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Serum Deprivation and Protein Synthesis Inhibition Induce Two Different Apoptotic Processes in N18 Neuroblastoma Cells

  • Fibla Palazón, Joan
  • Yuste Mateos, Víctor J. (Víctor José)
  • Piulats, J.M
  • Llecha Cano, Núria
  • Comella i Carnicé, Joan Xavier
  • Boix Torras, Jacint
N18 are murine neuroblastoma cells that underwent cell death upon serum deprivation or inhibition of protein synthesis by means of cycloheximide (CHX). In both cases, an ultrastructural morphology and an internucleosomal pattern of DNA fragmentation typical of apoptosis were found. However, electron microscopy revealed abundant lipid vesicles in the cytoplasm of CHX-treated cells that were not found in their serum-deprived counterparts. In addition, when both types of apoptotic cells were compared by means of flow cytometry and chromatin staining with propidium iodide, the former showed consistently less fluorescence than the latter. Therefore, in N18 cells, both apoptotic processes seemed to differ at a structural level. At a functional level, we found that apoptosis was blocked by the protease inhibitor TLCK in CHX-treated but not in serum-deprived cells. On the other hand, we generated N18 clones that overexpressed Bcl-2 protein. After a period of 48 h we found that identical levels of Bcl-2 protein were able to block apoptosis in serum-deprived but not in CHX-treated cells. In conclusion, two different biochemical pathways leading to apoptosis seem to coexist in N18 neuroblastoma cells.
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Frequentist and Bayesian approaches for a joint model for prostate cancer risk and longitudinal PSA data

  • Serrat, Carles
  • Rué i Monné, Montserrat
  • Armero, Carmen
  • Piulachs, Xavier
  • Perpiñán, Hèctor
  • Forte, Anabel
  • Páez, Álvaro
  • Gómez, Guadalupe
The paper describes the use of frequentist and Bayesian shared-parameter joint models of longitudinal measurements of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). The motivating dataset corresponds to the screening arm of the Spanish branch of the European Randomized Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) study. The results show that PSA is highly associated with the risk of being diagnosed with PCa and that there is an age-varying effect of PSA on PCa risk. Both the frequentist and Bayesian paradigms produced very close parameter estimates and subsequent 95% confidence and credibility intervals. Dynamic estimations of disease-free probabilities obtained using Bayesian inference highlight the potential of joint models to guide personalized risk-based screening strategies.
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Mental health expectancy: an indicator to bridge the gap between clinical and public health perspectives of population mental health.

  • Gispert i Magarolas, Rosa
  • Ritchie, K.
  • Rajmil, L.
  • Rué i Monné, Montserrat
  • Glutting, J. P.
Mental health indicators generally used in public health are derived from mortality statistics, but they do not reflect the impact that disability due to mental disorders has on population health. The present study proposes a global indicator of population mental health which combines both mortality and morbidity data. The data used were the results of a Health Interview Survey, including the 12-item version of the General Healtli Questionnaire, mortality life-tables for the general population, and data from a two-step epidemiological study used to assign the probability of case status. The results are calculated for the Catalonia region in north-east Spain. Life expectancy and mental health expectancies at all ages were found to be higher for women than for men. Men were found to have a higher total life expectancy in good mental health. The feasibility and potential areas of application of this generic mental health index are discussed.
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Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Frontal Lobe Activation during Word Generation in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

  • Pujol Salud, Jesús
  • Torres, Llanos
  • Deus Yela, Juan
  • Cardoner, N. (Narcís)
  • Pifarré Paredero, Josep
  • Capdevila, Antoni
  • Vallejo, Julio
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(Inter)(Trans)disciplinarietat en formació de mestres

  • Jové Monclús, Glòria
  • Llonch Molina, Nayra
  • Bonastra, Quim
L’article mostra un projecte al grau de Primària de la UdL basat en l’aprenentatge (inter)(trans)disciplinari a través de l’art. Tot i tenir un pla d’estudis fragmentat per matèries, des de la universitat, es poden mostrar metodologies de treball intertransdisciplinari que, si es reforcen en el marc de les pràctiques, permeten que els futurs mestres concretin accions globalitzades més enllà de les parcel·lacions curriculars.
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«Anarchitekton» de Jordi Colomer: una propuesta transversal en educación infantil

  • Ayuso, Helena
  • Jové Monclús, Glòria
  • Sanjuan, Roser
El siguiente artículo presenta dos experiencias artísticas llevadas a cabo en la etapa de educación infantil en las escuelas infantiles municipales de Lleida y en el CEIP Príncep de Viana, también de Lleida, en el marco de la exposición «Jordi Colomer» realizada por el Centro de Arte La Panera en el 2009. Con ellas queremos mostrar de qué manera la exposición se utiliza como contexto alfabetizador y se entiende como herramienta para el conocimiento, concretando así diferentes propuestas educativas en función de los proyectos que se desarrollan en el marco del trabajo en red entre el centro de arte, los centros educativos y la Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación de la universidad.
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(Inter)(Trans)disciplinariedad en formación de maestros

  • Jové Monclús, Glòria
  • Llonch Molina, Nayra
  • Bonastra, Quim
El artículo muestra un proyecto en el Grado de educación primaria de la Universidad de Lleida basado en el aprendizaje (inter)(trans)disciplinar a través del arte. A pesar de tener un plan de estudios fragmentado por materias, se pueden mostrar desde la universidad metodologías de trabajo inter-transdisciplinar que, si se refuerzan en el marco de las prácticas, permiten a los futuros maestros concretar acciones globalizadas más allá de las parcelaciones curriculares.
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Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase, but Not Extracellular-Regulated Kinases, Is Necessary to Mediate BrainDerived Neurotrophic Factor-Induced Motoneuron Survival

  • Dolcet Roca, Xavier
  • Egea Navarro, Joaquim
  • Soler i Tatché, Rosa Ma.
  • Martin-Zanca, Dionisio
  • Comella i Carnicé, Joan Xavier
Chick embryo spinal cord motoneurons develop a trophic response to some neurotrophins when they are maintained in culture in the presence of muscle extract. Thus, after 2 days in culture, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes motoneuron survival. In the present study we have analyzed the intracellular pathways that may be involved in the BDNF-induced motoneuron survival. We have observed that BDNF activated the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase pathways. To examine the contribution of these pathways to the survival effect triggered by BDNF, we used PD 98059, a specific inhibitor of MAP kinase kinase, and LY 294002, a selective inhibitor of PI 3-kinase. PD 98059, at doses that significantly reduced the phosphorylation of ERKs, did not show any prominent effect on neuronal survival. However, LY 294002 at doses that inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, a downstream element of the PI 3-kinase, completely abolished the motoneuron survival effects of BDNF. Moreover, cell death triggered by LY 294002 treatment exhibited features similar to those observed after muscle extract deprivation. Our results suggest that the PI 3-kinase pathway plays an important role in the survival effect triggered by BDNF on motoneurons, whereas activation of the ERK MAP kinase pathway is not relevant.
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Calcium Influx Activates Extracellular-regulated Kinase/Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway through a Calmodulin-sensitive Mechanism in PC12 Cells

  • Egea Navarro, Joaquim
  • Espinet Mestre, Carme
  • Comella i Carnicé, Joan Xavier
Evidence suggests that membrane depolarization is able to promote neuronal survival through a sustained, although moderate, increase in the intracellular calcium. We have used the PC12 cell line to study the possible intracellular pathways that can be activated by calcium influx. Previously, we observed that membrane depolarization-induced calcium influx was able to activate the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogenactivated protein kinase pathway and most of this activation was calmodulin-dependent. We demonstrated that a part of the ERK activation is due to the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Here, we show that both the epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation and the Shc-Grb2-Ras activation are not calmodulin-modulated. Moreover, dominant negative mutant Ha-ras (Asn-17) prevents the activation on ERKs by membrane depolarization, suggesting that Ras and calmodulin are both necessaries to activate ERKs by membrane depolarization. We failed to observe any significant induction and/or modulation of the A-Raf, B-Raf or c-Raf-1 kinase activities, thus suggesting the existence of a MEK kinase different from the classical Raf kinases that directly or indirectly can be modulated by Ca21/calmodulin.
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Protein carbonylation: proteomics, specificity and relevance to aging

  • Cabiscol Català, Elisa
  • Tamarit Sumalla, Jordi
  • Ros Salvador, Joaquim
Detection and quantification of protein carbonyls present in biological samples has become a popular, albeit indirect, method to determine the existence of oxidative stress. Moreover, the rise of proteomics has allowed the identification of the specific proteins targeted by protein carbonylation. This review discusses these methodologies and proteomic strategies and then focuses on the relationship between protein carbonylation and aging and the parameters that may explain the increased sensitivity of certain proteins to protein carbonylation.
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