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When are Cartels more likely to be formed or broken? The role of business cycles

  • García Galindo, Carmen
  • Borrell, Joan-Ramon
  • Jiménez González, Juan Luis
  • Ordóñez de Haro, José Manuel
The literature presents mixed contributions about the economic conditions under which cartels form and collapse, and about how stable they are across firm-specific and industry-wide business cycles. The relationship between cartel life cycles and business cycles has not been sufficiently analyzed to date. In this paper, we study in depth whether collusion is pro-cyclical or counter-cyclical. We analyze the relationship between cartel startups/breakups and economic cycles using a dataset of sanctioned cartels by the European Commission that were active between 1997 and 2012, after the leniency program had already been introduced. We also double check whether this relationship has changed with respect to the pre-leniency period from 1991 to 1996. Our results show that cartels are more likely to be formed in upturns, but that cartels tend to breakup also in booms. Upturns in economic cycles appear to cause cartel turnovers: existing cartels die while new ones are set up. Collusion appears to be pro-cyclical with respect to cartel creation, while it seems to be counter-cyclical with regard to cartel demise.
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Riesgo de inversión en Life Settlements

  • Jori, Mar
  • Bosch Príncep, Manuela
  • Morillo, Isabel
  • Ribas Marí, Carme
En este trabajo, se realiza una descripción del proceso de titulización de un contrato Life Settlement. Se destacan los partícipes que intervienen en la operación y cómo éstos deben actuar para que dicha operación sea lo más eficiente y transparente. A continuación, se cuantifica el riesgo de inversión de este producto que se concentra, básicamente, en el riesgo de longevidad del asegurado. Para ello, se introducen dos medidas: la 'modified life extension duration' y la 'life extension convexity' que permiten conocer cuánto valor pierde el título si el asegurado vive por encima de su esperanza de vida.
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Audit tenure and audit Qualifications in a low litigation risk setting: An analysis of the Spanish market

  • García Blandón, Josep
  • Argilés Bosch, Josep M.
The main role of the external auditor in the classical corporate governance scheme is to verify the accounting information provided by the firms' managers. Lengthy audit engagements are viewed as a main threat to preserve auditor independence, and therefore regulators have established mandatory rotation rules in many countries worldwide., Tenencia de auditorías y calificaciones de auditorías en un ambiente de bajo riesgo de litigios. Un análisis del mercado español
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El miedo del pintor

  • Carroggio de Molina, Alberto, 1946-
La representación es el artificio de crear una imagen tridimensional sobre una superficie de dos dimensiones. Esta evidente contradicción lleva al pintor a soportar diversos temores. Por un lado, interviene el miedo intelectual. El conflicto de realizar una acción falsa, que actúa con nociones que no lo son. Pero también existe el miedo personal surgido de la desconfianza en la propia habilidad y, en consecuencia, en la calidad de la obra realizada. El pintor es actor y espectador y realiza una obra que debe juzgar, desde el exterior, como espectador.
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Distribución espacial y análisis ambiental de la flora vascular de los Pirineos

  • Gómez, D
  • García, M.B.
  • Font i Castell, Xavier
  • Aizpuru, I.
The recent 'on line' edition of the Atlas of vascular flora of the Pyrenees, allow us now to delimit the floristic diversity and to analyze the spatial distribution and some environmental features to contribute to their ecological study and conservation. The native vascular flora of the Pyrenees consists in 3,652 species and subspecies of vascular plants. This figure places the Pyrenees as the second most important point of Europe plant diversity, after the Alps. Considering 6 geographical sectors, the central-south (76%) and both the easterns (75%) shelter the highest plant abundance. In the altitudinal gradient, the montane belt holds the highest plant richness (87% of the total). With respect to chorology, 32% of plants are eurosiberians and 29% mediterraneans, whereas alpine orophytes and boreoalpines account for 12.6% and 5% are endemisms. Concerning life-forms, hemicryptophytes (44%) and therophytes (20.4%) predominate, although the later decrease with altitude, while chamaephytes increase. Looking at the edafic affinity, 35% of plants are calcicolus and 21% silicicolus. Distribution according to habitats shows that near 30% of the flora occur in grasslands, 16% in wetlands, and a similar percentage (around 12-13%) in rocks, forest, shrublands and anthropic plant communities. Finally, taking into account the habitat naturalness, 47% of plants occur in high or very high preserved habitats, although almost a quarter of plants live in the most disturbed ones.
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Agriculture, Profitability and Climate Change: Can Accounting Help Identify Best Farming Practices? Empirical Case Study in Spain

  • Antonini, Carla
  • Argilés Bosch, Josep M.
We perform an empirical analysis on the benefits of, and the challenges faced by, sustainability accounting in measuring the effects of climate change for a sample of Spanish rice farms. We use farm yields, revenues and incomes as indicators of economic performance, and greenhouse gas emissions, and direct and indirect energy consumption as indicators of climate change effects. According to our data, farms with higher yields, revenues and income are responsible for a greater environmental impact, measured in total gigajoules of energy consumed and tons of carbon dioxide emitted, than farms with a lower economic performance. Results show that in our sample the achievement of higher yields is attributable to the greater use of chemical inputs and fossil fuels and not to innovative and sustainable farming practices. The results indicate that accounting for climate change effects is not only possible but also necessary to provide more accurate information on the overall costs and benefits of farming. Greater transparency in accounting information should serve to highlight which farming activities are better able to reduce climate change impacts.
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Estudi d’eficiència i propostes de millora per la reinserció laboral i social de persones que compleixen penes de privació de llibertat, en el marc del programa reincorpora de la Fundació “La Caixa”

  • Heras i Trias, Pilar
  • Fabra Fres, Núria
  • Gómez i Serra, Miquel
  • Homs i Ferret, Oriol
  • Llena Berñe, Asun
  • Gil Pasamontes, Esther
  • Fernandez Serrano, Francesc
  • Ortega Cortell, Marta
  • Castellví Oyarce, Juan Andrés
  • Martin Pujol, Anna
  • Bonaterra, Jordi
  • Arias, Laia
  • Poblete, Denisse
  • Subirana, Rosa
Premi Recercaixa 2012 . Informe realitzat pel Grup de Recerca de Pedagogia Social (gps) per la Cohesió i la Inclusió, La recerca que presentem: “l‟estudi d‟efectivitat del programa de reinserció de reclusos en el marc del reincorpora” és una recerca avaluativa desenvolupada pel Grup de recerca, consolidat, en Pedagogia Social (GPS) de la Facultat d‟Educació de la Universitat de Barcelona. És una recerca rellevant en tant que estudia l‟efectivitat d‟un programa que esdevé clau en la reinserció laboral de les persones sotmeses a mesures judicials. La recerca ha combinat mètodes qualitatius i quantitatius per tal de confrontar les dades i fer una lectura de resultats en clau de propostes de millora, és a dir, que no només aporta un estat de la qüestió, sinó que aprofundeix en l‟anàlisi dels resultats identificant possibilitats de millora i innovació en el programa reincorpora...
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Per què hi ha gent que se sacrifica per una causa?

  • Bueno i Torrens, David, 1965-
La història de la humanitat està marcada per episodis de violència. Diversos estudis indiquen que el percentatge de morts violentes ha disminuït significativament des de l'Edat Mitjana, però en molts conflictes humans hi continua havent víctimes mortals. Un dels aspectes més complexos és entendre per què hi ha combatents a qui no els importa sacrificar-se per la seva causa. Alguns dels casos recents que ens han afectat més directament han sigut els atemptats de Barcelona i Cambrils de l'agost passat, on la major part de terroristes buscaven el martiri, com se sol anomenar aquest desig de ser abatut mentre es comet l'acció terrorista. L'investigador Scott Atran i els seus col·laboradors, de diverses universitats i centres de recerca anglesos, nord-americans i espanyols, han analitzat quins són els factors principals que faciliten que a una persona no li importi sacrificar-se. Segons publiquen a Nature Human Behaviour, aquests factors són el sentiment d'unió indissociable al seu grup de camarades i un compromís amb valors 'sagrats'. [...]
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A new approach for the quantification of qualitative measures of economic expectations

  • Clavería González, Óscar
  • Monte Moreno, Enric
  • Torra Porras, Salvador
In this study a new approach to quantify qualitative survey data about the direction of change is presented. We propose a data-driven procedure based on evolutionary computation that avoids making any assumption about agents' expectations. The research focuses on experts' expectations about the state of the economy from the World Economic Survey in twenty eight countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The proposed method is used to transform qualitative responses into estimates of economic growth. In a first experiment, we combine agents' expectations about the future to construct a leading indicator of economic activity. In a second experiment, agents' judgements about the present are combined to generate a coincident indicator. Then, we use index tracking to derive the optimal combination of weights for both indicators that best replicates the evolution of economic activity in each country. Finally, we compute several accuracy measures to assess the performance of these estimates in tracking economic growth. The different results across countries have led us to use multidimensional scaling analysis in order to group all economies in four clusters according to their performance.
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Francisco Lafarga y Luis Pegenaute, eds. Autores traductores en la España del siglo XIX. [Ressenya]

  • Atalaya Fernández, Irene
Este volumen se integra en el marco del proyecto de investigación Creación y traducción en la España del siglo xix dirigido por Francisco Lafarga. El tema principal de la obra es la relación entre traducción y creación en consonancia con el creciente interés por este vínculo en los Estudios de Traducción Literaria.
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