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New fossils of Sirenia from the Middle Eocene of Navarre (Western Pyrenees): the oldest West European sea cow record

  • Astibia, H.
  • Bardet, N.
  • Pereda-Suberbiola, X.
  • Payros, A.
  • De Bruffélin, V.
  • Elorza, J.
  • Tosquella, J.
  • Berreteaga, A.
  • Badiola, A.
Postcranial remains of Sirenia from the early Middle Eocene (late Lutetian) Urbasa-Andia Formation of Navarre (Western Pyrenees) are described. The material consists of two partial atlas vertebrae, one humerus and several dorsal ribs (from Arrasate, Urbasa plateau), and partial dorsal ribs (from Lezaun, Andia plateau). The morphology of the fossils is consistent with referral to Dugongidae, the only sirenian clade known so far in the Middle Eocene of Europe. Moreover, the histological study of the ribs shows that the pachyosteosclerosis of extant Sirenia was definitively present by the early Middle Eocene. The oldest sirenian remains reported to date in the Pyrenean Realm were assigned to the Biarritzian, a regional stage that is currently ascribed either to the middle or to the lower–middle Bartonian. Therefore, the sirenian remains of Lezaun, reliably dated as late Lutetian (SBZ16 zone) in age, are definitively the earliest sirenian fossils known in Western Europe and are among the oldest sea cow records of Europe.
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Environmental Assessment of the CIESOL Solar Building after Two Years Operation

  • Batlles, F.J.
  • Rosiek, S.
  • Muñoz, I.
  • Fernández-Alba, A.R.
Life cycle assessment is applied to assess the environmental benefits and trade-offs of a solar-assisted heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system installed in the CIESOL building in Almería (southeastern Spain). The environmental performance of this system is compared to that of a conventional HVAC system using a heat pump. The study evaluates these systems from cradle to grave, and the impact assessment includes, in addition to the CML2001 method, an impact category dealing with impacts on freshwater resources. The results show that the solar-assisted HVAC involves lower impacts in many impact categories, achieving, as an example, a reduction of 80% in greenhouse-gas emissions. On the other hand, key weak points of this system are the production of capital goods, but specially water use for cooling, due to its high impact on freshwater resources. Minimization of water requirements should be a priority for further development of this promising technology.
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La reutilización de aguas regeneradas en España: ejemplos de aplicación en el marco del proyecto CONSOLIDER-TRAGUA

  • De Bustamante, I.
  • Cabrera, M.C.
  • Candela, L.
  • Lillo, J.
  • Palacios, M.P.
La reutilización de aguas depuradas en España se realiza desde hace décadas, siendo uno de los países en los que esta práctica está más extendida. Sin embargo, no se llega a reutilizar más del 5% del total de las aguas residuales recogidas, aunque en algunos casos, como en Canarias, el agua depurada ha llegado a suponer un 20% del agua consumida. En este artículo se presentan tres ejemplos de reutilización de aguas depuradas con una importante incidencia en los aspectos ambientales y asociados a condiciones hídricas diversas. Los estudios se están llevando a cabo dentro del Proyecto CONSOLIDER-TRAGUA cuyo objetivo es abordar de manera integrada los aspectos implicados en la reutilización de aguas residuales procedentes de las estaciones depuradoras de aguas residuales urbanas. Las zonas seleccionadas para los estudios de campo se sitúan en Andalucía donde el agua regenerada se aplica a filtros verdes y riego de cultivos para la obtención de biodiesel; Canarias para riego de campos de Golf y Cataluña donde el agua es inyectada para generar una barrera hidráulica contra la intrusión marina del acuífero. En los tres casos estudiados se incide en los aspectos suelo-agua-planta y sus impactos en el medio.
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La importancia de la caracterización del medio geológico como buenas prácticas en la regeneración de aguas mediante tecnologías extensivas

  • De Bustamante, I.
  • Lillo, J.
  • De Miguel, Á.
  • Leal, M.
La tecnología de filtros verdes se plantea como una alternativa eficaz para el tratamiento, gestión y reutilización de los efluentes líquidos procedentes de aglomeraciones urbanas de pequeño tamaño. Para su implantación se hace imprescindible un buen conocimiento del medio geológico que nos permita asegurar, por un lado, la protección del medio natural, específicamente las masas de agua subterránea, y por otro, la eficacia de su aplicación como tecnología de regeneración, en el contexto normativo actual. Para ello, se propone la metodología a seguir en las etapas iniciales de un proyecto de aplicación de filtro verde como tecnología de regeneración de aguas residuales. Como caso de demostración, se presentan los resultados preliminares obtenidos con la metodología de caracterización propuesta obtenidos en la parcela experimental del filtro verde que se va a instalar en la planta experimental de Carrión de los Céspedes (Sevilla).
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Estimation of the virtual water trade between two Spanish regions: Castilla-la Mancha and Murcia

  • De Miguel, Á.
  • García-Calvo, E.
  • De Bustamante, I.
Virtual water is defined as the water needed to produce a product. We can use virtual water flow calculations to estimate the water efficiency of a country, as well as its economic dependence on water resources. Former studies on this area have focused on quantifying the virtual water flows between countries, in an international context. In this study we reduce the action framework to regions within a country, determining the virtual water balance between two Spanish regions: Castilla-La Mancha and Murcia. In 2004, Castilla-La Mancha exported to Murcia 2,453,442 tons of commercial products, from which 1,191,628 tons were agricultural goods. In terms of virtual water, it means 1,365 hm3, including food-processing, and industrial products. It is necessary to add 350 hm3 to the result, because of the water transfer (Tajo-Segura transfer) between the rivers basins of these regions, so the final virtual water number, in 2004, was 1,715 hm3. The other way round, Murcia exported in 2004 2,069,000 tons of products, from which 490,351 tons were agricultural goods. That supposes 712 hm3 of virtual water. Virtual water flow is unbalanced and displaced towards Murcia with a difference of 1,003 hm3.
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Estimación del sellado del suelo mediante técnicas de análisis espectral

  • De Tomás, A.
  • Salas, F.J.
  • Santos, C.
  • Garzón, A.
  • Moreno, V.
El crecimiento de las superficies artificiales urbanas lleva asociado la impermeabilización del medio natural, conocida como sellado del suelo, que provoca una serie de efectos perjudiciales sobre el medio ambiente. Este artículo trata de desarrollar un método para facilitar la estimación de estas superficies y poder establecer medidas de control al respecto. Las técnicas de teledetección ofrecen interesantes posibilidades de clasificación en entornos urbanos. En este trabajo se ha evaluado la utilización de las técnicas espectrales Análisis Lineal de Mezclas Espectrales (ALME) y Sequential Maximum Angle Convex Cone (SMACC) sobre una imagen multiespectral SPOT-5, correspondiente al sector nororiental del municipio de Madrid. Finalmente se ha aplicado la técnica SMACC, en combinación con otras variables extraídas de la imagen, obteniendo una capa de sellado con una fiabilidad global del 83,75%. Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con los de la capa de sellado europea para España1, la cual obtiene una precisión global del 69,5% siguiendo el mismo método de validación utilizado en este trabajo. Increasing artificial surface, associated with urban growth, produces soil imperviousness, known as soil sealing, which causes a number of adverse effects on the environment. This paper aims to develop a methodology to facilitate the estimation of this surface type, in order to establish control measures. Remote sensing techniques provide interesting classification possibilities in urban areas. In this research, both Linear Spectral Mixing Analysis (LSMA) and Sequential Maximum Angle Convex Cone (SMACC) spectral analysis techniques have been tested on a SPOT-5 multispectral image, corresponding to the Northeastern sector of the city of Madrid. Finally, the SMACC technique was applied, in combination with other variables extracted from the image, getting as a result a sealed mask with an overall accuracy of 83,75%. The results were then compared to the existing European soil sealing layer for Spain1, which obtained an overall accuracy of 69,5% with the same accuracy assessment method used in this study.
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Evaluación y presencia de contaminantes emergentes en aguas residuales urbanas y en aguas de río

  • Fernández-Alba, A.R.
  • Gómez, M.J.
  • Herrera, S.
  • Gómez-Ramos, M.M.
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A paradox in ecotoxicology: 2 + 2 does not always equal 4

  • Fernández-Piñas, F.
  • Rodea-Palomares, I.
  • Petre, A.
  • Boltes, K.
  • Leganés, F.
  • Perdigón-Melón, J.A.
  • Rosal, R.
FERNÁNDEZ PIÑAS, Francisca; RODEA PALOMARES, Ismael Martin; PETRE , Alice; BOLTES ESPÍNOLA, Ana Karina; LEGANÉS NIETO, Francisco; PERDIGÓN MELÓN, José Antonio; ROSAL GARCÍA, Roberto. "A paradox in ecotoxicology: 2 + 2 does not always equal 4" (ISSN:1699-4205). LifeSciences Lab / Farmaespaña Industrial. 2010, núm 37, p. 78-80
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Rapid automated screening, identification and quantification of organic micro-contaminants and their main transformation products in wastewater and river waters using liquid chromatography–quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry with an accurate-mass database

  • Gómez, M.J.
  • Gómez-Ramos, M.M.
  • Malato, O.
  • Mezcua, M.
  • Fernández-Alba, A.R.
In this study we have developed and evaluated an analytical method for a rapid automated screening and confirmation of a large number of organic micro-contaminants (almost 400) and also the quantification of the positive findings in water samples of different types (surface and wastewaters) using liquid chromatography-electrospray quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOFMS) based on the use of an accurate-mass database. The created database includes data not only on the accurate masses of the target ions but also on the characteristic in-source fragment ions, isotopic pattern and retention time data. This customized database was linked to commercially available software which extracted all the potential compounds of interest from the LC-QTOFMS raw data of each sample and matched them against the database to search for targeted compounds in the sample. The detailed fragmentation information has also been used as a powerful tool for the automatic identification of unknown compounds and/or transformation products with similar structures to those of known organic contaminants included in the database. The database can be continually enlarged. To confirm identification of compounds which have no fragment ions (or fragments with low intensity/relative abundance) from in-source CID fragmentation or isomers which are not distinguished within full single mass spectra, a "Targeted MS/MS" method is developed. Thereafter, these compounds can be further analyzed using the collision energy (CE) in QTOF-MS/MS mode. Linearity and limits of detection were studied. Method detection limits (MDLs) in effluent wastewater and river waters were, in most cases, lowers or equal to 5 and 2 ng/L, respectively. Only 15 compounds had MDLs between 5 and 50 ng/L in effluent wastewater matrix. We obtained a linearity of the calibration curves over two orders of magnitude. The method has been applied to real samples and the results obtained reveal that most of the pharmaceutically active compounds contained in the created database were present in the water samples with concentrations in the range of ng/L and μg/L levels and in most of the samples between 2 and 15 pesticides of the 300 contained in the database were also detected. In addition to the compounds included in the database, some degradation products were found, thus revealing the method as a useful tool for the analysis of organic micro-contaminants in waters.
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Cambio estructural regional y agua: Escasez, dependencia e impactos sobre el tejido económico. El caso de Andalucía

  • Pérez-Blanco, C.D.
  • Gómez, C.M.
  • Garrido, R.
El agua es un input clave para la producción de numerosos bienes, y su escasez puede ser un factor limitante para el desarrollo regional. La gestión de este recurso en España ha estado caracterizada por medidas de oferta que han descuidado la conservación de los recursos hídricos así como la gestión de la demanda..El artículo utiliza la metodología HEM (Hypothetical Extraction Method) para caracterizar la importancia económica del uso del agua en Andalucía y mostrar la baja productividad en el principal demandante de agua, el regadío (86% de la demanda total). Se presentan alternativas capaces de garantizar un crecimiento sostenible incidiendo en la capacidad de los mercados para incentivar el uso sostenible y, al mismo tiempo, promover el cambio estructural del modelo de crecimiento. Water is a key input in the production of many goods and services, and its scarcity might become a critical limiting factor in regional development. Water management in Spain has historically prioritized supply increases at the expense of further degradations in the resource base and has disregarded the managing of water demand and effciciency. The paper aims at analyzing the economic importance of water use in Andalusia (Spain) and showing the lack of productivity in the main water consumer -irrigation land (86% of total demand) by using the HEM methodology. It also explores explore the importance of market instruments both to promote sustainability and change the current growth model.
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