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Latin American Street Gangs in Catalonia and Their Delinquency

  • Kazyrytski, Leanid
The increased influx of immigrants from the countries of Latin America to the autonomous Spanish community of Catalonia had a considerable impact on its young people. This phenomenon filled city streets with groups of young migrants characterized by specific outfits and manners. Some groups of young migrants adopted the names of notorious criminal gangs from Central and North America and developed collective schemes of deviant behavior. The Catalonian police, together with mass media, view these groups as youth street gangs because they use certain symbols, have an organizational structure and are directly involved in criminal behavior in public places. According to the Catalonian police reports, the activities of Latin American street gangs is a greater danger to public safety than the activities of other deviant street groups. The detention level of Latin American gang members, as well as their delinquent activities, are rather high. The immigrant component of street gangs is emphasized and they begin to be viewed as a type of organized crime. The author analyzes the position of Latin American gangs in Catalonia, the condition of their delinquency and criticizes the simplified approach to researching them. He stresses changes in the ethnic component of Latin American gangs and highlights the selective approach in the work of the law enforcement, which may distort the understanding of the actual picture of delinquency. The article points out that the goals and specific characteristics of delinquency of Latin American gangs in Catalonia do not allow them to be viewed as organized crime
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Leksicheskoe opisanie emocionalno ocenochnykh edinic russkogo jazyka (Descripcion lexica de las unidades valorativas emocionales de la lengua rusa)

  • Zaynuldinov, Andrei
In the present article is investigated the expressive system of lexicographical markers in lexicons and phraseological dictionaries of Russian, is analyzed the pragmatic aspect of evaluation based on presentation of lexical and phraseological units with positive and negative emotional evaluation. This kind of study helps to solve various problems of lexicographical description and create a better system of expressive markers. A new type of classification, resuming the Russian lexicographical tradition, is presented
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Cultural landscapes in Argentina : research, project and representation

  • Pesoa Marcilla, Melisa
  • Orduña Giró, Paula
  • Sabaté Bel, Joaquín
This article aims to contribute to the use of the concept "cultural landscape" as a tool for the analysis and development of territorial projects in Argentina. In the first part, we intend to summarize some views on the concept of cultural landscape, about the origin of the term, its diffusion and the possibilities and paradoxes that it implies. In the second part, we discuss the way in which this concept becomes a project tool, while in the third part, we highlight the central role that drawing has in the analysis and project. In the fourth part, we present two case study that illustrate the problems we enunciate in the preceding sections. Finally, the conclusions take up the possibilities, challenges and paradoxes of this way of projecting in which the detailed study of the identity of the territory makes it possible to find a way to manage it in a way that reverts to local development., Peer Reviewed
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The game theory analysis on covering overall migrant workers by their participation in legal housing reserves

  • Chen, Ai
According to the policies from different provinces and regions, existing problems are analyzed. With the game theory analysis,backgrounds and processes of the policies are imitated based on institution and migrant workers level.On the base of the analysis,some solutions are also proposed which can be beneficial to migrant workers.
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The main factors and rules of stress shadow of perpendicular cracks

  • Wang, Daobing
  • Zhou, Fujian
  • Ge, Hongkui
  • Zlotnik, Sergio
  • Yang, Xiangtong
  • Peng, Jinlong
Based on elasticity theory, we use numerical Galerkin finite element discretization method and implement Matlab finite element code to simulate “stress shadow” distributions of mutual orthogonal fractures. The principal stress and principal distributions have the symmetry characteristic on the intersection (coordinate origin). The relationships between stress shadow and flow pressure ratio, pore pressure, fluid pressure and horizontal stress contract are analyzed, respectively. By these techniques of variable displacement construction, changing the viscosity of the fracturing fluid, exploitation of oil and gas wells changing pump rate and fracturing fluid viscosity, reducing pore pressure and increasing the injection volume, taking the advantages of shadow effect, it is likely to produce a complex fracture network., Peer Reviewed
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