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Seismic monitoring of urban activity in Barcelona during the COVID-19 lockdown

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Diaz, J.
  • Ruiz Fernández, Mario
  • Jara, José Antonio
During the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, the city of Barcelona was covered by a dense seismic network consisting of up to 19 seismic sensors. This network has provided an excellent tool to investigate in detail the background seismic-noise variations associated with the lockdown measures. Permanent stations facilitate comparing the seismic noise recorded during the lockdown quieting with long-term variations due to holiday periods. On the other hand, the data acquired by the dense network show the differences between sites located near industrial areas, transportation hubs or residential areas. The results confirm that the quieting of human activity during lockdown has resulted in a reduction in seismic vibrations in the 2–20 Hz band that is clearly higher than during holiday seasons. This effect is observed throughout the city, but only those stations not affected by very proximal sources of vibration (construction sites, industries) are clearly correlated with the level of activity denoted by other indicators. Our contribution demonstrates that seismic amplitude variations can be used as a proxy for human activity in urban environments, providing details similar to those offered by other mobility indicators., This research has been supported by the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (grant no. RTI2018-095594-B-I00), and the Generalitat de Catalunya (grant no. 2017SGR1022).

We acknowledge support of the publication fee by the CSIC Open Access Publication Support Initiative through its Unit of Information Resources for Research (URICI)., Peer reviewed

Conversion of the OmpF porin into a device to gather amyloids on the E. coli outer membrane

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Vendrell-Fernández, Sol
  • Lozano-Picazo, Paloma
  • Cuadros-Sánchez, Paula
  • Tejero-Ojeda, María M.
  • Giraldo, R.
13 p,.5 fig.-1 graph. abst., Protein amyloids are ubiquitous in natural environments. They typically originate from microbial secretions or spillages from mammals infected by prions, currently raising concerns about their infectivity and toxicity in contexts such as gut microbiota or soils. Exploiting the self-assembly potential of amyloids for their scavenging, here, we report the insertion of an amyloidogenic sequence stretch from a bacterial prion-like protein (RepA-WH1) in one of the extracellular loops (L5) of the abundant Escherichia coli outer membrane porin OmpF. The expression of this grafted porin enables bacterial cells to trap on their envelopes the same amyloidogenic sequence when provided as an extracellular free peptide. Conversely, when immobilized on a surface as bait, the full-length prion-like protein including the amyloidogenic peptide can catch bacteria displaying the L5-grafted OmpF. Polyphenolic molecules known to inhibit amyloid assembly interfere with peptide recognition by the engineered OmpF, indicating that this is compatible with the kind of homotypic interactions expected for amyloid assembly. Our study suggests that synthetic porins may provide suitable scaffolds for engineering biosensor and clearance devices to tackle the threat posed by pathogenic amyloids., This work has been financed with grant RTI2018-094549-B-I00 from the Spanish MCIN/AEI (10.13039/501100011033 and FEDER “A way to make Europe”) to R.G., Peer reviewed

Towards Sustainable Mobility? The Influence of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Romanian Mobile Citizens in Spain

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Marcu, Silvia
Using the case study of Romanians in Spain, this article highlights how the COVID-19 crisis presents both challenges and opportunities when it comes to human mobility and sustainability. Drawing on in-depth interviews with mobile people during the period of lockdown and circulation restrictions, and in accordance with the objectives of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the paper advances and contributes to the relevance of sustainability and its impact on people’s mobility in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. I argue that even in the midst of the crisis, sustainable ways may be found to promote and protect human mobility. The paper raises the way sustainability acts as a driver, gains relevance and influence, and contributes to the creation of new models of resilient mobility in times of crisis. The conclusions defend the respect for the SDGs regarding human mobility and emphasise the role of people on the move as sustainable actors learning to overcome distance and the barriers to their mobility during the pandemic., Peer reviewed

Relative Catch Performance of Two Gear Modifications Used to Reduce Bycatch of Undersized Fish and Shrimp in Mediterranean Bottom Trawl Fisheries

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Maynou, Francesc
  • García-de-Vinuesa, Alfredo
  • Martinez-Baños, Pedro
  • Sánchez, Pilar
  • Demestre, Montserrat
16 pages, 7 figures, 5 tables, The catch of large quantities of sublegal-sized fish and shrimp is a pervasive feature of bottom trawl fisheries, particularly in the Mediterranean demersal mixed fisheries where regulations traditionally allow small mesh sizes. To address these concerns, two bottom trawl net selectivity trials were carried out in 2019 and 2020 on fishing grounds worked by the trawl fleet of Spanish Mediterranean, under normal commercial operating conditions with volunteer trawlers of the local fleet. The traditional otter bottom trawl employed in the demersal mixed fishery was modified with a 50-mm T90 panel on the extension piece under two different configurations (front of the extension piece and back of the extension piece). A second modification consisted of inserting a selective grid in the extension piece of the standard bottom trawl net. The species investigated in the demersal mixed fishery were European Hake Merluccius merluccius, Red Mullet Mullus barbatus, Striped Red Mullet Mullus surmuletus, and the deepwater rose shrimp Parapenaeus longirostris. Important selectivity improvements were observed for European Hake and deepwater rose shrimp, particularly in the selective grid trial, where 95% and 100%, respectively, of undersize specimens escaped through the grid. The design with the T90 panel in the back of the extension piece allowed for a reduction of 35% of sublegal-sized individuals of European Hake, but no difference was gained in the sizes of both Mullus spp. retained in the cod end. The adoption of these gear modifications might contribute to reducing discards of sublegal-sized fractions of the fisheries target species, Funding was provided by the research projects Crinoids and Maërl (reference number RTI2018-095770-B-I00; Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, National Research Agency, Agencia Espanola de Investigación and Fondo Europeu Desarrollo Regional, EU) and the Mediterranean Marine Initiative of World Wildlife Fund and the Adessium Foundation (contract number 351/2018/9E204550/AD17-39-44), With the institutional support of the ‘Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence’ accreditation (CEX2019-000928-S), Peer reviewed

«Un monumento al escupitajo, asesino del ballet»: impresiones, imágenes y perversiones en torno a la danza por Agustín Espinosa

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Coello Hernández, Alejandro
[ES] La repercusión de la danza en la literatura durante la Edad de Plata ha sido poco atendida por la crítica, a excepción, sobre todo, de los casos más relevantes. Por ello, este artículo propone una relectura centrada en el estudio del arte coreográfico en la producción textual de Agustín Espinosa, tanto en sus artículos como en su obra literaria. De esta manera, se analizan las razones por las que se recurre a la danza, ya sea para ejemplificar, metaforizar o reflexionar. Por ello, se concluye que el autor acude a este hecho escénico para expresar su cosmovisión vital y estética, pues llega a elaborar un manifiesto personal fundamentado en la condena del ballet como expresión decimonónica. Espinosa se inserta, así, en las preocupaciones e intereses desarrollados por los intelectuales de la Edad de Plata en torno a la danza., [EN] Critics have paid little attention to the impact of dance in the literature of the Silver Age, with the exception of the most relevant cases. For that reason, this article aims a re-reading focused on the study of choreographic art in the textual production of Agustín Espinosa, both in his articles and in his works. In this way, I analyse the reasons why he chooses the dance; for giving examples, writing metaphors and reflecting. Therefore, I conclude that the author writes about this performing act for expressing his world view about life and aesthetics, since he prepares a personal manifesto based on ballet’s disapproval as nineteenth-century expression. So, Espinosa shares interests in dance along with other Silver Age’s intellectuals., Este artículo es resultado de una ayuda del Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (FPU19/00203) para realizar una tesis doctoral bajo la dirección de Idoia Murga Castro y
Emilio Peral Vega, Peer reviewed

Conjunto de probables brazaletes de bronce altoimperiales procedentes de Monte Castrelo de Pelóu (Grandas de Salime, Asturias)

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Villa Valdés, Ángel
  • García Vuelta, Óscar
  • Montes López, Rubén
Monte Castrelo de Pelóu es un pequeño asentamiento fortificado, de morfología castreña, con una larga secuencia de ocupación que se prolonga, con algunos hiatos, desde los inicios de la Edad del Hierro hasta época tardorromana. Los horizontes de época altoimperial se caracterizan por la impronta militar de un registro en el que menudean los testimonios epigráficos, las armas y otros elementos metálicos probablemente vinculados con el equipamiento de la tropa., Se presentan en este artículo varias piezas de bronce singulares con sus correspondientes análisis de composición. En ausencia de paralelos conocidos, se propone su interpretación como brazaletes si bien, visto su tratamiento formal, no cabe descartar su utilización como elementos ornamentales de revestimiento., Peer reviewed

First modern human settlement recorded in the Iberian hinterland occurred during Heinrich Stadial 2 within harsh environmental conditions

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Alcaraz Castaño, M.
  • Alcolea González, J.J.
  • Andrés Herrero, M. de
  • Castillo Jiménez, S.
  • Cuartero, F.
  • Cuenca Bescós, Gloria
  • Kehl, M.
  • López Sáez, José Antonio
  • Luque, L.
  • Pérez Díaz, S.
  • Piqué, R.
  • Ruiz Alonso, Mónica
  • Weniger, G.-C.
  • Yravedra, J.
As the south-westernmost region of Europe, the Iberian Peninsula stands as a key area for understanding the process of modern human dispersal into Eurasia. However, the precise timing, ecological setting and cultural context of this process remains controversial concerning its spatiotemporal distribution within the different regions of the peninsula. While traditional models assumed that the whole Iberian hinterland was avoided by modern humans due to ecological factors until the retreat of the Last Glacial Maximum, recent research has demonstrated that hunter-gatherers entered the Iberian interior at least during Solutrean times. We provide a multi-proxy geoarchaeological, chronometric and paleoecological study on human–environment interactions based on the key site of Peña Capón (Guadalajara, Spain). Results show (1) that this site hosts the oldest modern human presence recorded to date in central Iberia, associated to pre-Solutrean cultural traditions around 26,000 years ago, and (2) that this presence occurred during Heinrich Stadial 2 within harsh environmental conditions. These findings demonstrate that this area of the Iberian hinterland was recurrently occupied regardless of climate and environmental variability, thus challenging the widely accepted hypothesis that ecological risk hampered the human settlement of the Iberian interior highlands since the first arrival of modern humans to Southwest Europe., This research was carried out in the context of the ERC MULTIPALEOIBERIA project, funded by the European Research Council (ERC-2018-STG-805478), and the PALEOINTERIOR project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (HAR2017-82483-C3-3-P). The sedimentological, micromorphological and part of the radiocarbon analyses were funded by subproject C1 of the CRC 806 “Our way to Europe” (DFG, German Research Foundation) and the Marie Curie Intra European Fellowship project ‘Hiatus LPleis Iberia’ (FP7-2013-IEF-628179). We gratefully acknowledge contributions made by the wide excavation and laboratory team. Fieldworks at Peña Capón were authorized by the Dirección General de Cultura de la Junta de Comunidades de Castilla–La Mancha (Spain) (Exp. 14.0955-P4 and Exp.: 19.248) with permission from the Confederación Hidrográfica del Tajo, Peer reviewed

Glimpses of Gold: Material Evidence of Cross-Cultural Connections in Rock Crystal Chess Pieces and a Countess's Seal (10th-11th c.)

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Martin, Therese
The remains of a sparkling, gold-like substance on medieval rock crystal chess pieces at the Cathedral of Ourense and
on the seal of Emessindis at the Cathedral of Girona are published here for the first time. It will be shown that analysis
of these unexpected discoveries opens new avenues for investigating the ownership of cross-cultural objects in Iberia,
especially by ruling women, during the central Middle Ages, Peer reviewed

Herders and Pioneers: The Role of Pastoralism in the Neolithization of the Amblés Valley (Ávila, Central Iberia)

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Guerra Doce, Elisa
  • Zapatero Magdaleno, María Pilar
  • Delibes de Castro, Germán
  • García Cuesta, José Luis
  • Fabián García, José Francisco
  • Riquelme Cantal, José Antonio
  • López Sáez, José Antonio
In recent years, the notion of landscape learning has been the object of increasing attention when discussing the neolithization of Europe. The landscape learning model stresses the necessity of gathering environmental information about a previously unfamiliar region. Therefore, it is particularly relevant in cases where the beginning of a farming economy is better explained in relation to the movements of peoples (colonization), rather than to the adoption of crops and livestock by pre-existing hunters and gatherers (acculturation). Unlike other Iberian regions, where the adoption of agriculture runs parallel to that of animal husbandry, the available data on the neolithization process of the Sierra de Gredos mountain range seem to suggest that raising livestock may have preceded plant cultivation. Based on an interdisciplinary and multi-proxy approach, this paper explores the idea that the adoption of a food-producing economy in the Amblés Valley (Ávila, Central Iberia) may have been connected with pastoralism. In this context, landscape learning provides a model for analyzing how Early Neolithic herders in their seasonal movements were capable of wayfinding by memorizing spatial features that functioned as visual landmarks., Peer reviewed

El apoyo internacional a la reforma educativa en España, International Support for Educational Reform in Spain

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Delgado Gómez-Escalonilla, Lorenzo
  • Martín García, Oscar J.
[ES] En la década de los años sesenta se suscitó un debate internacional sobre el papel de la educación dentro de los cambios políticos, sociales y económicos que se estaban produciendo a nivel mundial. Organismos multilaterales como la OCDE y la UNESCO tuvieron un destacado papel en ese proceso, aplicando los planteamientos centrales de las teorías de la modernización y del capital humano para favorecer el tránsito desde «sociedades tradicionales» a otras más «modernas». Tales ideas tuvieron su traslación al escenario español de la mano de los «tecnócratas», que aspiraban a convertirse en los agentes de un proyecto de transformación controlado desde el aparato del Estado. Los organismos internacionales participaron activamente en el análisis del sistema educativo español, e hicieron recomendaciones sobre las medidas a tomar para ponerlo en sintonía con las necesidades económicas del país. El corolario de todo ello fue su apoyo a la reforma que condujo a la Ley General de Educa-ción de 1970, que contó también con el soporte de algunos de los princi-pales interlocutores exteriores del régimen franquista, como Estados Unidos, junto al Banco Mundial y la Fundación Ford. Dicho respaldo se plasmó en asesoramiento, financiación, formación de especialistas y material educativo. Esta contribución aborda la trayectoria de ese proce-so, examinando la labor desempeñada por los actores internacionales y su implicación en la modernización educativa del país como paso hacia la convergencia con los parámetros del modelo occidental., [EN] In the 1960s, an international debate emerged on the role of education in the worldwide changes taking place in the political, social and economic sphere. Multilateral agencies such as the OECD and UNESCO played an important role in this process. Inspired by some of the central tenets of modernization and human capital theories, these organizations sought to steer the transitions from “traditional societies” to “modern” ones. In Franco’s Spain, this process of modernization was led by the technocratic sectors of the dictatorship, who aspired to become the agents of a project of change controlled from the state apparatus. International organizations actively participated in the analysis of the Spanish educational system, and recommendeding measures to bring it into line with the needs of economic development. The corollary of this work was their support for the 1970 General Education Law, which also enjoyed the endorsement of some of the main foreign allies of the Franco regime, such as the United States, the World Bank and the Ford Foundation. This support took the form of advice, funding, specialist training and educational assistance. The article addresses this whole process. It examines the efforts of various international actors and their involvement in the modernization of education in Spain as a step towards convergence with the Western model., Peer reviewed