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Anthocyanin tissue bioavailability in animals: possible implications for human health. A systematic review

  • Sandoval-Ramírez, Berner Andrée
  • Catalan, Ursula
  • Fernandez-Castillejo, Sara
  • Rubió Piqué, Laura
  • Macià i Puig, Ma Alba
  • Solà, Rosa
Anthocyanins (ACNs) are promising health-enhancing phenolic compounds. We focus on ACN animal tissue bioavailability to provide an evidentiary link between tissue ACNs and their associated health properties. We performed a systematic review of electronic libraries; 279 results were retrieved, and 13 publications met inclusion criteria. Extracted information included animal model employed, administration route, doses, analysis method, and ACN concentration values in tissues. Total ACN concentrations were detected in mice kidney (2.17 × 105 pmol/g), liver (1.73 × 105 pmol/g), heart (3.6 × 103 pmol/g), and lung (1.16 × 105 pmol/g); and in pig brain (6.08 × 103 pmol/g). ACNs showed a predominance of parent ACNs in long-term experiments versus an ACN metabolite predominance in short-term experiments. ACNs detected in animal tissues, such as cyanidin-3-glucoside, suggest it may have an important role in human health. This information could be useful to determine proper ACN-intake biomarkers in biological samples in futures studies.

Quantitative trait loci for agronomic traits in an elite barley population for Mediterranean conditions

  • Mansour Elsayed, Elsayed
  • Casas Cendoya, Ana Maria
  • Gracia Gimeno, Ma. Pilar
  • Molina Cano, José Luis
  • Moralejo Vidal, Mª Angeles
  • Cattivelli, Luigi
  • Thomas, William T. B.
  • Igartua Arregui, Ernesto
Advances in plant breeding through marker-assisted selection (MAS) are only possible when genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) can contribute to the improvement of elite germplasm. A population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed for one of the best crosses of the Spanish National Barley Breeding Program, between two six-row winter barley cultivars Orria and Plaisant. The objective of this study was to identify favourable QTLs for agronomic traits in this population, which may help to optimise breeding strategies for these and other elite materials for the Mediterranean region. A genetic linkage map was developed for 217 RILs, using 382 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, selected from the barley oligonucleotide pool assay BOPA1 and two genes. A subset of 112 RILs was evaluated for several agronomic traits over a period of 2 years at three locations, Lleida and Zaragoza (Spain) and Fiorenzuola d’Arda (Italy), for a total of five field trials. An important segregation distortion occurred during population development in the region surrounding the VrnH1 locus. A QTL for grain yield and length of growth cycle was also found at this locus, apparently linked to a differential response of the VrnH1 alleles to temperature. A total of 33 QTLs was detected, most of them for important breeding targets such as plant height and thousand-grain weight. QTL × environment interactions were prevalent for most of the QTLs detected, although most interactions were of a quantitative nature. Therefore, QTLs suitable for MAS for most traits were identified.

Una mirada antropológica sobre las violencias

  • Ferrándiz, Francisco
  • Feixa, Carles
Este artículo trata de las violencias de la cultura y las culturas de la violencia. Tras revisar la especificidad de las miradas antropológicas sobre la violencia, proponemos una reconceptualización procesual de la misma, reflexionamos acerca de las formas y posibles consecuencias de la investigación y de la representación etnográfica en este campo, y acabamos esbozando el futuro de una antropología de la violencia que pueda ser también una antropología de la paz. Un epílogo sobre el 11-M sirve para resituar este bosquejo teórico en el escenario del terrorismo global.

Association study highlights the influence of ELOVL fatty acid elongase 6 gene region on backfat fatty acid composition in Large White pig breed

  • Zappaterra, M.
  • Ros Freixedes, Roger
  • Estany Illa, Joan
  • Davoli, R.
Dietary fatty acid (FA) composition has an impact on human health. There is an increasing request from consumers for healthier food and pork industry must respond to it without worsening performance and the technological properties of pork products. The inclusion of genetic markers for carcass FA composition in pig selection schemes could be a useful tool to reach the right balance between unsaturated and saturated FAs to satisfy market demands. With the aim of finding genomic regions associated with porcine backfat FA composition, a genome-wide association study was performed on 798 Italian Large White pigs genotyped using Illumina PorcineSNP60 k. The strongest associations with backfat contents of palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, medium-chain and long-chain FAs were found for the Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 8 region located at 119 to 122 Mb, where the gene ELOVL FA elongase 6 is mapped. Palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acid contents were also found associated with SSC14, in particular with the genomic region at 121 to 124 Mb, where stearoyl-CoA desaturase Δ9 gene lies. On the other hand, the genomic regions associated with backfat contents of arachidic, arachidonic, n-6 and n-3 FAs showed to harbour mainly genes involved in dietary lipids and carbohydrates digestion, absorption and utilisation. To our knowledge, this is the first study performed in Large White pigs identifying markers and genomic regions associated with backfat FA composition. The results validate in Large White some associations previously detected in other pig breeds and indicate the involvement of distinct metabolic pathways in the deposition pattern of essential and non-essential FAs.

Percepción del alumnado sobre la utilización de una escala graduada para la autoevaluación y coevaluación de trabajos escritos en la formación inicial del profesorado de educación física (FIPEF)

  • López-Pastor, Víctor Manuel
  • Pérez-Pueyo, Ángel
  • Barba, José J.
  • Lorente-Catalán, Eloisa
La finalidad de este trabajo es estudiar la percepción del alumnado universitario de formación inicial del profesorado (FIP) sobre la importancia y funcionalidad de una escala graduada en el proceso de elaboración de trabajos grupales monográficos escritos. Se establecen cuatro objetivos secundarios para analizar diferentes resultados de su aplicación: la importancia de conocer previamente los criterios de calificación, las experiencias previas del alumnado, la valoración del alumnado sobre las ventajas y dificultades de su uso y su intención de utilizarlos en su futura labor profesional. El estudio se ha llevado a cabo en tres centros de FIPEF. Se ha aplicado un mismo protocolo durante el proceso de elaboración y evaluación continua y final del trabajo monográfico grupal, que combina la autoevaluación y coevaluación grupal con la heteroevaluación del profesor, utilizando un instrumento elaborado "ad hoc". Tras finalizar el proceso formativo se aplica un cuestionario final de evaluación a toda la población implicada y se llevan a cabo entrevistas con una pequeña muestra. Los resultados indican que: (a) conocer previamente los criterios de calificación les ayuda a mejorar la calidad del trabajo durante su elaboración; (b) en función del centro, existe una notable variedad de experiencias previas en lo relativo a la utilización de este tipo de instrumentos de evaluación; (c) los estudiantes valoran positivamente la utilización de una escala graduada durante el proceso de elaboración de trabajos grupales; (d) el alumnado muestra una elevada intención de utilizar este tipo de instrumento en su posterior labor profesional como docentes., The aim of this study was to identify the perception of university students on Pre-service Teacher Education (PTE) courses on the importance and functionality of assessment criteria rubrics when undertaking written group assignments. Secondary objectives of the work included: analyzing the importance of having prior knowledge of the grading criteria for assignments that were to be assessed; identifying whether students had prior experience of this type of assessment instrument; discovering the students’ opinion on whether the rubric helped them complete the exercise and to do it better; and learning whether they intended to use this type of instrument in their future roles as teachers. The study was carried out within three PETE departments in Spanish universities. The same protocol was employed during the preparation and the formative and summative assessment of a group written document, combining self-assessment, group peer-assessment and tutor assessment using an ad-hoc designed instrument. Once the assignment was completed, a questionnaire was administered to all of the students involved and a sample was selected to carry out informal interviews. The results of the study indicate that: (a) prior knowledge of the grading criteria helped them to perform the task better; (b) there were significant differences in the students’ previous experiences of this type of assessment instrument, depending on the university where they studied; (c) students felt that using a rubric whilst undertaking a group assignment was very valuable; and (d) students indicated a high level of intention to use this type of instrument within their own future roles as teachers.

Teaching motor and emotional competencies in university students

  • Lavega i Burgués, Pere
  • Aráujo, Paulo
  • Jaqueira, Ana Rosa
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motor and emotional competencies in physical education students produced by different sporting games classified into four domains of motor action (psychomotor, co-operation, opposition, and co-operation/ opposition). The sample was composed of 357 students (155 female and 202 male) from three universities: Barcelona and Lleida in Spain, and Coimbra in Portugal. Through a quasi-experimental study, the students indicated the intensity felt for thirteen positive, negative, and ambiguous emotions on a questionnaire after playing games. The 37,128 observations were analysed using a model based on generalised estimating equations (GEE), Gaussian family, identity link, and exchangeable correlation. The emotions varied notably between the sociomotor competencies (cooperation, opposition and cooperation/opposition) and the psychomotor ones. This research confirmed the key role that games can play when it comes to teaching motor and emotional competencies to university students., El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar la relación entre las competencias motrices y emocionales en estudiantes de educación física producidas por diferentes juegos deportivos clasificados en cuatro dominios de acción motriz (psicomotor, cooperación, oposición y cooperación/oposición). La muestra estuvo constituida por 357 estudiantes (155 chicas y 202 chicos) de tres universidades: Barcelona y Lleida en España, y Coimbra en Portugal. A través de un estudio cuasi-experimental los estudiantes indicaban en un cuestionario, una vez realizado cada juego, la intensidad que sintieron en trece emociones positivas,negativas y ambiguas. Las 37.128 observaciones registradas se analizaron usando un modelo basado en ecuaciones de estimación generalizadas (GEE), familia Gaussian, enlace identidad y correlación intercambiable. Las emociones variaron notablemente entre las competencias sociomotrices (dominios cooperación, oposición y cooperación/oposición) y los juegos psicomotores. Esta investigación confirma el papel relevante de los juegos cuando se trata de enseñar competencias motrices y emocionales en estudiantes universitarios.

How does Team Composition affect Performance in Continental Tournaments?

  • Acheampong, Ernest Yeboah
  • Akwaa Sekyi, Ellis Kofi
  • Malek, Bouhaouala
There is a dearth of research on factors, which affect the composition of high performing teams in continental tournaments. Given the short time available for managers to prepare national teams for competitions, composing the right team will yield desirable outcomes. The paper traces the history of African Cup of Nations (AFCON) tournament, investigates factors to consider in constituting national teams and determines how these factors affect team performance. We investigate team mix, young talent, team experience and international ranking as dimensions of team composition to determine their marginal effect on a team’s ability to win medals in continental tournaments. Using panel data from AFCON competitions between 1990 and 2017, we study the performances of thirty-eight (38) African countries. This empirical study finds significant marginal effect of team mix, young talent, team experience and international ranking on performance in continental tournaments. We provide a model for composing winning teams. The study has implications for related disciplines in management science, which rely on teamwork, cohesion and diversity as well as recruiting the right personnel to achieve organisational objectives. Further research should consider a similar study in Europe and other parts of the world in a multivariate analysis.

Shelf Life Potential and the Fruit Cuticle: The Unexpected Player

  • Lara Ayala, Isabel
  • Heredia, Antonio
  • Domínguez, Eva
The plant cuticle is an extracellular barrier that protects the aerial, non-lignified parts of plants from the surrounding environment, and furthermore plays important functions in organ growth and development. The role of the cuticle in post-harvest quality of fruits is a topic currently driving a lot of interest since an increasing bulk of research data show its modulating influence on a number of important traits determining shelf life and storage potential, including water transpiration and fruit dehydration, susceptibility to rots, pests and disorders, and even firmness. Moreover, the properties of fruit cuticles keep evolving after harvest, and have also been shown to be highly responsive to the external conditions surrounding the fruit. Indeed, common post-harvest treatments will have an impact on cuticle integrity and performance that needs to be evaluated for a deeper understanding of changes in post-harvest quality. In this review, chemical and biophysical properties of fruit cuticles are summarized. An overview is also provided of post-harvest changes in cuticles and the effects thereupon of some post-harvest procedures, with the purpose of offering a comprehensive summary of currently available information. Identification of natural sources of variability in relevant quality traits would allow breeding for the improvement of post-harvest life of fruit commodities.

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