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Association of objectively measured physical activity with body components in European adolescents

Zaguán. Repositorio Digital de la Universidad de Zaragoza
  • Jiménez-Pavón, D.
  • Fernández-Vázquez, A.
  • Alexy, U.
  • Pedrero, R.
  • Cuenca-García, M.
  • Polito, A.
  • Vanhelst, J.
  • Manios, Y.
  • Kafatos, A.
  • Molnar, D.
  • Sjöström, M.
  • Moreno, L.A.
Background: Physical activity (PA) is suggested to contribute to fat loss not only through increasing energy expenditure “per se” but also increasing muscle mass; therefore, it would be interesting to better understand the specific associations of PA with the different body’s components such as fat mass and muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between objectively measured PA and indices of fat mass and muscle components independently of each other giving, at the same time, gender-specific information in a wide cohort of European adolescents.
Methods: A cross-sectional study in a school setting was conducted in 2200 (1016 males) adolescents (14.7 ±1.2 years). Weight, height, skinfold thickness, bioimpedance and PA (accelerometry) were measured. Indices of fat mass (body mass index, % fat mass, sum of skinfolds) and muscular component (assessed as fat-free mass) were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for several confounders including fat-free mass and fat mass when possible.
Results: Vigorous PA was positively associated with height (p?<?0.05) in males, whilst, vigorous PA, moderate-vigorous PA and average PA were negatively associated with all the indices of fat mass (all p?<?0.01) in both genders, except for average PA in relation with body mass index in females. Regarding muscular components, vigorous PA showed positive associations with fat-free mass and muscle mass (all p?<?0.05) in both genders. Average PA was positively associated with fat-free mass (both p?<?0.05) in males and females.
Conclusion: The present study suggests that PA, especially vigorous PA, is negatively associated with indices of fat mass and positively associated with markers of muscle mass, after adjusting for several confounders (including indices of fat mass and muscle mass when possible). Future studies should focus not only on the classical relationship between PA and fat mass, but also on PA and muscular components, analyzing the independent role of both with the different PA intensities.




Association of body composition indices with insulin resistance in European adolescents: The HELENA study

Zaguán. Repositorio Digital de la Universidad de Zaragoza
  • Sese, M.
  • Moreno, L.A.
  • Censi, L.
  • Bresidenassel, C.
  • González-Gross, M.
  • Sjöström, M.
  • Manios, Y.
  • Dénes, M.
  • Dallongeville, J.
  • Widhalm, K.
  • Gottrand, F.
  • De-Henauw, S.
  • Marcos, A.
  • Castillo-Garzón, M.
  • Jiménez-Pavón, D.
Background: The different body components may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of fat mass and fat free mass indices with markers of insulin resistance, independently of each other and giving, at the same time, gender-specific information in a wide cohort of European adolescents.
Methods: A cross-sectional study in a school setting was conducted in 925 (430 males) adolescents (14.9 ± 1.2 years). Weight, height, anthropometric, bioimpedance and blood parameters were measured. Indices for fat mass and fat free mass, and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for several confounders including fat free mass and fat mass when possible.
Results: Indices of fat mass were positively associated with HOMA (all p < 0.01) after adjusting for all the confounders including fat free mass indices, in both sexes. Fat free mass indices were associated with HOMA, in both males and females, after adjusting for center, pubertal status, socioeconomic status and cardiorespiratory fitness, but the associations disappear when including fat mass indices in the adjustment’s model.
Conclusion: Fat mass indices derived from different methods are positively associated with insulin resistance independently of several confounders including fat free mass indices. In addition, the relationship of fat free mass with insulin resistance is influenced by the amount of fat mass in European adolescents. Nevertheless, future studies should focus not only on the role of fat mass, but also on other body components such as fat free mass because its role could vary depending of the level and distribution of fat mass.




Dietary fat intake modifies the influence of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity in adolescents: the HELENA cross-sectional study

Zaguán. Repositorio Digital de la Universidad de Zaragoza
  • Labayen, I.
  • Ruiz, J. R.
  • Huybrechts, I.
  • Ortega, F. B.
  • Arenaza, L.
  • González-Gross, M.
  • Widhalm, K.
  • Molnar, D.
  • Manios, Y.
  • DeHenauw, S.
  • Meirhaeghe, A.
  • Moreno, L. A.
Background and aims The fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) has been associated with obesity and dietary intake. The aims were: (i) To assess whether energy and macronutrient intakes were different across the FTOrs9939609 genotypes in adolescents, and (ii) to explore whether dietary fat intake modified the association of the rs9939609 polymorphism with adiposity. Methods and results The FTOrs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped in 652 adolescents (53% females, 14.8 ± 1.2 years, TT = 246, TA = 296, AA = 110). Energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by two non-consecutive 24 h-recalls. Weight, height, waist circumference and skinfold thicknesses were measured and body fat percent was calculated. Energy and macronutrient intake were similar across the FTOrs9939609 genotypes (P > 0.2). There were significant interactions between the FTO polymorphism and fat intake on adiposity estimates (P < 0.05). In adolescents whose fat intake was below 30% (N = 203), the A allele of rs9939609 was not associated with adiposity indices. In contrast, in adolescents whose fat intake was between 30% and 35% of energy (N = 190), the rs9939609 polymorphism was associated with a 1.9% higher body fat per risk allele (95%CI: 0.39, 3.33; P < 0.05), and in those whose fat intake was higher than 35% (N = 259), it was associated with a 2.8% higher body fat per risk allele (95%CI: 1.27, 4.43; P < 0.001). Conclusions These findings support the concept that the deleterious effect of the FTOrs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity is exacerbated in adolescents consuming high fat diets. In contrast, the consumption of low fat diets (<30% of energy) may attenuate the genetic predisposition to obesity in risk allele carriers.




Antioxidants and oxidative stress in children: Influence of puberty and metabolically unhealthy status

Zaguán. Repositorio Digital de la Universidad de Zaragoza
  • Rupérez, Azahara I.
  • Mesa, María D.
  • Anguita-Ruiz, Augusto
  • González-Gil, Esther M.
  • Vázquez-Cobela, Rocío
  • Moreno, Luis A.
  • Gil, Ángel
  • Gil-Campos, Mercedes
  • Leis, Rosaura
  • Bueno, Gloria
  • Aguilera, Concepción M.
Oxidative stress could help explain the relationship between childhood obesity and a metabolically unhealthy (MU) status. Moreover, puberty could also influence this relationship, since it entails physiological cardiometabolic changes. We aimed to evaluate plasma antioxidants and oxidative stress biomarkers in MU and metabolically healthy (MH) prepubertal and pubertal children and their associations with pro-inflammatory and endothelial damage biomarkers, taking puberty into account. A total of 1444 Spanish children aged 3–17 years (48.9% males, 66% prepubertal, 47.1% with obesity) were recruited. Blood pressure, anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured, and children were categorized as having a MU or MH status according to risk factors. Retinol, carotenes, tocopherols, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxidized low-density lipoprotein and selected pro-inflammatory and endothelial damage biomarkers were analyzed. General linear models adjusted for age, sex, recruitment center and body mass index, partial correlations and stepwise linear regressions were performed. Lower carotenes and tocopherols levels were found in MU than in MH children. Plasma TAC was lower in prepubertal and higher in pubertal children with obesity compared to normal-weight children. Antioxidants and oxidative stress biomarkers showed novel associations with several pro-inflammatory and endothelial damage biomarkers, with pubertal differences, supporting the importance of considering both the antioxidant and oxidative stress status and puberty in the prevention of metabolic diseases in childhood.




Self-reported sleeping time effects on physical performance and body composition among Spanish older adults: EXERNET-Elder 3.0 study

Zaguán. Repositorio Digital de la Universidad de Zaragoza
  • Gesteiro, E.
  • Aparicio-Ugarriza, R.
  • García-Centeno, M. C.
  • Escobar-Toledo, D.
  • Mañas, A.
  • Pérez-Gómez, J.
  • Gusi, N.
  • Gómez Cabello, A.
  • Ara, I.
  • Casajús, J. A.
  • Vicente Rodríguez, G.
  • González-Gross, M.
Objective: To determine the link between physical fitness and body composition with nocturnal and nap time in Spanish older adults. Methods: Eight hundred thirty older adults underwent several tests. Sleep was measured using Jenkins Sleep Scale. Nocturnal sleep was categorized (&lt;7, 7–9, and &gt;9 hours), and nap time (no nap, 1–30 minutes, and &gt;30 minutes).Physical fitness was evaluated using validated tests, and body composition by electric bioimpedance. Results: 75.1% of participants were female, mean age 77.7 ± 5.1 years. Mean nocturnal sleep and nap time was 6.7 hours and 23.3 minutes, respectively. Models showed nocturnal sleep &gt;9 hours was significant and positively associated with body shape index (Odds ratio[ OR] = 4.07 ( p = .011)) and waist circumference OR = 1.04 ( p = .024) in females. Males’ waist and hip circumference were positively significantly related to nap time between 1 and 30 minutes, OR = 1.08, p = .009 and OR = 1.08, p = .048, respectively. In females, nap time &gt;30 minutes was associated with greater fat mass and body shape index OR = 1.22, p = .032 and OR = 3.95, p = .027, respectively. Physical fitness showed no associations with sleep outcomes. Conclusions: Sleep patterns do not influence physical fitness but body composition, being more related to female body composition as nocturnal and nap sleep were associated with higher fat mass, waist circumference and body shape index, while only short nap times were related to higher waist and hip circumference in males.




Position guidelines and evidence base concerning determinants of childhood obesity with a European perspective

Zaguán. Repositorio Digital de la Universidad de Zaragoza
  • Martinez, José Alfredo
  • Sassi, Franco
  • Moreno, Luis Alberto
  • Tur, Josep A.
Childhood obesity is one of the most pressing global public health issues, with rates increasing fastest in countries at low levels of income. Obesity occurring during childhood is likely to persist throughout the life course, and it is a cause of increased disease risk from the early years of life. This supplement is the result of collaborations involving a large and multidisciplinary group of researchers that were established in the context of the ongoing European Horizon 2020 project Science and Technology in childhood Obesity Policy (STOP). The aim, as in the entire STOP project, is to generate evidence that can support better policies to tackle the problem of childhood obesity in Europe and elsewhere. Quality of life and health well-being concerning children needs to consider personalized, population, and planetary facets to tackle childhood obesity at early stages of life, for in-deep phenotyping, integrating personalized medicine and precision public health interventions at global levels. This supplement contributes to this aim. © 2021 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.