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Clinical, psychopathological, and personality characteristics associated with ADHD among individuals seeking treatment for gambling disorder

  • Aymamí, Maria Neus
  • Jiménez-Murcia, Susana
  • Granero, Roser
  • Ramos Quiroga, Josep Antoni
  • Fernández Aranda, Fernando
  • Claes, Laurence
  • Sauvaget, Anne
  • Grall-Bronnec, Marie
  • Gómez-Peña, Mónica
  • Savvidou, Lamprini G.
  • Fagundo, Ana Beatriz
  • Del Pino Gutiérrez, Amparo
  • Moragas, Laura
  • Casas, Miquel
  • Penelo, Eva
  • Menchón Magriñá, José Manuel
Objectives: (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method: A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results: Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18-35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion: The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits.
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Tourism and high speed rail in Spain: Does the AVE increase local visitors?

  • Albalate, Daniel, 1980-
  • Campos, Javier (Campos Méndez)
  • Jiménez González, Juan Luis
This paper analyses from an empirical point of view the relationship between the provision of high-speed rail services (HSR) and the evolution of tourism at the local level in Spain. We have built a database of 124 municipalities during the 2005-2012 period to study the effects of the introduction of new HSR corridors on the number of visitors and their total and average stay at several end-line and intermediate cities as compared to similar counterparts not having such an infrastructure. We combine both difference-in-difference and panel data techniques to find that these effects are, in general, extremely weak or just restricted to larger cities, once other determining factors are controlled for.
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La inversió en infraestructures de transport de l'Estat espanyol. Una breu comparativa regional

  • Albalate, Daniel, 1980-
  • Rosell i Segura, Jordi
El conflicte institucional entre els governs català i espanyol ha fet créixer l'interès de l'opinió pública en conèixer els nivells d'inversió en infraestructures de transport de l'Estat espanyol a Catalunya. De forma consistent amb la percepció del gruix de la societat catalana, les dades indiquen que Catalunya, i en general les comunitats autònomes de la Mediterrània, són les darreres de la cua no només en termes d'inversió pressupostada, sinó també en termes d'execució. La crisi econòmica iniciada l'any 2008 no ha fet més que empitjorar aquesta situació.
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Price and Profit Optimization for Financial Services

  • Bolancé Losilla, Catalina
  • Guillén, Montserrat
  • Nielsen, Jens Perch
  • Thuring, Fredrik
Prospective customers of financial and insurance products can be targeted based on the profit the provider expects to earn from them. We present a model for individual expected profit and two alternatives for calculating optimal personalized prices that maximize the expected profit. For one of these alternatives, we obtain a closed-form expression for the price offered to each prospective customer; for the other, we need to use a numerical approximation. In both approaches, the profits generated by prospective customers are not immediately observed, given that the products sold by these companies have a risk component. We assume that willingness to pay is heterogeneous and apply our methodology using real data from a European insurance company. Our study indicates that a substantial boost in profits can be expected when applying the simplest optimal pricing method proposed.
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Implementing individual savings decisions for retirement with bounds on wealth

  • Donnelly, Catherine
  • Guillén, Montserrat
  • Nielsen, Jens Perch
  • Pérez Marín, Ana María
We present a savings plan for retirement that removes risk by fixing a constraint on a life-long pension so that it has an upper and a lower bound. This corresponds to the ideas of Nobel laureate R.C. Merton whose implementation has never been published. We show with an illustration that our proposed practical algorithm reproduces the theoretical results after a savings period of around 30 years by using daily, monthly, weekly or yearly updates of the investment positions. We calculate the percentiles of the final accumulated wealth distribution for the adjusted implementation. In the simulated illustration, we observe that the adjusted values converge to the theoretical values of the percentiles when the frequency of update increases. We conclude that monthly adjustments result in a practical way to implement theoretical results that were obtained under the hypothesis of a continuous process by Donnelly et al. (2015). This method is easy to use in practice by pension savers and fund managers.
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Continuous m-dimensional distorted probabilities

  • Torra i Reventós, Vicenç
  • Guillén, Montserrat
  • Santolino, Miguel
Fuzzy measures, also known as non-additive measures, monotonic games, and capacities, have been used in many contexts. For example, in economics, risk analysis, in computer science, computer vision and machine learning and, in general, in mathematics. However, when looking at applications, one of the problems that still needs to be solved is how the measure should be defined in an easy and intuitive way. When the reference set is finite, a few families of measures have been established, e.g. distorted probabilities, k-additive and decomposable measures. But, when the reference set is infinite, the only family is distorted probabilities. In this paper we give a definition for m-dimensional distorted probabilities in the case that the reference set is not finite, and we study some properties of this family. We also give a definition for hierarchically decomposable m-dimensional distorted probabilities that relates to another family of measures defined for the finite case.
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Exposure as duration and distance in telematics motor insurance using generalized additive models

  • Boucher, Jean-Philippe
  • Côté, Steven
  • Guillén, Montserrat
In Pay-As-You-Drive (PAYD) automobile insurance, the premium is fixed based on the distance traveled, while in usage-based insurance (UBI) the driving patterns of the policyholder are also considered. In those schemes, drivers who drive more pay a higher premium compared to those with the same characteristics who drive only occasionally, because the former are more exposed to the risk of accident. In this paper, we analyze the simultaneous effect of the distance traveled and exposure time on the risk of accident by using Generalized Additive Models (GAM). We carry out an empirical application and show that the expected number of claims (1) stabilizes once a certain number of accumulated distance-driven is reached and (2) it is not proportional to the duration of the contract, which is in contradiction to insurance practice. Finally, we propose to use a rating system that takes into account simultaneously exposure time and distance traveled in the premium calculation. We think that this is the trend the automobile insurance market is going to follow with the eruption of telematics data.
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Big-data Analytics en seguros

  • Padilla Barreto, Alemar Elaine
  • Guillén, Montserrat
  • Bolancé Losilla, Catalina
La revolución del big-data ha impactado en el sector asegurador más de lo que se esperaba, hasta convertirse en un ejemplo paradigmático de lo que es la nueva economía digital. La gran cantidad de datos y la modelización predictiva en seguros representan un punto de inflexión y una oportunidad de oro para canalizar la teoría del riesgo hacia la predicción de las pérdidas. Los cambios son radicales y demandan transformaciones profundas a nivel organizacional. En este trabajo presentamos algunas reflexiones sobre lo que supone la incorporación del Analytics en una compañía de seguros y mostramos su inherente complejidad mediante un caso ya testado con éxito.
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Factores individuales de las enfermeras de salud mental en la presencia de violencia laboral

  • Quílez Jover, Jorge
  • Icart Isern, M. Teresa (Maria Teresa)
Este artículo tiene por objetivo proporcionar información actualizada en materia de factores de riesgo que influyen en que los profesionales de Enfermería psiquiátricos sean objeto de conductas violentas por parte de pacientes ingresados en unidades de salud mental. Los facto­res de riesgo se clasifican de acuerdo al modelo conceptual de Chappe­ll y Di Martino, centrándose en los factores individuates de las víctimas (enfermeras). Los factores que presentan mayor relación con el aumento de incidentes violentos son: la escasa experiencia laboral, falta de formación, estrés laboral y el aumento del absentismo de los profesionales de refe­renda de las unidades de psiquiatría.
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Factores organizacionales y ambientales que influyen en la presencia de conductas violentas en unidades de hospitalización psiquiátrica

  • Quílez Jover, Jorge
  • Icart Isern, M. Teresa (Maria Teresa)
Objetivo: evaluar la evidencia disponible en materia de factores laborales en unidades de hospitalización psiquiátrica, que influyen en la presencia de conductas violentas hacia el personal de Enfermería. Método: se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura. La búsqueda de artículos se ha llevado a cabo en las bases de datos electrónicas PubMed, CINAHL, PsicInfo y la plataforma Scopus desde enero de 2000 hasta agosto de 2015. Se han incluido estudios en lengua inglesa, francesa y española, estudios prospectivos que recogieran factores de riesgo laboral de conductas violentas en el lugar de trabajo, más concretamente en unidades de salud mental. La publicación debía presentar datos clínicos primarios, en los que la muestra o submuestra incluyera pacientes hospitalizados. Resultados: los factores de riesgo se clasificaron de acuerdo al modelo conceptual de Chappell y Di Martino, centrándose en los factores laborales (entorno). Los factores que presentaron mayor relación con el aumento de incidentes violentos son las barreras estructurales de las unidades (distribución física), la falta de seguimiento y control de las ratios en función de las cargas de trabajo y la tipología de patologías e ingresos y la infracomunicación de incidencias. Conclusiones: evaluar y reconocer los factores de riesgo generadores de conductas violentas puede ser útil a la hora de establecer estrategias de prevención e intervención, no solo en relación a los profesionales (acciones formativas, competencia profesional, experiencia laboral, etc.) y usuarios (abordajes específicos en función de la patología), sino también en cuestiones estructurales (espacios menos restrictivos), organizativas (seguimiento y control de las ratios en función de las cargas de trabajo) y culturales (mejorar la comunicación de incidencias y la práctica reflexiva).
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