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Adjectives as saturators vs. modifiers: statistical evidence

  • McNally, Louise, 1965-
  • Boleda, Gemma
  • Evert, Stefan
  • Gehrke, Berit
This paper reports on a large-scale, statistical analysis of corpus data to support the null hypothesis that ethnic adjectives (EAs, e.g. French) are ordinary adjectives, rather than argument-saturating \nouns in disguise" (in, e.g., French agreement). In particular, EAs are argued to simply modify the noun they combine with; their special properties in inducing argument-like behavior arises from the interaction between the semantics of event nominals and that of the adjective., This work was supported by grants from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (FFI2010-15006, TIN2009-14715-C04-04 (KNOW-II), JCI-2010-08581), as well as by the European Union via the EU PASCAL2 Network of Excellence (FP7-ICT-216886) and by the Fundació ICREA.
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When wide scope is not enough: scope and topicality of discourse referents

  • Barberà Altimira, Gemma
This paper analyses the semantic attributes discourse referents in Catalan Sign Language may have in order to have a corresponding location established in sign space. It is argued that a combination of scope and topicality is required when analysing the correlation between the introduction of entities into the discourse and assigning a spatial location., This research was partly made possible thanks to the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (FFI2009-10492), Generalitat de Catalunya (URLING-2009SGR00763) and SignGram Cost Action IS1006. Of course, the remaining errors are all mine.
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Conceptual versus referential affordance in concept composition

  • McNally, Louise, 1965-
  • Boleda, Gemma
One of the defining traits of language is its capacity to mediate between concepts in our mind, which encapsulate generalizations, and the things they refer to in a given communicative act, with all their idiosyncratic properties. This article examines precisely this interplay between conceptual and referential aspects of meaning, and proposes that concept composition (or concept combination, a term more commonly used in Psychology) exploits both: Conceptually afforded composition is at play when a modifier and its head fit as could be expected given the properties of the two concepts involved, whereas in referentially afforded composition the result of the composition depends on specific, independently available properties of the referent. For instance, red box tends to be applied to boxes whose surface is red, but, given the appropriate context, it can also be applied to e.g. a brown box that contains red objects. We support our proposal with data from nominal modification, and explore a way to formally distinguish the two kinds of composition and integrate them into a more general framework for semantic analysis. Along the way, we recover the classically Fregean notion of sense as including conceptual information, and show the potential of distributional semantics, a framework that has become very influential in Cognitive Science and Computational Linguistics, to address research questions from a theoretical linguistic perspective., This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No 655577 (LOVe) and from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No 715154, AMORE); Spanish MINECO grants FFI2010-15006, FFI2010-09464-E, and FFI2013-41301, as well as an ICREA Academia award to the first author.
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The unintended effects of increasing the legal working age on family behaviour

  • Bellés Obrero, Cristina Adelaida
  • Jiménez-Martín, Sergi
  • Vall-Castello, Judit
We use an exogenous variation in the Spanish legal working age to investigate the effect of education on fertility and infant health. The reform introduced in 1980 raised the minimum legal age to work from 14 to 16 years old. We show that the reform increased educational attainment, which led to 1786 more women remaining childless and 3307 less children being born in the 10 generations after the reform. These negative effects operate through a postponement of first births until an age where the catching up effect cannot take place. We show that woman s marriage market is one channel through which education impacts fertility, delaying the age at which women marry for the first time and reducing the likelihood that a woman marries. Even more importantly, this postponement in fertility seems to be also detrimental for the health of their offspring at the moment of delivery. The reform caused 2,789 more children to be born with less than 37 weeks of gestation, 268 died during the first 24 hours of life and 4,352 were born with low birth weight. We are able to document two channels that contribute to the negative effects on infant health: the postponement in age of delivery as well as a higher employment probability of more educated women, which enhances unhealthier behaviors (smoking and drinking).
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The effect of firm cash holding on monetary policy

  • Adão, Bernardino
  • Silva, André C.
Firm cash holdings increased substantially from 1980 to 2013. The overall distribution of firm cash holdings changed in the same period. We study the implications of these changes for monetary policy. We use Compustat data and a model with financial frictions that allows the calculation of the monetary policy effects according to the distribution of cash holdings. We find that the interest rate channel of the transmission of monetary policy has become more powerful, as the impact of monetary policy over real interest rates increased. With the observed changes in firm cash holdings, the real interest rate takes 3.4 months more to return to its initial value after a shock to/nthe nominal interest rate., The ADEMU Working Paper Series is being supported by the European Commission Horizon 2020 European Union funding for Research & Innovation, grant agreement No 649396.
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Criterios para la actualización lexicográfica a partir de datos de observatorios de neología

  • Freixa , Judit
  • Adelstein, Andreina
Comunicació presentada al Congreso Internacional El Diccionario: neología, lenguaje de especialidad, computación, celebrat a Ciutat de Mèxic (Mèxic) del 28 al 30 d'octubre de 2013.
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Pharmacokinetics in morbid obesity: influence of two bariatric surgery techniques on paracetamol and caffeine metabolism

  • Goday Arno, Alberto
  • Farré Albaladejo, Magí
  • Rodríguez-Morató, Jose, 1987-
  • Ramón Moros, José Manuel
  • Pérez Mañá, Clara
  • Papaseit Fontanet, Esther
  • Civit, Ester
  • Langohr, Klaus
  • Carbó Banús, Marcel·lí
  • Benaiges Foix, David
  • Castañer, Olga
  • Flores-Le-Roux, Juana Antonia
  • Pera Roman, Manuel Ramón
  • Grande Posa, Luís
  • Torre Fornell, Rafael de la
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to study the impact of the two most common bariatric surgery techniques on paracetamol pharmacokinetics (a marker of gastric emptying) and caffeine metabolism (a marker of liver function). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present prospective study, we studied 24 morbid obese patients before, at 4 weeks, and 6 months after having undergone sleeve gastrectomy (n = 10) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 14). For comparative purposes, 28 healthy controls (14 normal weights and 14 overweights) were also included in the study. RESULTS: Paracetamol pharmacokinetics was altered in the obese participants leading to lower bioavailability. Bariatric surgery resulted in faster absorption and normalized pharmacokinetic parameters, prompting an increase in paracetamol bioavailability. No differences were found between surgical procedures. In the case of caffeine, the ratio paraxanthine/caffeine did not differ between morbid obese and healthy individuals. This ratio remained unmodified after surgery, indicating that the liver function (assessed by cytochrome P450 1A2 activity) was unaffected by obesity or bariatric surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Paracetamol pharmacokinetics and caffeine plasma levels are altered in severely obese patients. The two studied bariatric surgical techniques normalize paracetamol oral bioavailability without impairing the liver function (measured by cytochrome P450 1A2 activity).
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Prognostic impact of CD133 expression in Endometrial Cancer Patients

  • Mancebo Moreno, Gemma
  • Sole-Sedeno, J.M.
  • Pino, O.
  • Miralpeix, E.
  • Mojal, Sergio
  • Garrigos, L.
  • Lloveras Rubio, Belen
  • Navarro Medrano, Pilar
  • Gibert, Joan
  • Lorenzo Perez, Marta
  • Aran, Iris
  • Carreras Collado, Ramón
  • Alameda Quitllet, Francisco
To assess the impact of CD133 expression on the prognosis of endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). We retrospectively assessed CD133 expression in tissue microarray of 116 surgically treated FIGO I-III EEC. Tumors with ≥10% of CD133-expressing cells were considered CD133-positive (CD133+). On the basis of CD133 expression, clinical and pathological parameters, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Of the EEC studied 85.2% showed CD133-expressing cells. Only 61% (n = 66) of EEC presented ≥10% of CD133 expressing cells and were considered CD133+. The mean OS for CD133+ tumour patients was 161 months (95% CI, 154-168) as compared with 146 months (95% CI, 123-160) for those with CD133- tumors (p = 0.012). The mean PFS for CD133+ tumour was 159 months (95% CI, 149-168) as compared with 147 months (95% CI, 132-161) in those with a CD133-tumour (p = 0.014). CD133+ tumours were less likely to have vascular invasion (p = 0.010) and more likely to be well differentiated (p = 0.034). C133+ tumours predicted favorable OS and PFS of EEC patients, with a Hazard Ratio 4.731 (95% CI, 1.251-17.89; p = 0.022). CD133+ tumor status correlates with favorable prognosis of EEC. Our findings are in agreement with studies addressing brain and colorectal tumours.
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