Resultados totales (Incluyendo duplicados): 34357
Encontrada(s) 3436 página(s)
Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281263
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATIONS IDENTIFY NOVEL CANDIDATE LOCI ASSOCIATED WITH GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TUBERCULOSIS IN WILD BOAR

  • Queirós, João
  • Alves, Paulo C.
  • Vicente, Joaquín
  • Gortázar, Christian
  • Fuente, José de la
Raw_SNP_data Structure_SNP_data 64_ind_29504_SNPs Dataset used for calculating genome diversity parameters 44_ind_29504_SNPs Dataset applied in the genome-wide association studies 76_ind_8_SNPs Dataset used in the validation of genome-wide association studies GWAS_TB_standard_44 GWAS summary statistics for infected vs infected MTC individuals GWAS_TB_stratified_44 GWAS summary statistics for stratified analysis of infected vs. uninfected MTC individuals GWAS_TB_standard_76 GWAS summary statistics for the validation test between infected vs. uninfected MTC individuals GWAS_TB_stratified_76 GWAS summary statistics for the validation test, stratified analysis, between infected vs. uninfected MTC individuals GWAS_Season_standard_44 GWAS summary statistics of 2002/06 vs. 2009/12 seasons GWAS_Season_stratified_44 GWAS summary statistics of stratified analysis for 2002/06 vs. 2009/12 seasons. GWAS_Season_standard_76 GWAS summary statistics for the validation test between 2002/06 vs. 2009/12 seasons. GWAS_Season_stratified_76 GWAS summary statistics for the validation test, stratified analysis, between 2002/06 vs. 2009/12 seasons., Tuberculosis (TB) affects a wide range of host species worldwide. Understanding host-pathogen co-evolution remains a global challenge owing to complex interactions among host genetic factors, pathogen traits and environmental conditions. We used an endemic wild boar population that had undergone a huge increase in Mycobacterium bovis infection prevalence, from 45% in 2002/06 to 83% in 2009/12, to understand the effects of host genetics on host TB outcomes and disease dynamics. Host genomic variation was characterized using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, while host TB phenotype was assessed using both gross pathology and mycobacterial culture. Two complementary genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses were conducted: (i) infected-uninfected; and (ii) 2002/06–2009/12. The SNPs with the highest allelic frequency differences between time-periods and TB outcomes were identified and validated in a large dataset. In addition, we quantified the expression levels of some of their closest genes. These analyses highlighted various SNPs (i.e. rs81465339, rs81394585, rs81423166) and some of the closest genes (i.e. LOC102164072, BDNF/NT-3, NTRK2, CDH8, IGSF21) as candidates for host genetic susceptibility. In addition to TB-driven selection, our findings outline the putative role of demographic events in shaping genomic variation in natural populations and how population crashes and drift may impact host genetic susceptibility to TB over time., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281264
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: PLANT LIFE HISTORY STAGE AND NURSE AGE CHANGE THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECOLOGICAL NETWORKS IN AN ARID ECOSYSTEM

  • Losapio, Gianalberto
  • Pugnaire, Francisco I.
  • O'Brien, Michael J.
  • Schöb, Christian
losapio_etal_2018oikos This .RData file contains both the raw data from Pugnaire et al. 1996 and Pugnaire & Lazaro 2000 as well as the processed data, as the ecological networks and null models. The relative R code is attached in README., Understanding how ecological networks are organised over the course of an organism’s lifetime is crucial for predicting the dynamics of interacting populations and communities across temporal scales. However, most studies so far considered only one life history stage at a time, such as adult, when studying networks of interacting species. Therefore, knowledge about how multiple life history stages affect the development and stability of plant–plant association networks is lacking. We measured the understory adult plant community and the soil seed bank across a plant age gradient of the nurse shrub Retama sphaerocarpa in an arid ecosystem in Spain. Using a multilayer network approach, we built adult understory–nurse and seed bank–nurse networks and analysed how network nestedness, species’ role, and species specificity varied between them and with nurse plant age. We found that seed bank and adult understory networks changed depending on nurse plant age in two different ways. With increasing nurse plant age, adult understory networks became significantly more nested than seed bank networks. The nested architecture of seed bank networks was therefore a poor predictor of adult understory network nestedness. The contribution and specificity of species to network nestedness increased with increasing nurse plant age more in the adult understory than in seed bank networks, despite high species turnover. Our data show that life history and ontogeny affect the development of plant–plant association networks. Niche construction and environmental filtering along nurse ontogeny seem pivotal mechanisms structuring adult understory networks while the assembly of seed bank networks seems rather stochastic. We highlight the importance of mature plant communities for maintaining rare species populations and supporting the stability of ecological communities through time., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281270
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: TRANSGENERATIONAL EFFECTS OF MATERNAL SEXUAL INTERACTIONS IN SEED BEETLES

  • Zajitschek, Susanne
  • Dowling, Damian K.
  • Head, Megan L.
  • Rodríguez-Expósito, Eduardo
  • García-González, Francisco
F0 File containing Mothers' IDs, lifetime reprodutive success (LRS) and lifespan F1_females Daughters' lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and lifespan. F2_females Granddaughters' lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and lifespan F1_males Data for sons' lifespan (age) F2_males Grandsons' age (lifespan), Mating bears large costs to females, especially in species with high levels of sexual conflict over mating rates. Given the direct costs to females associated with multiple mating, which include reductions in lifespan and lifetime reproductive success, past research focused on identifying potential indirect benefits (through increases in offspring fitness) that females may accrue. Far less attention has been given to understanding how costs of sexual interactions to females may span across generations. Hence, little is known about the transgenerational implications of variation in mating rates, and net consequences of maternal sexual activities across generations. Using the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, a model system for the study of sexual conflict, we look at the effects of mating with multiple males versus a single male, and tease apart effects due to sexual harassment and those due to mating per se, over three generations. We show that across generations, harassed females suffer a severe decline in fitness compared to non-harassed females, while multiply mated females showed no difference in net fitness compared to singly mated females. Overall, it appears that the transgenerational benefits of multiple mating counteract but do not exceed the direct costs of harassment. Our study highlights the importance of examining transgenerational effects from an inclusive (looking at both indirect benefits but also costs) perspective, and the need to investigate transgenerational effects across several generations if we are to fully understand the consequences of sexual interactions, sexual conflict evolution, and the interplay of sexual conflict and multi-generational costs and benefits., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281273
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: SPATIO-TEMPORAL VARIATION IN FITNESS RESPONSES TO CONTRASTING ENVIRONMENTS IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA

  • Exposito-Alonso, Moises
  • Brennan, Adrian C.
  • Alonso-Blanco, Carlos
  • Picó, F. Xavier
Data 50 Iberian Arabidopsis thaliana accessions Environmental, genetic and phenotypic data from 50 Iberian Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. Arabidopsis_data_GRA_SNE_4may18.xlsx, The evolutionary response of organisms to global climate change is expected to be strongly conditioned by pre-existing standing genetic variation. In addition, natural selection imposed by global climate change on fitness-related traits can be heterogeneous over time. We estimated selection of life-history traits of an entire genetic lineage of the plant A. thaliana occurring in north-western Iberian Peninsula that were transplanted over multiple years into two environmentally contrasting field sites in southern Spain, as southern environments are expected to move progressively northwards with climate change in the Iberian Peninsula. The results indicated that natural selection on flowering time prevailed over that on recruitment. Selection favored early flowering in six of eight experiments and late flowering in the other two. Such heterogeneity of selection for flowering time might be a powerful mechanism for maintaining genetic diversity in the long run. We also found that north-western A. thaliana accessions from warmer environments exhibited higher fitness and higher phenotypic plasticity for flowering time in southern experimental facilities. Overall, our transplant experiments suggested that north-western Iberian A. thaliana has the means to cope with increasingly warmer environments in the region as predicted by trends in global climate change models., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281275
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: TRACKING DATA AND RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSES OF DIET REVEAL THE CONSEQUENCES OF LOSS OF MARINE SUBSIDIES FOR AN OBLIGATE SCAVENGER, THE ANDEAN CONDOR

  • Lambertucci, Sergio A.
  • Navarro, Joan
  • Sánchez-Zapata, José A.
  • Hobson, Keith A.
  • Alarcón, Pablo A. E.
  • Wiemeyer, Guillermo
  • Blanco, Guillermo
  • Hiraldo, Fernando
  • Donázar, José A.
File_SIA_Condor Isotopic values of historical and modern Andean condors and their main trophic resources collected in the Patagonian area, Over the last century, marine mammals have been dramatically reduced in the world’s oceans. We examined evidence that this change caused dietary and foraging pattern shifts of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) in Patagonia. We hypothesized that, after the decrease in marine mammals and the increase in human use of coastlines, condor diet changed to a more terrestrial diet which, in turn, influenced their foraging patterns. We evaluated the diet by means of stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N and δ34S) of current (last decade) and historical (1841-1933) feathers. We further evaluated the movement patterns of 23 condors using satellite tracking of individuals. Condors reduced their use of marine-derived prey in recent compared to historical times from 33±13% to less than 8±3% respectively, however, they still breed close to the coast. The average distance between the coast and nests was 62.5 km. Some nests were located close to the sea, but some birds forage up to 86k m from nesting sites and must cross over the mountain range to find food. The worldwide reduction in marine mammal carcasses, especially whales, may have major consequences on the foraging ecology of scavengers as well as on the flux of marine inputs within terrestrial ecosystems., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281280
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: FEMALES MATE WITH MALES WITH DIMINISHED PHEOMELANIN-BASED COLORATION IN THE EURASIAN NUTHATCH SITTA EUROPAEA

  • Galván, Ismael
  • Rodríguez-Martínez, Sol
Mating success nuthatches - Dryad data Dataset used in the study., Sexual selection can drive the evolution of phenotypic traits because of female preferences for exaggerated trait expression in males. Sexual selection can also lead to the evolutionary loss of traits, a process to which female preferences for diminished male trait expression are hypothesized to contribute. However, empirical evidence of female preferences for diminished male traits is virtually lacking. Eurasian nuthatches Sitta europaea provide an opportunity to test this possibility, as a chestnut flank patch produced by the pigment pheomelanin is present since the first plumage of these birds and its color is more intense in nestlings in poor condition in our study population. It has been proposed that developing birds in poor condition may increase their production of pheomelanin as a detoxifying strategy. Female nuthatches may thus prefer mating with males showing flank feathers of diminished color, as this could indicate that males experienced good conditions early in development, which can positively affect the fitness of future generations. Here we show results according with this prediction in a wild population of Eurasian nuthatches, as adult males with lighter chestnut feathers paired earlier in the season, while chestnut coloration had no effect on female mating success. Chestnut color expression was not affected by the body condition of birds, suggesting that females obtain information on the body condition in early life of their potential mates and not on their current body condition. This constitutes one of the few examples of females mating with males showing diminished traits and provides the only explanation so far by which this process can occur., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281296
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: MYCORRHIZAL SYMBIOSIS INCREASES THE BENEFITS OF PLANT FACILITATIVE INTERACTIONS

  • Montesinos-Navarro, Alicia
  • Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso
  • Verdú, Miguel
Data set with all the references and variables used as factors in the meta-analyses. (1) Experimental conditions, (2) Mycorrhizal treatment, (3) Ecosystem, (4) Performance measurement, including plant part (4a) and type of nutrient (4b) and (5) Mycorrhizal type. The species of the nurse and the facilitated plants are presented with the mean, sample size (N) and standard error (SE) of the performance measurement reported for the facilitated plant. Data for the control and treated treatments are presented in different columns. We considered “treated” the treatment in which the mycorrhizal fungi were expected to be reduced. NA stands for not available data. Table S3_70.xls, The diversity of pathways through which mycorrhizal fungi alter plant coexistence hinders the understanding of their effects on plant-plant interactions. The outcome of plant facilitative interactions can be indirectly affected by mycorrhizal symbiosis, ultimately shaping biodiversity patterns. We tested whether mycorrhizal symbiosis enhances plant facilitative interactions and whether its effect is consistent across different methodological approaches and biological scenarios. We conducted a meta-analysis of 215 cases (involving 21 nurse and 29 facilitated species), in which the performance of a facilitated plant species is measured in the presence or absence of mycorrhizal fungi. We show that mycorrhizal fungi significantly enhance plant facilitative interactions mainly through an increment in plant biomass (aboveground) and nutrient content, although their effects differ across biological contexts. In semiarid environments mycorrhizal symbiosis enhances plant facilitation, while its effect is non-significant in temperate ecosystems. In addition, arbuscular but not ecto-mycorrhizal (EMF) fungi significantly enhances plant facilitation, particularly increasing the P content of the plants more than EMF. Some knowledge gaps regarding the importance of this phenomenon have been detected in this meta-analysis. The effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis on plant facilitation has rarely been assessed in other ecosystems different from semiarid and temperate forests, and rarely considering other fungal benefits provided to plants besides nutrients. Finally, we are still far from understanding the effects of the whole fungal community on plant-plant interactions, and on plant species coexistence., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281302
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON INSECT HERBIVORY AND PLANT DEFENCES IN OAK TREES

  • Moreira Tomé, Xoaquín
  • Abdala-Roberts, Luis
  • Berny-Mier y Terán, Jorge C.
  • Covelo, Felisa
  • Mata Pombo, Raúl de la
  • Francisco Candeira, Marta
  • Hardwick, Bess
  • Pires, Ricardo Matheus
  • Roslin, Tomas
  • Schigel, Dmitry S.
  • Ten Hoopen, Jan P. J. G.
  • Timmermans, Bart G. H.
  • Van Dijk, Laura J. A.
  • Castagneyrol, Bastien
  • Tack, Ayco J. M.
data_Moreira et al_2018, Systematic comparisons of species interactions in urban vs. rural environments can improve our understanding of shifts in ecological processes due to urbanization. However, such studies are relatively uncommon and the mechanisms driving urbanization effects on species interactions (e.g., between plants and insect herbivores) remain elusive. Here we investigated the effects of urbanization on leaf herbivory by insect chewers and miners associated with the English oak (Quercus robur) by sampling trees in rural and urban areas throughout most of the latitudinal distribution of this species. In performing these comparisons, we also controlled for the size of the urban areas (18 cities) and gathered data on CO2 emissions. In addition, we assessed whether urbanization affected leaf chemical defences (phenolic compounds) and nutritional traits (phosphorus and nitrogen), and whether such changes correlated with herbivory levels. Urbanization significantly reduced leaf chewer damage but did not affect leaf miners. In addition, we found that leaves from urban locations had lower levels of chemical defences (condensed and hydrolysable tannins) and higher levels of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) compared to leaves in rural locations. The magnitude of urbanization effects on herbivory and leaf defences was not contingent upon city size. Importantly, while the effects of urbanization on chemical defences were associated with CO2 emissions, changes in leaf chewer damage were not associated with either leaf traits or CO2 levels. These results suggest that effects of urbanization on herbivory occur through mechanisms other than changes in the plant traits measured here. Overall, our simultaneous assessment of insect herbivory, plant traits, and abiotic correlates advances our understanding of the main drivers of urbanization effects on plant-herbivore interactions., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281306
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: THE TIMING OF FRUGIVORE-MEDIATED SEED DISPERSAL EFFECTIVENESS

  • González-Varo, Juan P.
  • Arroyo, Juan M.
  • Jordano, Pedro
seed_rain_pistacia Data on the magnitude of seed rain in seed traps placed in different microhabitat types and in each of the study periods (early, mid and late) of the 2014–2015 fruiting season of Pistacia lentiscus (FIGURE 2a). viability_seeds_fruits Data on the viability test (‘flotation/sink’ method) conducted on depulped seeds from Pistacia lentiscus ripe (black) fruits (Figure S3 in Supplementary Material). seed_predation_pistacia Data on the seed predation experiment (FIGURE 3b). Each row corresponds to an individual Pistacia lentiscus seed within a seed depot. sowing_experiment_pistacia Data on the sowing experiment of Pistacia lentiscus seeds to assess seed germination (FIGURE 3c) and seedling survival (FIGURE 3d). Each row corresponds to an individual Pistacia lentiscus seed within a sowing station. timing_sde_pistacia Mean values of multiple demographic processes used to calculate the quantity (QT) and (QL) components of seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE) for different bird species groups contributing to seed dispersal in different periods and microhabitat types (FIGURE 4). seeds_pistacia_barcoding_viability Data on the Pistacia lentiscus seeds sampled for DNA barcoding analyses, which includes the bird species responsible for dispersal (FIGURE 2b) and the outcome of the viability test (FIGURE 3a)., The seed dispersal effectiveness framework allows assessing mutualistic services from frugivorous animals in terms of quantity and quality. Quantity accounts for the number of seeds dispersed and quality for the probability of recruitment of dispersed seeds. Research on this topic has largely focused on the spatial patterns of seed deposition because seed fates often vary between microhabitats due to differences in biotic and abiotic factors. However, the temporal dimension has remained completely overlooked despite these factors – and even local disperser assemblages – can change dramatically during long fruiting periods. Here, we test timing effects on seed dispersal effectiveness, using as study case a keystone shrub species dispersed by frugivorous birds and with a fruiting period of nine months. We evaluated quantity and quality in different microhabitats of a Mediterranean forest and different periods of the fruiting phenophase. We identified the bird species responsible for seed deposition through DNA barcoding and evaluated the probability of seedling recruitment through a series of field experiments on sequential demographic processes. We found that timing matters: the disperser assemblage was temporally structured, seed viability decreased markedly during the plant’s fruiting phenophase, and germination was lower for viable seeds dispersed in the fruiting peak. We show how small contributions to seed deposition by transient migratory species can result in a relevant effectiveness if they disperse seeds in a high-quality period for seedling recruitment. This study expands our understanding of seed dispersal effectiveness, highlighting the importance of timing and infrequent interactions for population and community dynamics., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281311
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: PREDATION RISK DETERMINES PIGMENTATION PHENOTYPE IN NUTHATCHES BY MELANIN-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION EFFECTS

  • Galván, Ismael
Dataset used in the study Predation risk - Dryad.xls Predation risk - Dryad readme.txt, Pigments determine the appearance of organisms. However, pigment production can be associated to physiological constraints as in the case of pheomelanin, the sulphurated form of melanin whose synthesis in melanocytes consumes cysteine and consequently reduces the availability of glutathione (GSH) to exert antioxidant protection. Pheomelanogenesis may thus increase the susceptibility to suffer chronic oxidative stress. I investigated the possibility that environmental lability in the expression of genes regulating pheomelanogenesis protects from oxidative stress, a situation in which GSH is most required. By broadcasting adult alarm calls, I manipulated the perception of predation risk, a natural source of oxidative stress, in free-living Eurasian nuthatch Sitta europaea nestlings developing pheomelanin-pigmented flank feathers. The manipulation affected the consumption of GSH that resulted from the expression of two genes (Slc7a11 and Slc45a2) influencing cysteine/GSH availability in cells, as these genes were downregulated in the feather melanocytes of the nestlings with lowest intracellular antioxidant capacity (i.e., lowest GSH levels). Systemic oxidative damage increased with Slc7a11 expression in feather melanocytes, suggesting that the observed downregulation was physiologically advantageous. The nestlings exposed to an increased perception of predation risk developed flank feathers of reduced color intensity. These results indicate that perceived predation risk can determine the pigmentation phenotype by (probably epigenetic) effects on gene expression that protect from physiological constraints imposed by pheomelanin production., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

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