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Music perception with current signal processing strategies for cochlear implants

  • Nogueira, Waldo
  • Haro Berois, Martín
  • Herrera Boyer, Perfecto, 1964-
  • Serra, Xavier
This work presents a brief review on hearing with cochlear implants with emphasis on music perception. Although speech perception in noise with cochlear implants is still the major challenge, music perception is becoming more and more important. Music can modulate emotions and stimulate the brain in different ways than speech, for this reason, music can impact in quality of life for cochlear implant users. In this paper we present traditional and new trends to improve the perception of pitch with cochlear implants as well as some signal processing methods that have been designed with the aim to improve music perception. Finally, a review of music evaluation methods will be presented.
Proyecto:


Content processing of music audio signals

  • Gouyon, Fabien
  • Herrera Boyer, Perfecto, 1964-
  • Gómez Gutiérrez, Emilia, 1975-
  • Cano, Pedro
  • Bonada, Jordi, 1973-
  • Loscos, Àlex
  • Amatriain, Xavier
  • Serra, Xavier
In this chapter, we provide an overview of state-of-the-art algorithms for the automatic description of music audio signals, both from a low-level perspective (focusing on signal characteristics) and a more musical perspective (focusing on musically meaningful dimensions). We also provide examples of applications based on this description, such as music identification, music browsing and music signal transformations. Throughout the chapter, a special focus is put on promising research directions., This work has been partially funded by the European IST-507142 project SIMAC (Semantic Interaction with Music Audio Contents),15 and the HARMOS E-Content project.
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Roadmap for Music Information ReSearch

  • Serra, Xavier
  • Magas, Michela
  • Benetos, Emmanouil
  • Chudy, Magdalena
  • Dixon, Simon
  • Flexer, Arthur
  • Gómez Gutiérrez, Emilia, 1975-
  • Gouyon, Fabien
  • Herrera Boyer, Perfecto, 1964-
  • Jordà Puig, Sergi
  • Paytuvi, Oscar
  • Peeters, Geoffroy
  • Schlüter, Jan
  • Vinet, Hugues
  • Widmer, Gerhard
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ESSENTIA: an open-source library for sound and music analysis

  • Bogdanov, Dmitry
  • Wack, Nicolas
  • Gómez Gutiérrez, Emilia, 1975-
  • Gulati, Sankalp
  • Herrera Boyer, Perfecto, 1964-
  • Mayor, Oscar
  • Roma Trepat, Gerard
  • Salamon, Justin
  • Zapata González, José Ricardo
  • Serra, Xavier
Comunicació presentada a la 21st ACM international conference on Multimedia, celebrada els dies 21 a 25 d'octubre de 2013 a Barcelona, Espanya., We present Essentia 2.0, an open-source C++ library for audio analysis and audio-based music information retrieval released under the Affero GPL license. It contains an extensive collection of reusable algorithms which implement audio input/output functionality, standard digital signal processing blocks, statistical characterization of data, and a large set of spectral, temporal, tonal and high-level music descriptors. The library is also wrapped in Python and includes a number of predefined executable extractors for the available music descriptors, which facilitates its use for fast prototyping and allows setting up research experiments very rapidly. Furthermore, it includes a Vamp plugin to be used with Sonic Visualiser for visualization purposes. The library is cross-platform and currently supports Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows systems. Essentia is designed with a focus on the robustness of the provided music descriptors and is optimized in terms of the computational cost of the algorithms. The provided functionality, specifically the music descriptors included in-the-box and signal processing algorithms, is easily expandable and allows for both research experiments and development of large-scale industrial applications., The work on Essentia has been partially funded by the PHAROS (EU-IP, IST-2006-045035), CANTATA (ITEA 05010, FIT-350300-2006-33), Buscamedia (CEN-20091026), SIGMUS (TIN2012-36650), CompMusic (ERC 267583), and TECNIO (TECCIT12-1-0003) projects.
Proyecto:


The Discipline formerly known as MIR

  • Herrera Boyer, Perfecto, 1964-
  • Serrà Julià, Joan
  • Laurier, Cyril François
  • Guaus, Enric
  • Gómez Gutiérrez, Emilia, 1975-
  • Serra, Xavier
Comunicació presentada a l'ISMIR 2009 celebrat del 26 al 30 d'octubre de 2009 a Kobe, Japó., Music Information Retrieval is a young multidisciplinary endeavour [4]. Even though its origins can be traced back to the 1960’s [14], we all probably agree on the capital influence that the International Conference on Music Information Retrieval, started in 2000 as symposium, has exerted on the sense of belongingness to a research community. Our exploration is not a science-fiction essay. We do not try to imagine how music will be conceptualized, experienced and mediated by our yet-to-come research, technological achievements and music gizmos. Alternatively, we reflect on how the discipline should evolve to become consolidated as such, in order it may get an effective future instead of becoming, after a promising start, just a “would-be” discipline. Our vision addresses different aspects: the discipline’s object of study, the employed methodologies, social and cultural impacts (which are out of this long abstract because of space restrictions), and we finish with some (maybe) disturbing issues that could be taken as partial and biased guidelines for future research.
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A proposal for the description of audio in the context of MPEG-7

  • Herrera Boyer, Perfecto, 1964-
  • Serra, Xavier
  • Peeters, Geoffroy
Comunicació presentada a: European Workshop on Content-Based Multimedia Indexing, celebrat a Berlín, Alemanya, el 25 d'octubre de 1999, Sound content description is one of the aims of the MPEG-7 initiative. Although MPEG-7 focuses on indexing and retrieval of audio, there are other sound content-based processing applications waiting to be developed once we have a robust set of descriptors and structures for putting them into relation, and for expressing semantic concerns about sound. Spectral Modeling techniques provide one usable framework for extracting and organizing sound content descriptions. In this paper we will introduce one particular approach to spectral modeling, then we will present some sound descriptors that can be derived from them in order to develop sound descriptions, and we will discuss the features of a structure for organizing the information that can be derived from them (a so called “Description Scheme”). All of our current descriptors can be considered low- or mid-level, thus we will not cover the high level description of music (musical forms and styles, roles of characters in a movie, etc.) which is also relevant in MPEG-7 indeed. The descriptors proposed are the result of a sound analysis based on a spectral modeling technique, and for all of them we have devised automatic extraction procedures. The Description Scheme we present is intended to be a generic one that, based on a hierarchical (and recursive in some places) structure, can describe sound at multiple levels of detail, addressing both syntactic (structural) and semantic (content) ways for describing sound.
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Early-life exposome and lung function in children in Europe: an analysis of data from the longitudinal, population-based HELIX cohort

  • Agier, Lydiane
  • Basagaña Flores, Xavier
  • Maitre, Léa
  • Casas Sanahuja, Maribel
  • de Castro, Montserrat
  • Donaire González, David
  • Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
  • Robinson, Oliver
  • Sunyer Deu, Jordi
  • Tamayo-Uria, Ibon
  • Urquiza, José M.
  • Valentín, Antònia
  • Vrijheid, Martine
  • Siroux, Valérie
Background: Several single-exposure studies have documented possible effects of environmental factors on lung function, but none has relied on an exposome approach. We aimed to evaluate the association between a broad range of prenatal and postnatal lifestyle and environmental exposures and lung function in children. Methods: In this analysis, we used data from 1033 mother–child pairs from the European Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) cohort (consisting of six existing longitudinal birth cohorts in France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain, and the UK of children born between 2003 and 2009) for whom a valid spirometry test was recorded for the child. 85 prenatal and 125 postnatal exposures relating to outdoor, indoor, chemical, and lifestyle factors were assessed, and lung function was measured by spirometry in children at age 6–12 years. Two agnostic linear regression methods, a deletion-substitution-addition (DSA) algorithm considering all exposures simultaneously, and an exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) considering exposures independently, were applied to test the association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s percent predicted values (FEV1%). We tested for two-way interaction between exposures and corrected for confounding by co-exposures. Findings: In the 1033 children (median age 8·1 years, IQR 6·5–9·0), mean FEV1% was 98·8% (SD 13·2). In the ExWAS, prenatal perfluorononanoate (p=0·034) and perfluorooctanoate (p=0·030) exposures were associated with lower FEV1%, and inverse distance to nearest road during pregnancy (p=0·030) was associated with higher FEV1%. Nine postnatal exposures were associated with lower FEV1%: copper (p=0·041), ethyl-paraben (p=0·029), five phthalate metabolites (mono-2-ethyl 5-carboxypentyl phthalate [p=0·016], mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate [p=0·023], mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate [p=0·0085], mono-4-methyl-7-oxooctyl phthalate [p=0·040], and the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites [p=0·014]), house crowding (p=0·015), and facility density around schools (p=0·027). However, no exposure passed the significance threshold when corrected for multiple testing in ExWAS, and none was selected with the DSA algorithm, including when testing for exposure interactions. Interpretation: Our systematic exposome approach identified several environmental exposures, mainly chemicals, that might be associated with lung function. Reducing exposure to these ubiquitous chemicals could help to prevent the development of chronic respiratory disease. Funding: European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (HELIX project)., The study has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) under grant agreement number 308333—the HELIX project—for data collection and analyses. The HELIX program built on six existing cohorts that received previous funding, including the major cohorts listed here. MoBa (Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study) is supported by the Norwegian Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education and Research, and the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS; contract number N01-ES-75558), and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (grant number 1 UO1 NS 047537–01 and grant number 2 UO1 NS 047537–06A1). The RHEA project was financially supported by European Union projects (EU FP6–2003-Food-3-NewGeneris, EU FP6.STREP Hiwate, EU FP7 ENV.2007·1.2.2.2, Project No 211250 Escape, EU FP7–2008-ENV-1·2.1·4 Envirogenomarkers, EU FP7-HEALTH-2009-single stage CHICOS, EU FP7 ENV.2008.1.2.1.6, proposal number 226285 ENRIECO, EUFP7-HEALTH-2012 proposal number 308333 HELIX, FP7 European Union project, number 264357 MeDALL), and the Greek Ministry of Health (Program of Prevention of Obesity and Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Preschool Children, Heraklion district, Crete, Greece: 2011–14; “RHEA Plus”: Primary Prevention Program of Environmental Risk Factors for Reproductive Health, and Child Health: 2012–15). LC received additional funding from the Southern California Environmental Health Sciences Center (grant number P30ES007048) funded by NIEHS.
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The effects of growing up on a farm on adult lung function and allergic phenotypes: an international population-based study

  • Campbell, B.
  • Raherison, C.
  • Lodge, C. J.
  • Lowe, A. J.
  • Gislason, Thorarinn
  • Heinrich, Joachim
  • Sunyer Deu, Jordi
  • Gómez Real, Francisco
  • Norbäck, Dan
  • Matheson, M. C.
  • Wjst, Matthias
  • Dratva, Julia
  • Marco, Roberto de
  • Jarvis, Deborah
  • Schlünssen, V.
  • Janson, Christer
  • Leynaert, Bénédicte
  • Svanes, Cecilie
  • Dharmage, Shyamali C.
Rationale: Evidence has suggested that exposure to environmental or microbial biodiversity in early life may impact subsequent lung function and allergic disease risk. Objectives: To investigate the influence of childhood living environment and biodiversity indicators on atopy, asthma and lung function in adulthood. Methods and measurements: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey II investigated ∼10 201 participants aged 26–54 years from 14 countries, including participants' place of upbringing (farm, rural environment or inner city) before age 5 years. A ‘biodiversity score’ was created based on childhood exposure to cats, dogs, day care, bedroom sharing and older siblings. Associations with lung function, bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), allergic sensitisation, asthma and rhinitis were analysed. Main results: As compared with a city upbringing, those with early-life farm exposure had less atopic sensitisation (adjusted OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.58), atopic BHR (0.54 (0.35 to 0.83)), atopic asthma (0.47 (0.28 to 0.81)) and atopic rhinitis (0.43 (0.32 to 0.57)), but not non-atopic outcomes. Less pronounced protective effects were observed for rural environment exposures. Women with a farm upbringing had higher FEV1 (adjusted difference 110 mL (64 to 157)), independent of sensitisation and asthma. In an inner city environment, a higher biodiversity score was related to less allergic sensitisation. Conclusions: This is the first study to report beneficial effects of growing up on a farm on adult FEV1. Our study confirmed the beneficial effects of early farm life on sensitisation, asthma and rhinitis, and found a similar association for BHR. In persons with an urban upbringing, a higher biodiversity score predicted less allergic sensitisation, but to a lesser magnitude than a childhood farm environment.
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The House Harmonic Filler: interactive exploration of chord sequences by means of an intuitive representation

  • Faraldo Pérez, Ángel
  • Herrera Boyer, Perfecto, 1964-
Comunicació presentada a: Third International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation (TENOR) celebrat el 25 i 26 de maig de 2017 a A Coruña, Espanya., In this paper we present an interactive two-dimensional representation of musical chord progressions, integrated into a computer program that generates house music harmonic loops in MIDI format, based on a user’s input. Our aim is to encapsulate relevant tonal information and display it in ways that are easy to understand for novices and untrained musicians, facilitating the creative exploration of musical ideas. We briefly reference previous work on tonal visualisation and interaction, and introduce some measures of tonal properties from the literature. We then present our system and describe the two-dimensional harmonic map, before discussing its outcomes and shortcomings, pointing at future lines of research in the conclusions., This research has been partially supported by the EUfunded GiantSteps project (FP7-ICT-2013-10 grant agreement number 610591).
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Exploring the spontaneous expression of human finger-tapping

  • Nistal, Javier
  • Herrera Boyer, Perfecto, 1964-
  • Jordà Puig, Sergi
Comunicació presentada a: 2nd Conference on Computer Simulation of Musical Creativity celebrat de l'11 al 13 de setembre de 2017 a Milton Keynes, Regne Unit., We present a study on the behavior of human finger-tapping and the spontaneous expression of rhythm. For the purposes of this study we construe interpret finger-tapping as the casual and rhythmic hitting of objects for the expression of music. Our motivation for this study is to connect spontaneous finger-tapping, human-computer interaction and the automatic arrangement of percussion for music creation. Specifically, here we report on the characterization of spontaneous rhythm creation behavior as a prerequisite to develop rhythm-aware music creation interfaces. First, we collect a dataset by recording spontaneous finger-tapping patterns performed by subjects from different music backgrounds. An online survey gathering information about the recording is then submitted to the volunteers. Analysis of the survey answers and low-level audio features suggest that there are two ways for finger-tapping depending on the music skills of the performer (i.e., "experts" versus "naive tappers"). We explore the former hypothesis by conducting a classification task between onsets from both finger-tapping methods. We achieve a 96% of accuracy in recognizing drumming expertise levels (expert vs. naive) by means of using onset-related acoustic features. Results suggest that people with percussion training are more concerned about timbre aspects and, thus, can take advantage of this quality of sound to provide nuances to each stroke when finger-tapping, as opposed to non-expertise individuals., This research has been partially supported by the EU funded GiantSteps project (FP7-ICT-2013-10 Grant agreement nr 610591).
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