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The number of planar central configurations for the 4-body problem is finite when 3 mass positions are fixed

  • Alvarez, Martha
  • Corbera Subirana, Montserrat
  • Delgado, Joaquin
  • Llibre, Jaume
In the n{body problem a central con guration is formed when the position vector of each particle with respect to the center of mass is a common scalar multiple of its acceleration vector. Lindstrom showed for n = 3 and for n > 4 that if n 􀀀? 1 masses are located at xed points in the plane, then there are only a nite number of ways to position the remaining nth mass in such a way that they de ne a central con guration. Lindstrom leaves open the case n = 4. In this paper we prove the case n = 4 using as variables the mutual distances between the particles.
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Families of periodic orbits for the spatial isosceles 3-body problem

  • Corbera Subirana, Montserrat
  • Llibre, Jaume
We study the families of periodic orbits of the spatial isosceles 3-body problem (for small enough values of the mass lying on the symmetry axis) coming via the analytic continuation method from periodic orbits of the circular Sitnikov problem. Using the first integral of the angular momentum, we reduce the dimension of the phase space of the problem by two units. Since periodic orbits of the reduced isosceles problem generate invariant two-dimensional tori of the nonreduced problem, the analytic continuation of periodic orbits of the (reduced) circular Sitnikov problem at this level becomes the continuation of invariant two-dimensional tori from the circular Sitnikov problem to the nonreduced isosceles problem, each one filled with periodic or quasi-periodic orbits. These tori are not KAM tori but just isotropic, since we are dealing with a three-degrees-of-freedom system. The continuation of periodic orbits is done in two different ways, the first going directly from the reduced circular Sitnikov problem to the reduced isosceles problem, and the second one using two steps: first we continue the periodic orbits from the reduced circular Sitnikov problem to the reduced elliptic Sitnikov problem, and then we continue those periodic orbits of the reduced elliptic Sitnikov problem to the reduced isosceles problem. The continuation in one or two steps produces different results. This work is merely analytic and uses the variational equations in order to apply Poincar´e’s continuation method.
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Infinitely many periodic orbits for the rhomboidal five-body problem

  • Corbera Subirana, Montserrat
  • Llibre, Jaume
We prove the existence of infinitely many symmetric periodic orbits for a regularized rhomboidal five-body problem with four small masses placed at the vertices of a rhombus centered in the fifth mass. The main tool for proving the existence of such periodic orbits is the analytic continuation method of Poincaré together with the symmetries of the problem. © 2006 American Institute of Physics.
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Double-Antiprism Central Configurations of the 3n-Body Problem

  • Corbera Subirana, Montserrat
  • Llibre, Jaume
Abstract In this paper we study numerically a new type of central configurations of the 3n-body problem with equal masses which consist of three n-gons contained in three planes z = 0 and z = ±β = 0. The n-gon on z = 0 is scaled by a factor α and it is rotated by an angle of π/n with respect to the ones on z = ±β. In this kind of configurations, the masses on the planes z = 0 and z = β are at the vertices of an antiprism with bases of different size. The same occurs with the masses on z = 0 and z = −β. We call this kind of central configurations double-antiprism central configurations. We will show the existence of central configurations of this type.
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On the existence of bi-pyramidal central configurations of the n + 2-body problem with an n-gon base

  • Corbera Subirana, Montserrat
  • Llibre, Jaume
Abstract. In this paper we prove the existence of central con gurations of the n + 2{body problem where n equal masses are located at the vertices of a regular n{gon and the remaining 2 masses, which are not necessarily equal, are located on the straight line orthogonal to the plane containing the n{gon passing through its center. Here this kind of central con gurations is called bi{pyramidal central con gurations. In particular, we prove that if the masses mn+1 and mn+2 and their positions satisfy convenient relations, then the con guration is central. We give explicitly those relations.
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Central configurations of nested rotated regular tetrahedra

  • Corbera Subirana, Montserrat
  • Llibre, Jaume
In this paper we prove that there are only two different classes of central configura- tions with convenient masses located at the vertices of two nested regular tetrahedra: either when one of the tetrahedra is a homothecy of the other one, or when one of the tetrahedra is a homothecy followed by a rotation of Euler angles = = 0 and = of the other one. We also analyze the central configurations with convenient masses located at the vertices of three nested regular tetrahedra when one them is a homothecy of the other one, and the third one is a homothecy followed by a rotation of Euler angles = = 0 and = of the other two. In all these cases we have assumed that the masses on each tetrahedron are equal but masses on different tetrahedra could be different.
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Central configurations of nested regular polyhedra for the spatial 2n–body problem

  • Corbera Subirana, Montserrat
  • Llibre, Jaume
We consider 2n masses located at the vertices of two nested regular polyhedra with the same number of vertices. Assuming that the masses in each polyhedron are equal, we prove that for each ratio of the masses of the inner and the outer polyhedron there exists a unique ratio of the length of the edges of the inner and the outer polyhedron such that the configuration is central.
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Central configurations of three nested regular polyhedra for the spatial 3n–body problem

  • Corbera Subirana, Montserrat
  • Llibre, Jaume
Three regular polyhedra are called nested if they have the same number of vertices n, the same center and the positions of the vertices of the inner polyhedron ri, the ones of the medium polyhedron Ri and the ones of the outer polyhedron Ri satisfy the relation Ri = ri and Ri = Rri for some scale factors R > > 1 and for all i = 1, . . . , n. We consider 3n masses located at the vertices of three nested regular polyhedra. We assume that the masses of the inner polyhedron are equal to m1, the masses of the medium one are equal to m2, and the masses of the outer one are equal to m3. We prove that if the ratios of the masses m2/m1 and m3/m1 and the scale factors and R satisfy two convenient relations, then this configuration is central for the 3n–body problem. Moreover there is some numerical evidence that, first, fixed two values of the ratios m2/m1 and m3/m1, the 3n–body problem has a unique central configuration of this type; and second that the number of nested regular polyhedra with the same number of vertices forming a central configuration for convenient masses and sizes is arbitrary.
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Generation of symmetric periodic orbits by a heteroclinic loop formed by two singular points and their invariant manifolds of dimension 1 and 2 in R3

  • Corbera Subirana, Montserrat
  • Llibre, Jaume
In this paper we will find a continuous of periodic orbits passing near infinity for a class of polynomial vector fields in R3. We consider polynomial vector fields that are invariant under a symmetry with respect to a plane and that possess a “generalized heteroclinic loop” formed by two singular points e+ and e− at infinity and their invariant manifolds 􀀀� and . 􀀀� is an invariant manifold of dimension 1 formed by an orbit going from e− to e+, 􀀀� is contained in R3 and is transversal to . is an invariant manifold of dimension 2 at infinity. In fact, is the 2–dimensional sphere at infinity in the Poincar´e compactification minus the singular points e+ and e−. The main tool for proving the existence of such periodic orbits is the construction of a Poincar´e map along the generalized heteroclinic loop together with the symmetry with respect to .
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Symmetric periodic orbits near heteroclinic loops at infinity for a class of polynomial vector fields

  • Corbera Subirana, Montserrat
  • Llibre, Jaume
For polynomial vector fields in R3, in general, it is very difficult to detect the existence of an open set of periodic orbits in their phase portraits. Here, we characterize a class of polynomial vector fields of arbitrary even degree having an open set of periodic orbits. The main two tools for proving this result are, first, the existence in the phase portrait of a symmetry with respect to a plane and, second, the existence of two symmetric heteroclinic loops.
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