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The History of the European Union (Chinese version)

  • Morata, Francesc
Descriu i analitza el procés d'integració europea des dels seus inicis, els anys cinquanta, fins als nostres dies. L'objectiu consisteix a oferir una visió de conjunt d'un procés que va començar modestament amb la integració dels mercats del carbó i de l'acer dels sis membres fundadors i que ha derivat en una Unió Europea de 27 estats membres i més de 500 milions d'habitants, amb polítiques comunes, una cooperació estreta en els àmbits més sensibles de la sobirania estatal i una moneda única en setze estats, Describe y analiza el proceso de integración europea desde sus inicios, en los años cincuenta, hasta nuestros días. El objetivo consiste en ofrecer una visión de conjunto de un proceso que comenzó modestamente con la integración de los mercados del carbón y del acero de los seis miembros fundadores y que ha derivado en una Unión Europea de 27 Estados miembros y más de 500 millones de habitantes, con políticas comunes, una cooperación estrecha en los ámbitos más sensibles de la soberanía estatal y una moneda única en dieciséis estados
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Skulpture iz Augusteuma Narone (Neizlozene i Beobjavljene 2004)

  • Marin, Emilio
  • Claridge, Amanda
  • Kolega, Marija
  • Rodà, Isabel, 1948-
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IN-SPACE: УЧИМСЯ ПРИДАВАТЬ ПРОСТРАНСТВУ ФОРМУ

  • Madrazo Agudín, Leandro
  • Costa Jutglar, Gonçal
Is it possible to isolate inner space from the need to see it as a volume from outside and to concentrate on the design of space itself? IN-SPACE is a web-based modelling tool especially conceived to give form to space, within space itself. With this tool, space is shaped from within, as we move through it expanding and contracting its limits. Starting from a cell located at the center of a three-dimensional grid, voids are carved by projecting the position of the viewer outwards along each of the three axes. As the avatar moves in this grid, space is being shaped. Conversely, voids can be undone projecting the position of a cell inwards towards the position of the view. Sounds, images and texts can be added to the cells that make a space. Once a space is created, the avatar can move inside the space or it can be driven automatically along the paths that have generated the space. Architecture students use this tool to develop their capacities of space conception as well as of space perception and orientation.
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A century of fascism in Spain, 1918-2014

  • Casals, Xavier
The history of fascism in Spain tends to be presented in a standard chronological pattern that begins in 1933 with the creation of the Falange Española party, and follows with its subsequent development during the Civil War (1936-1939), and under the dictatorship of general Francisco Franco (1939-1975). This study offers a different perspective, beginning in 1918, with the appearance of the first fascist organization in Barcelona, and ends with an analysis of the legacy of fascism in today’s extreme right.
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Measurement of the time-integrated CP asymmetry in D 0 → K 0S K 0S decays

  • Badalov, Alexey
  • Calvo Gómez, Míriam
  • Vilasís Cardona, Xavier
  • LHCb Collaboration - CERN
The time-integrated CP asymmetry in the decay D 0 → K 0S K 0S is measured using 3 fb−1 of proton-proton collision data collected by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The flavour of the D 0 meson is determined by use of the decay D *+ → D 0 π + and its charge conjugate mode. The result is ACP=−0.029±0.052±0.022, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The result is consistent with Standard Model expectations and improves the uncertainty with respect to the only previous measurement of this quantity by more than a factor of three.
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Surgical, ethical, and psychosocial considerations in head transplantation

  • Barret Nerín, Juan Pedro
Transplanting a head and brain is perhaps the final frontier of organ transplantation. The goal of body-to-head transplantation (BHT) is to sustain the life of individuals who suffer from terminal disease, but whose head and brain are healthy. Ideally BHT could provide a lifesaving treatment for several conditions where none currently exists. BHT is no ordinary experiment, to transfer a head to another body involves extraordinarily complex medical challenges as well as ethical and existential dilemmas that were previously confined to the imagination of writers of fiction. The possibility of replacing an incurably ill body with a healthy one tests not only our surgical limits, but also the social and psychological boundaries of physical life and alters what we recognize life to be. The purpose of this target article, the complementary manuscript focused on immunological issues in BHT, and the accompanying Commentaries by scholars and practitioners in medicine, immunology, and bioethics is to review major surgical and psychosocial-ethical and immunological considerations surrounding body-to-head transplantation. We hope that together these ideas will provide readers with a comprehensive overview of the possibilities and challenges associated with BHT and initiate professional discussion and debate through which this new frontier in medicine is considered and approached.
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Alpha-1 antitrypsin Pi*Z gene frequency and Pi*ZZ genotype numbers worldwide: an update

  • Esquinas López, Cristina
  • Miravitlles Fernández, Marc
In alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), the Z allele is present in 98% of cases with severe disease, and knowledge of the frequency of this allele is essential from a public health perspective. However, there is a remarkable lack of epidemiological data on AATD worldwide, and many of the data currently used are outdated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to update the knowledge of the frequency of the Z allele to achieve accurate estimates of the prevalence and number of Pi*ZZ genotypes worldwide based on studies performed according to the following criteria: 1) samples representative of the general population, 2) AAT phenotyping characterized by adequate methods, and 3) measurements performed using a coefficient of variation calculated from the sample size and 95% confidence intervals. Studies fulfilling these criteria were used to develop maps with an inverse distance weighted (IDW)-interpolation method, providing numerical and graphical information of Pi*Z distribution worldwide. A total of 224 cohorts from 65 countries were included in the study. With the data provided by these cohorts, a total of 253,404 Pi*ZZ were estimated worldwide: 119,594 in Europe, 91,490 in America and Caribbean, 3,824 in Africa, 32,154 in Asia, 4,126 in Australia, and 2,216 in New Zealand. In addition, the IDW-interpolation maps predicted Pi*Z frequencies throughout the world even in some areas that lack real data. In conclusion, the inclusion of new well-designed studies and the exclusion of the low-quality ones have significantly improved the reliability of results, which may be useful to plan strategies for future research and diagnosis and to rationalize the therapeutic resources available.
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Promoting Intermolecular C-N Bond Formation under the Auspices of Iodine(III)

  • Muñiz, Kilian
The quest for the development of new protocols that provide general conditions for oxidative carbon–nitrogen bond formation has grown over recent years. Within this context, due to feasibility and benignity considerations in biochemical sciences, reactions that rely on main group oxidants as the only promoters have received particular interest. We have recently found that simple protonolysis events enable the incorporation of nitrogenated groups of the bissulfonimide family into the coordination sphere of common iodine(III) complexes such as diacetoxy iodobenzene. The products of the type ArI(OAc)(NTs2) represent rare examples of iodine(III) compounds displaying reactive iodine–nitrogen single bonds. Further protonolysis furnishes the corresponding iodine(III) compounds ArI(NTs2)2 containing two defined iodine–nitrogen single bonds for unprecedented dual transfer of both nitrogenated groups. It is of great synthetic importance that these new compounds contain iodine–nitrogen entities, which upon dissociation in solution lead to electrophilic iodine centers and nucleophilic nitrogen groups. This has enabled the development of a body of conceptually new amination reactions, which do not rely on conventional electrophilic nitrogen reagents but rather employ iodine(III) as an electrophilic activator and bissulfonimides as the source of subsequent nucleophilic amination. Additional diversification arises from the ambident nature of bissulfonimines enabling oxygenation pathways. The exciting chemistry covered in this Account comprises structural features of the reagents (including X-ray analysis), scope and limitation in synthetic amination of different hydrocarbons (including sp-, sp2-, and sp3-hybridized centers as in acetylenes, alkenes, enols, butadienes, allenes, arenes, and alkylketones), and physical-organic and theoretical analysis of the underlying reaction mechanisms. The oxidative transformations with all their rich diversifications originate from the versatile redox chemistry of the iodine(III) and iodine(I) pair, which shares several aspects of transition metal high oxidation state chemistry. For the present aryliodine(III) reagents, steric and electronic fine-tuning is possible through accurate engineering of the arene substituent. In addition to the general reactivity of the I–N bond, chiral aryliodine(III) reagents with defined stereochemical information in the aryl backbone are conceptually compatible with this approach. Thus, the development of enantioselective amination reactions with up to 99% ee was also successful. Several of the active enantioselective reagents have been isolated and structurally characterized. Following this approach for the important class of chiral vicinal diamines, an unprecedented direct diamination of alkenes could be conducted in an enantioselective catalytic manner under full intermolecular reaction control. This latter reaction is based on the precise engineering of a chiral aryliodine(III) catalyst in combination with bismesylimide as nitrogen source. It is the consequence of the precise understanding of the reaction behavior of structurally defined bisimidoiodine(III) reagents.
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Iberska Kuća

  • Belarte Franco, Maria Carme
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