Publicación Artículo científico (article).

The miniJPAS survey: AGN and host galaxy coevolution of X-ray-selected sources

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • López, I. E.
  • Díaz-García, L. A.
  • González Delgado, Rosa M.
  • Márquez, Isabel
  • Pović, Mirjana
  • Benítez, Narciso
  • Ramió, H. V.
Full list of authors: Lopez, I. E.; Brusa, M.; Bonoli, S.; Shankar, F.; Acharya, N.; Laloux, B.; Dolag, K.; Georgakakis, A.; Lapi, A.; Almeida, C. Ramos; Salvato, M.; Chaves-Montero, J.; Coelho, P.; Diaz-Garcia, L. A.; Fernandez-Ontiveros, J. A.; Hernan-Caballero, A.; Delgado, R. M. Gonzalez; Marquez, I.; Povic, M.; Soria, R.; Queiroz, C.; Rahna, P. T.; Abramo, R.; Alcaniz, J.; Benitez, N.; Carneiro, S.; Cenarro, J.; Cristobal-Hornillos, D.; Dupke, R.; Ederoclite, A.; Lopez-Sanjuan, C.; Marin-Franch, A.; de Oliveira, C. Mendes; Moles, M.; Sodre Jr, L.; Taylor, K.; Varela, J.; Ramio, H. V.--This is an Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited., Studies indicate strong evidence of a scaling relation in the local Universe between the supermassive black hole mass (MBH) and the stellar mass of their host galaxies (M⋆). They even show similar histories across cosmic times of their differential terms: the star formation rate (SFR) and black hole accretion rate (BHAR). However, a clear picture of this coevolution is far from being understood. We selected an X-ray sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) up to z = 2.5 in the miniJPAS footprint. Their X-ray to infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) have been modeled with the CIGALE code, constraining the emission to 68 bands, from which 54 are the narrow filters from the miniJPAS survey. For a final sample of 308 galaxies, we derived their physical properties, such as their M⋆, SFR, star formation history (SFH), and the luminosity produced by the accretion process of the central BH (LAGN). For a subsample of 113 sources, we also fit their optical spectra to obtain the gas velocity dispersion from the broad emission lines and estimated the MBH. We calculated the BHAR in physical units depending on two radiative efficiency regimes. We find that the Eddington ratios (λEdd) and its popular proxy (LX/M⋆) have a difference of 0.6 dex, on average, and a KS test indicates that they come from different distributions. Our sources exhibit a considerable scatter on the MBH − M⋆ scaling relation, which can explain the difference between λEdd and its proxy. We also modeled three evolution scenarios for each source to recover the integral properties at z = 0. Using the SFR and BHAR, we show a notable diminution in the scattering between MBH − M⋆. For the last scenario, we considered the SFH and a simple energy budget for the AGN accretion, and we retrieved a relation similar to the calibrations known for the local Universe. Our study covers ∼1 deg2 in the sky and is sensitive to biases in luminosity. Nevertheless, we show that, for bright sources, the link between the differential values (SFR and BHAR) and their decoupling based on an energy limit is the key that leads to the local MBH − M⋆ scaling relation. In the future, we plan to extend this methodology to a thousand degrees of the sky using JPAS with an X-ray selection from eROSITA, to obtain an unbiased distribution of BHAR and Eddington ratios. © The Authors 2023., This action has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 860744 “Big Data Applications for Black Hole Evolution Sutdies” (BID4BEST, This paper has gone through internal review by the J-PAS collaboration. The color schemes used in this work are color-blind friendly from Paul Tol’s Notes ( We also acknowledge the use of computational resources from the parallel computing cluster of the Open Physics Hub ( at the Physics and Astronomy Department of the University of Bologna. We also kindly thank Dr. Alison Coil and Dr. Christopher Willmer for sharing the MMT spectra. I.E.L. thanks E. Marchesini for feedback on this work. A.L. is partly supported by the PRIN MIUR 2017 prot. 20173ML3WW 002 “Opening the ALMA window on the cosmic evolution of gas, stars, and massive black holes”. K.D. acknowledges support by the COMPLEX project from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program grant agreement ERC-2019-AdG 882679. C.R.A. acknowledges the projects “Feeding and feedback in active galaxies”, with reference PID2019-106027GB-C42, funded by MICINN-AEI/10.13039/501100011033, “Quantifying the impact of quasar feedback on galaxy evolution”, with reference EUR2020-112266, funded by MICINN-AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and the European Union NextGenerationEU/PRTR, and from the Consejería de Economía, Conocimiento y Empleo del Gobierno de Canarias and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under grant “Quasar feedback and molecular gas reservoirs”, with reference ProID2020010105, ACCISI/FEDER, UE. J.C.M. acknowledges partial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE) through the grant PGC2018-097585-B-C22. J.C.M. also acknowledges support from the European Union’s Horizon Europe research and innovation programme (COSMO-LYA, grant agreement 101044612). P.C. acknowledges support from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) under grant 310555/2021-3 and from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) process number 2021/08813-7. L.A.D.G. and R.M.G.D. acknowledge financial support from the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the “Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa” award to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709), and to the PID2019-109067-GB100. I.M. acknowledges financial support from the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the “Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa” award to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709). I.M. is also supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness under grant no. PID2019-106027GB-C41. R.S. acknowledges grant number 12073029 from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). R.A.D. acknowledges support from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico -CNPq through BP grant 308105/2018-4, and the Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos – FINEP grants REF. 1217/13 – 01.13.0279.00 and REF 0859/10 – 01.10.0663.00 and also FAPERJ PRONEX grant E-26/110.566/2010 for hardware funding support for the J-PAS project through the National Observatory of Brazil and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas. L.S.J. acknowledges the support from CNPq (308994/2021-3) and FAPESP (2011/51680-6). Based on observations made with the JST/T250 telescope at the Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ), in Teruel, owned, managed, and operated by the Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón (CEFCA). We acknowledge the OAJ Data Processing and Archiving Unit (UPAD) for reducing and calibrating the OAJ data used in this work. Funding for the J-PAS Project has been provided by the Governments of Spain and Aragón through the Fondo de Inversión de Teruel, European FEDER funding and the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities, and by the Brazilian agencies FINEP, FAPESP, FAPERJ and by the National Observatory of Brazil. Additional funding was also provided by the Tartu Observatory and by the J-PAS Chinese Astronomical Consortium. Funding for OAJ, UPAD, and CEFCA has been provided by the Governments of Spain and Aragón through the Fondo de Inversiones de Teruel; the Aragón Government through the Research Groups E96, E103, and E16_17R; the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE) with grant PGC2018-097585-B-C21; the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO/FEDER, UE) under AYA2015-66211-C2-1-P, AYA2015-66211-C2-2, AYA2012-30789, and ICTS-2009-14; and European FEDER funding (FCDD10-4E-867, FCDD13-4E-2685). Funding for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, the US Department of Energy, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, and the Max Planck Society. The SDSS website is The SDSS is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) for the Participating Institutions. The Participating Institutions are The University of Chicago, Fermilab, the Institute for Advanced Study, the Japan Participation Group, The Johns Hopkins University, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), the Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), New Mexico State University, University of Pittsburgh, Princeton University, the United States Naval Observatory, and the University of Washington. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory a joint facility operated by the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution. Funding for the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey has been provided by NSF grants AST-95-09298, AST-0071048, AST-0507428, and AST-0507483 as well as NASA LTSA grant NNG04GC89G., With funding from the Spanish government through the "Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence" accreditation (CEX2021-001131-S)., Peer reviewed

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
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