limited phylogenetic use6. In the absence of molecular evidence, the speciation of several extinct species of the Early and Middle Pleistocene epoch remains contentious. Here we address the phylogenetic relationships of the Eurasian Rhinocerotidae of the Pleistocene epoch7-9, using the proteome of dental enamel from a Stephanorhinus tooth that is approximately 1.77-Myr old, recovered from the archaeological site of Dmanisi (South Caucasus, Georgia)10. Molecular phylogenetic analyses place this Stephanorhinus as a sister group to the clade formed by the woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) and Merck's rhinoceros (Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis). We show that Coelodonta evolved from an early Stephanorhinus lineage, and that this latter genus includes at least two distinct evolutionary lines. The genus Stephanorhinus is therefore currently paraphyletic, and its systematic revision is needed. We demonstrate that sequencing the proteome of Early Pleistocene dental enamel overcomes the limitations of phylogenetic inference based on ancient collagen or DNA. Our approach also provides additional information about the sex and taxonomic assignment of other specimens from Dmanisi. Our findings reveal that proteomic investigation of ancient dental en

The idiosyncratic self-cleaning cycle of bacteria on regularly arrayed mechano-bactericidal nanostructures

  • Nguyen DHK, Loebbe C, Linklater DP, Xu X, Vrancken N, Katkus T, Juodkazis S, Maclaughlin S, Baulin V, Crawford RJ, Ivanova EP
Nanostructured mechano-bactericidal surfaces represent a promising technology to prevent the incidence of microbial contamination on a variety of surfaces and to avoid bacterial infection, particularly with antibiotic resistant strains. In this work, a regular array of silicon nanopillars of 380 nm height and 35 nm diameter was used to study the release of bacterial cell debris off the surface, following inactivation of the cell due to nanostructure-induced rupture. It was confirmed that substantial bactericidal activity was achieved against Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (85% non-viable cells) and only modest antibacterial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus (8% non-viable cells), as estimated by measuring the proportions of viable and non-viable cells via fluorescence imaging. In situ time-lapse AFM scans of the bacteria-nanopillar interface confirmed the removal rate of the dead P. aeruginosa cells from the surface to be approximately 19 minutes per cell, and approximately 11 minutes per cell for dead S. aureus cells. These results highlight that the killing and dead cell detachment cycle for bacteria on these substrata are dependant on the bacterial species and the surface architecture studied and will vary when these two parameters are altered. The outcomes of this work will enhance the current understanding of antibacterial nanostructures, and impact upon the development and implementation of next-generation implants and medical devices.

Saturable absorption properties at 1.54 µm of Cr2+:ZnS prepared by thermal diffusion at hot isostatic pressing

  • Gavrishchuk E
  • Serres J
  • Mateos X
  • Volokitina A
  • Polishchuk A
  • Grigorenko K
  • Dymshits O
  • Balabanov S
  • Vitkin V
  • Loiko P
© 2019 Astro Ltd. Polycrystalline zinc sulfide (ZnS) samples obtained by chemical vapour deposition were doped with Cr2+ ions using hot isostatic pressing (at 100 MPa/1250 C). Their structure was studied by means of x-ray diffraction, SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The Cr2+:ZnS samples exhibited excellent transparency in the near-IR. Absorption saturation of Cr2+:ZnS is demonstrated at 1.54 µm (5T2(5D) → 5E(5D) transition of Cr2+ ions in tetrahedral sites) for ns-long pulses yielding a saturation fluence of 0.16 0.03 J cm-2. The laser-induced damage threshold is 6.0 0.5 J cm-2. The synthesized polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnS is promising for passive Q-switching of erbium lasers emitting at 1.5-1.7 µm.

Science With and for Society Through Qualitative Inquiry

  • Gómez González A
© The Author(s) 2019. This article is based on the keynote speech addressed by the author for the 15th International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry that took place in the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on May 16, 2019. It is presented as a part of the research work carried out first by my father who came to this Conference the first year and by my research center CREA (Community of Research on Excellence for All) in the last 25 years. I directly connect our way of doing research, with and for society, with three stories of personal transformation, resistance, and improvement of very special people. These stories show the social impact of our research when we work with and for the people, changing the world.

A multiproxy record of palaeoenvironmental conditions at the Middle Palaeolithic site of Abric del Pastor (Eastern Iberia)

  • Mallol, Carolina
  • Galvan, Bertila
  • Hernandez, Cristo M
  • Leierer, Lucia
  • Perez, Leopoldo
  • Bailon, Salvador
  • Laplana, Cesar
  • Javier Ruiz-Sanchez, Francisco
  • Dolores Marin-Monfort, Maria
  • Marquina-Blasco, Rafael
  • Fagoaga, Ana
  • Vidal-Matutano, Paloma
  • Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V
  • Jambrina-Enriquez, Margarita
  • Connolly, Rory
This paper presents a multiproxy palaeoenvironmental study from Abric del Pastor (Alcoy, Spain), a rock shelter which has yielded evidence for Middle Palaeolithic human occupation. The sedimentary sequence has been analysed for lipid biomarker n-alkane abundances (ACL, CPI), compound specific leaf wax delta H-2 and delta C-13, and bulk organic geochemistry (TOC, %N, %S), providing a record of past climate and local vegetation dynamics. Site formation processes have been reconstructed through the application of soil micromorphology. Analyses of anthracological, microvertebrate and macrofaunal assemblages from selected subunits are also presented here. Our data indicates that a variable climate marked by predominantly cold conditions persisted through most of the sequence and that Neanderthal occupations in stratigraphic unit IVd, assigned to MIS 4 or late MIS 5, occurred in a landscape setting characterised by a mosaic of biotopes. The presence of key resources inside the ravine where the site is located suggests that the occupation of the rock shelter may have been strategically motivated by a subsistence and mobility strategy which focused on zones of localised ecological resilience, such as intra-mountainous valleys or ravines, during periods of global or regional environmental downturn. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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