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Equivalences of phraseological units in corpora

  • Recio Ariza, María Ángeles
Language teaching in the education of translators-to-be must necessarily be based on Comparative Linguistics since the contrastive study of language is conditio sine qua non to explain and deepen the aspects that unite different languages and those that tell them apart. Translation and Phraseology studies have shown the role and importance of equivalences as well as their intercultural value. The search for equivalence, in this sense (Corpas Pastor, 1997; Sevilla, 2004, 2005; Mogorrón, 2008, etc.), becomes indispensable. This work attempts to analyse the treatment of Phraseological Units and their translation in German language teaching for translation purposes, in particular those PUs that appear in various corpora, which can shed light not only on their equivalences but also on their treatment in said corpora. Additionally, we will attempt to establish an inventory of normal phraseological conventions through the evidence found in the selected corpora, conducting a qualitative study., La enseñanza de lenguas en la disciplina de Traducción e Interpretación debe basarse necesariamente en la Lingüística Comparada, ya que el estudio contrastivo de la lengua es conditio sine qua non para explicar y profundizar tanto en los aspectos que unen a las diferentes lenguas como en los que las diferencian. Los estudios de traducción y de fraseología han demostrado la importancia de las equivalencias, así como su valor intercultural. En este sentido, la búsqueda de equivalencia (Corpas Pastor 1997; Sevilla 2004, 2005; Mogorrón 2008, etc.) se hace indispensable. Este trabajo pretende analizar el tratamiento de las unidades fraseológicas y su traducción en la enseñanza de la lengua alemana para su traducción, en particular, aquellas UF que aparecen en diversos corpus que pueden arrojar luz sobre las equivalencias y su tratamiento en estos. Además, intentaremos establecer un inventario de las convenciones fraseológicas normales, mediante la evidencia en los corpus seleccionados, realizando un estudio de carácter más cualitativo que cuantitativo.
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Google Translate vs. DeepL: analysing neural machine translation performance under the challenge of phraseological variation

  • Hidalgo-Ternero, Carlos Manuel
The present research analyses the performance of two free open-source neural machine translation (NMT) systems —Google Translate and DeepL— in the (ES>EN) translation of somatisms such as tomar el pelo and meter la pata, their nominal variants (tomadura/tomada de pelo and metedura/metida de pata), and other lower-frequency variants such as meter la pata hasta el corvejón, meter la gamba and metedura/metida de gamba. The machine translation outcomes will be contrasted and classified depending on whether these idioms are presented in their continuous or discontinuous form (Anastasiou 2010), i.e., whether different n-grams split the idiomatic sequence (or not), which may pose some difficulties for their automatic detection and translation. Overall, the insights gained from this study will prove useful in determining for which of the different scenarios either Google Translate or DeepL delivers a better performance under the challenge of phraseological variation and discontinuity., La presente investigación tiene por objetivo analizar el rendimiento de dos sistemas de traducción automática neuronal (TAN) —Google Translate y DeepL— en la traducción (ES>EN) de somatismos tales como tomar el pelo y meter la pata, sus variantes nominales (tomadura/tomada de pelo y metedura/metida de pata) y otras variantes con menor frecuencia de aparición tales como meter la pata hasta el corvejón, meter la gamba y metedura/metida de gamba. Los resultados de ambos sistemas se contrastarán y clasificarán según los diferentes somatismos se presenten en su forma continua o discontinua (Anastasiou 2010), es decir, dependiendo de si distintos n-gramas dividen la secuencia idiomática (o no), lo que puede presentar serias dificultades para su detección y traducción automáticas. En general, los resultados obtenidos permitirán dilucidar en cuál de los diferentes escenarios Google Translate o DeepL ofrece un mejor rendimiento ante el desafío de la variación y discontinuidad fraseológica., This research has been funded by a FPU (Formación de Profesorado Universitario) contract, ref. FPU16/02032, awarded to Carlos Manuel Hidalgo Ternero by the Ministerio de Educación, Ciencia y Deporte (Spanish Ministry of Education, Science and Sport). Furthermore, this publication has been carried out within the framework of the thematic network TRAJUTEC and the teaching network “TACTRAD: aplicación de nuevas herramientas TAC para la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la traducción especializada” (ref. 719/2018) coordinated by the University of Malaga, as well as the research projects Interpreta 2.0 (PIE 17-015, type B), VIP (FFI2016-75831-P) and TERMITUR (HUM2754).
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Standardisation in translated language: A study of collocations in Peninsular and Colombian Spanish translations of The Picture of Dorian Gray

  • Valencia Giraldo, María Victoria
The law of growing standardisation (Toury 1995) appears to be particularly at play in diatopy, and more specifically in the case of transnational languages. Some studies have revealed the tendency to standardise the diatopic varieties of Spanish in translated language (Corpas Pastor 2015a, 2015b, 2017, 2018). However, to our knowledge, no work has studied this tendency in the Spanish translations of a literary work. This paper focuses on verb + noun (object) collocations of Spanish translations of The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde. Two different varieties have been chosen (Peninsular and Colombian Spanish). The techniques used to translate this type of collocations in both Spanish translations will be analysed. Further, the diatopic distribution of these collocations will be studied by means of large corpora. Based on the results, it is argued that the Colombian Spanish translation is actually closer to general or standard Spanish than to the variety of this country., La ley de estandarización de Toury (1995) juega un papel importante en la diatopía y, particularmente, en el caso de las lenguas transnacionales. Se ha evidenciado una tendencia a estandarizar las variedades diatópicas del español en la lengua traducida (Corpas Pastor 2015a, 2015b, 2017, 2018). Sin embargo, hasta donde conocemos, no se han realizado estudios sobre esta tendencia en traducciones al español de obras literarias. Este artículo se centra en la traducción al español de las colocaciones verbo-nominales con función de objeto directo de El retrato de Dorian Gray de Oscar Wilde, en una traducción al español peninsular y en otra al español de Colombia. Se analizan las técnicas utilizadas para traducir este tipo de colocaciones y se estudia la distribución diatópica de estas mediante corpus. Con base en los resultados, se plantea que la traducción al español de Colombia se acerca más al español general que a la variedad de este país., The author of this paper is supported by Banco Santander–Universidad de Salamanca International PhD Scholarship.
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Term and translation variation of multiword terms, La variación terminológica en las traducciones de los términos compuestos

  • León Araúz, Pilar
  • Cabezas García, Melania
Phraseology is central to specialized language. In scientific and technical communication, multiword terms (MWTs) (e.g. volatile organic compound) are the most frequent type of phraseological units. Rendering them into another language is not an easy task due to their cognitive complexity, the proliferation of different forms, and their unsystematic representation in terminographic resources. This often results in a broad spectrum of translations for MWTs, leading to higher term variation as a result of their composition by two or more constituents. In this study we carried out a quantitative and qualitative analysis of English term variants of MWTs from the environmental domain and their translations into Spanish. The focus was on translation variation and its occurrence in different linguistic resources., La fraseología es una parte fundamental del lenguaje especializado. En la comunicación científico-técnica, los términos compuestos (p. ej. compuesto orgánico volátil) son las unidades fraseológicas más habituales. Trasladarlos a otra lengua presenta dificultades debido a su complejidad cognitiva, la proliferación de diferentes formas y su representación inconsistente en los recursos terminográficos. Ello suele derivar en un amplio abanico de traducciones para estos términos compuestos, que de por sí son proclives a la variación terminológica debido a su formación por dos o más elementos. En este trabajo realizamos un análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de las variantes terminológicas de términos compuestos en inglés pertenecientes al ámbito medioambiental y de sus traducciones al español. En concreto, dedicamos especial atención a la variación en la traducción y su cobertura en diferentes recursos lingüísticos.
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“From head to toe”: A lexical, semantic, and morphosyntactic study of idioms in phraseological dictionaries in English and Spanish

  • Rojas Díaz, José Luis
In recent times, interest in the study of phraseology in general and specialized lexicographic resources has increased (Castillo Carballo 2006, Aguado de Cea 2007, Mellado 2008, Buendía Castro & Faber 2015). However, to date, a lack of knowledge related to the characterization and indexation of phraseological units (PUs) in lexicographic resources remains. That issue is addressed here through an analysis of phraseological units in the entries of two phraseological dictionaries, one in Spanish, and one in English: the Diccionario fraseológico documentado del español actual (Seco, Andrés & Ramos 2004) and the Collins COBUILD Dictionary of Idioms (Sinclair & Moon 1997). To perform this analysis, two databases containing 21,045 entries extracted from the two dictionaries mentioned above were compiled. The databases were tagged syntactically and semantically in order to extract 816 morphosyntactic patterns, 2,655 combinations of semantic categories (Semantic patterns) and a series of lexical and lexicographic information about indexation of PUs in dictionaries., En los últimos años ha aumentado el interés en el estudio de la fraseología en lengua general y de especialidad en recursos lexicográficos (Castillo Carballo 2006, Aguado de Cea 2007, Mellado 2008, Buendía Castro & Faber 2015). Sin embargo y a la fecha, aún existen algunos vacíos en cuanto a la caracterización e indización de unidades fraseológicas (UFs) en recursos lexicográficos. Esta problemática se aborda en el presente artículo por medio del análisis de unidades fraseológicas en las entradas de dos diccionarios (uno en español y otro en inglés): el Diccionario fraseológico documentado del español actual (Seco, Andrés & Ramos 2004) y el Collins COBUILD Dictionary of Idioms (Sinclair & Moon 1997). Para llevar a cabo este análisis, se compilaron dos bases de datos con 21 045 entradas extraídas de los diccionarios antes mencionados. Las bases de datos fueron etiquetadas sintáctica y semánticamente para extraer 816 patrones morfosintácticos, 2 655 combinaciones semánticas (patrones semánticos) y una serie de datos léxicos y lexicográficos sobre la indización de UFs en diccionarios.
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DNA barcoding supports an easier identification of alien plants: the case of the genus Physalis (Solanaceae) in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain)

  • Terrones Contreras, Alejandro
  • Moreno, Joaquín
  • Juan, Ana
In the present study, two species of the genus Physalis, P. acutifolia and P. angulata, are reported for the first time as casual aliens for Spain and, even for Europe, in the case of P. acutifolia. Their identification was based on a priori DNA barcoding study to reveal their taxonomic identification, which was followed by a posteriori morphological analysis to support the barcoding identification. As many authors have reported, the reduced and even inexistent information from local or regional Floras makes it difficult to distinguish those unreported taxa from distant geographical areas. Therefore, the successfully obtained results would highlight the importance of using an integrative taxonomic approach for further unidentified alien plant species. Detailed descriptions of both species and a dichotomous key of the alien taxa of Physalis are provided to facilitate their morphological identification.
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Interlimb asymmetry in collegiate American football players: Effects on combine-related performance

  • Philipp, Nicolas M.
  • Garver, Matthew J.
  • Crawford, Derek A.
  • Davis, Dustin W.
  • Hair, Josie N.
The assessment of interlimb asymmetry has been of interest to researchers and practitioners who desire to maximize sport performance. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between interlimb asymmetry and Combine-related performance testing in collegiate American football players. Twenty-four skill position players (e.g., running backs, defensive backs, and wide receivers) from a Division II university completed all study-related procedures including unilateral countermovement (CMJ) and drop jumps on a force plate, 3-repetition maximum Bulgarian split squats with bar movement tracked by a 3D motion capture system, and their annual spring performance tests (L-drill, pro-agility, 40-yard dash, broad jump, and vertical jump). Using an alpha-level of .05, significant, positive Spearman’s correlations between performance in the L-drill test (Change of Direction test; CoD) and asymmetries in mean peak velocity (rs = .491, p = .015), mean peak power (rs = .467, p = .021), and mean average power (rs = .455, p = .026) were observed. A significant, negative Pearson correlation between unilateral CMJ height asymmetry and vertical jump performance was observed (r = .578, p = .003). Asymmetry in mean peak velocity, mean peak power, and mean average power may negatively influence CoD ability within collegiate American football players.
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Temporal variation of bird biodiversity and compositional complexity in a representative semi-Agricultural Natura 2000 area of conservation in Northern Greece

  • Soulopoulou, Polyxeni
  • Marco Molina, Juan Antonio
  • Padilla, Ascension
  • Damos, Petros
In this work we study the alteration in compositional diversity of bird abundances at the species level from 2012 to 2017 in one of the most important wetland Natura sites in Northern Greece and by using different biodiversity indices. Shannon Entropy was lower during 2012 (DH = 1.509) albeit remained in similar levels from 2013 and afterwards. The highest values of Shannon Entropy were recorded in 2014 (DH = 2.927) and 2016 (DH = 2.888) suggesting that there is a higher diversity compared to the other observation years and especially 2012. The yearly trends of the Simpson dominance index and the Gini-Simpson Index had quite similar patterns. The Berger-Parker index, DD, which represents the maximum proportion of any species estimated in the sample assemblage, had its highest values in 2012 (DD = 0.58) and 2017 (DD = 0.39) and its lowest in 2014 (DD = 0.13) and 2016 (DD = 0.15). A complete characterization of diversity was possible through the projection of Hill numbers and the Rényi entropy, parameterized by the order q in terms of an empirical curve. According to the Hills numbers pooled over the years, the mean species abundance (q = 0) was estimated at 31 species, the mean biodiversity (q = 1) was 13 species and the most dominant species (q = 2) were 8 species. The quantification of bird biodiversity in the particular research area patterns is a fundamental task to evaluate current management actions, improve conservation and design future management strategies.
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Organizational ambidexterity in subsidiaries of knowledge-intensive sectors, Ambidestreza organizativa en filiales de sectores intensivos en conocimiento, Ambidestria organizacional em subsidiárias de setores intensivos em conhecimento

  • Zaragoza Sáez, Patrocinio del Carmen
  • Claver-Cortés, Enrique
  • Marco-Lajara, Bartolomé
  • Úbeda García, Mercedes
In the knowledge society, multinationals and, more specifically, their subsidiaries acquire great importance as a source of competitiveness for the multinational as a whole. From this perspective, this article has a double objective: (1) to define ambidextrous subsidiary, and (2) to explore if subsidiaries are ambidextrous. A quantitative methodology is used on a sample of 102 Spanish subsidiaries of foreign multinationals from knowledge-intensive sectors. Findings show that the subsidiaries analyzed are highly explorers of knowledge. However, despite the coherence between the roles played and their international competitive strategies, not all subsidiaries turned out to be ambidextrous. Only those with an integrated player role and transnational strategies can be considered as such., En la sociedad del conocimiento, las multinacionales y, más específicamente, sus filiales adquieren gran protagonismo como fuente de competitividad para el conjunto de la multinacional. Bajo esta perspectiva, este artículo tiene un doble objetivo: (1) ofrecer una definición de filial ambidiestra y (2) explorar si las filiales son ambidiestras. Para ello se emplea una metodología cuantitativa sobre una muestra de 102 filiales españolas de multinacionales extranjeras de sectores intensivos en conocimiento. Los resultados muestran que las filiales analizadas son altamente exploradoras de conocimiento. Sin embargo, a pesar de la coherencia que existe entre los roles desempeñados y sus estrategias competitivas internacionales, no todas las filiales resultaron ser ambidiestras. Solo aquellas con roles de jugador integrado y estrategias “transnacionales” pueden considerarse como tales., Na sociedade do conhecimento, as multinacionais e, mais especificamente, suas subsidiárias adquirem grande destaque como fonte de competitividade para a multinacional como um todo. Nessa perspectiva, este artigo tem um duplo objetivo: oferecer uma definição de subsidiária ambidestra; e explorar se as subsidiarias são ambidestras. Para tanto, foi utilizada uma metodologia quantitativa em uma amostra de 102 subsidiárias espanholas de multinacionais estrangeiras de setores intensivos em conhecimento. Os resultados mostram que as subsidiárias analisadas são altamente exploradoras de conhecimento. No entanto, apesar da consistência que existe entre os papéis desempenhados e suas estratégias competitivas internacionais, nem todas as subsidiárias se revelaram ambidestras. Apenas aquelas com papéis de jogador integrado e estratégias "transnacionais" podem considerar-se como tais.
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Transcultures and Communities: Exercises on validation and design of tales of migration

  • Carrasco Hortal, José
  • García-Valero, Benito Elías
  • López Baeza, Jesús
The following work presents a transdisciplinary approach in which literary theory, architecture, sociology, and geopolitics share methodologies to process the topic of migration in the mid-twentieth century. The focus is on how abilities, commodities and cultures determine the way communities settle in alien contexts by interacting and integrating with and within new spatial and social environments. Activities including tagging pictures, debating on transculturality and the elaboration of storyboards are applied to give context to the design of spatial interventions for a building at the University of Alicante (Spain) campus. Students choose transcultural phenomena, as presentes by the characters of stories collected by the Canadian Centre of Architecture, to rethink normative contexts by observing common boundaries at the intersection between Humaities, Social Sciences and Architecture.
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