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Age and gender differences in Body Mass Index, ocular, and back disorders in 8-12-year old children

  • Zurita-Ortega, Félix
  • Cepero González, Mar
  • Ruiz Rodríguez, Luis
  • Linares Girela, Daniel
  • Cachón, Javier
  • Zurita Molina, Félix
The influence of sedentarism on the increase in obesity can now be confirmed. In this sense, attention should be paid to the importance of those working in school environments. The sample group was made up of 2,956 participants from 19 schools in the province of Granada. The aim of this study was to determine levels of obesity, spinal alterations and ocular pathologies in the Primary school population of the province of Granada (Spain) as well as any possible gender and age related variations. The results showed that 26.3% of the schoolchildren suffered from obesity, 24.5% from spinal disorders (16% with scoliosis and 8.5% with hyperkyphosis) and 12.5% from myopia. By pathologies, it should be mentioned that the children with hyperkyphosis were more obese and, in addition, the myopia variable did not related with body mass index levels. The results indicate the need to develop training and physical exercise programmes to prevent and treat child obesity, and spinal alterations.
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The comparison of competitive balance in Football Premier Leagues of England, Germany, Spain, France, Italy and Iran: a case study from 2009-2010 Season

  • Naghshbandi, Salah
  • Yousefi, Bahram
  • Etemad, Zaher
  • Moradi, Mehdi
Most sports are attractive because they are almost unpredictable. The more the competitiveness of league teams, the harder to predict the games and as a result, that league will be more attractive. Competitive balance refers to the balance in sport capabilities of teams. The aim of this paper was to compare the competitive balance in football premier leagues of Iran, England, Germany, Spain, France and Italy in 2009-2010 season. The data were secondary and collected from the final tables of premier leagues of those countries in 2009-2010 season. The five-club concentration ratio (C5) and C5 index of competitive balance (C5ICB) were used to analyze the data. The less C5ICB and C5 are, the more competitive balance is, and conversely. The C5ICB results showed that the leagues were ranked (ranging from most balance to least balance) as follows: Iran Pro League (129.60), Germany Bundesliga (135.37), French 1st League (138), Serie A, Italy (140), English Premier League (148) and Primera Liga, Spain (149.60). As a result, Iran premier league enjoyed the most balance and Primera Liga, Spain the least balance. In spite of the sport economics research representing lack of comparability between European leagues and other leagues in world, competitive balance has been decreased clearly in European leagues.
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Development of prospective mathematics teachers’ professional noticing in a specific domain: proportional reasoning

  • Fernández-Verdú, Ceneida
  • Llinares, Salvador
  • Valls González, Julia
The aim of this research is to identify aspects that support the development of prospective mathematics teachers’ professional noticing in a b-learning context. The study presented here investigates the extent to which prospective secondary mathematics teachers attend and interpret secondary school students’ proportional reasoning and decide how to respond. Results show that interactions in an on-line discussion improve prospective mathematics teachers’ ability to identify and interpret important aspects of secondary school students’ mathematical thinking., The research reported here has been financed in part by Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Dirección General de Investigación, Spain, under Grant no. EDU2008-04583.
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Coordination of aproximations in secondary school students’ understanding of limit concept

  • Pons Tomàs, Joan
  • Valls González, Julia
  • Llinares, Salvador
The aim of this research is to characterize the coordination of the processes of approximation related to the understanding of the limit of a function. We analyze the answers of 64 post-secondary school students to 7 problems considering the dynamic and metric conception of limit of a function. Results indicate that the metric understanding of the limit in terms of inequality supports that the student is capable of coordinating the approximations in the domain and in the range when lateral approximations coincide. However, the student is not capable of this coordination when lateral approximations do not coincide. This indicates that the metric understanding of the limit begins with the previous construction of the dynamic conception in case of coincidence of the lateral approximations in the range.
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The introduction of the first farming communities in the western Mediterranean: the Valencian region in Spain as example, La introducción de las primeras comunidades agrícolas en el Mediterráneo occidental: la región valenciana en España como ejemplo

  • García Atiénzar, Gabriel
  • Jover Maestre, Francisco Javier
The process of neolithisation of the Mediterranean face of the Iberian Peninsula has traditionally been associated with the Cardial paradigm of the Franco-Iberian region. However, better knowledge of the material record from the arc of the north-western Mediterranean, the revision of various archaeological sites of the central Valencian region, Spain and observation of the patterns of occupation and exploitation of territory in the western Mediterranean allow us to propose a process of Neolithic introduction more complex than considered until now, that can be linked with the phase of Mediterranean impressed pottery., El proceso de neolitización en la fachada oriental de la Península Ibérica se ha asociado tradicionalmente con el paradigma cardial francoibérico. Sin embargo, el mayor conocimiento del registro material del arco nororiental del Mediterráneo, la revisión de varios yacimientos de la región central valenciana (España) y el análisis de los patrones de ocupación y explotación del territorio en el Mediterráneo occidental, permiten proponer un proceso de implantación neolítica mucho más complejo del considerado hasta ahora, que se puede vincular con el horizonte de la cerámica impresa mediterránea.
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War and society in the Celtiberian world

  • Almagro-Gorbea, Martín
  • Lorrio Alvarado, Alberto José
This study provides an overview of the strong military component of Celtiberian society, dating back to the sixth century BC and manifesting itself especially during the wars against Rome in the second century BC. This bellicose character developed as a result of a long tradition of warrior-shepherds who formed part of the Bronze Age "proto-Celtic" substrate. From the first millennium BC on, Celtiberian society became increasingly hierarchical and by the Iron Age warrior elites had emerged that subsequently evolved into hereditary regional clans. Archaeology, especially the excavation of cemeteries dating from the sixth to the first centuries BC, has provided most of our information about the Celtiberian warrior aristocracy, referred to in later literary sources as nobles and princes. The arrival of the Carthaginians and Romans ushers in the appearance of oppida as administrative centres that controlled large territories and provided cohesion in the wars against Rome. Within this framework, equestrian structures - the equites - emerged with training strategies that influenced military tactics. Graeco-Latin sources refer to Celtiberian customs such as single combat conflict between champion-warriors and Celtiberian warriors as mercenaries. Epigraphic sources, on the other hand, document the existence of institutions such as magistrates, supra-family organisational structures, and hospitality pacts. In this society, warlike, virile and agonistic ideals played an essential role. Thus, analysis of different kinds of evidence (literary sources, iconography, and funeral practices) provides information about the existence of highly religious ritual practices linked to war. This is verified by the fact that the gods were invoked in such rituals and were called upon to witness pacts. Customs such as the devotio, which had strong ritual associations, must have been relatively frequent among the Celtiberians. Finally, information is included about fighting methods and the concept of war, which in the Hispano-Celtic world evolved along with society, as is confirmed by important variations documented over five centuries of Celtiberian development.
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The Celts in Iberia: an overview

  • Lorrio Alvarado, Alberto José
  • Ruiz Zapatero, Gonzalo
A general overview of the study of the Celts in the Iberian Peninsula is offered from a critical perspective. First, we present a brief history of research and the state of research on ancient written sources, linguistics, epigraphy and archaeological data. Second, we present a different hypothesis for the "Celtic" genesis in Iberia by applying a multidisciplinary approach to the topic. Finally, on the one hand an analysis of the main archaeological groups (Celtiberian, Vetton, Vaccean, the Castro Culture of the northwest, Asturian-Cantabrian and Celtic of the southwest) is presented, while on the other hand we propose a new vision of the Celts in Iberia, rethinking the meaning of "Celtic" from a European perspective.
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Learning melodic analysis rules

  • Illescas, Plácido R.
  • Rizo, David
  • Iñesta, José M.
  • Ramírez, Rafael
Comunicación presentada en MML 2011, 4th International Workshop on Machine Learning and Music: Learning from Musical Structure, Sierra Nevada, Spain, December 17, 2011., Automatic musical analysis has been approached from different perspectives: grammars, expert systems, probabilistic models, and model matching have been proposed for implementing tonal analysis. In this work we focus on automatic melodic analysis. One question that arises when building a melodic analysis system using a-priori music theory is whether it is possible to automatically extract analysis rules from examples, and how similar are those learnt rules compared to music theory rules. This work investigates this question, i.e. given a dataset of analyzed melodies our objective is to automatically learn analysis rules and to compare them with music theory rules.
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Multicomponent click synthesis of potentially biologically active triazoles catalysed by copper nanoparticles on activated carbon in water

  • Alonso Valdés, Francisco
  • Moglie, Yanina
  • Radivoy, Gabriel
  • Yus Astiz, Miguel
A variety of potentially biologically active 1,2,3-triazoles, derived from (–)-menthol, lactic acid, D-glucose, oestrone, cholesterol, and phenacetin, have been synthesised through the multicomponent alkyne-azide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition catalysed by copper nanoparticles on activated carbon in neat water., This work was generously supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN; CTQ2007-65218 and Consolider Ingenio 2010-CSD2007-00006), the Generalitat Valenciana (GV; PROMETEO/2009/039), and FEDER. Y. M. thanks the ISO of the University of Alicante for a postdoctoral grant.
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