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Latin American Street Gangs in Catalonia and Their Delinquency

  • Kazyrytski, Leanid
The increased influx of immigrants from the countries of Latin America to the autonomous Spanish community of Catalonia had a considerable impact on its young people. This phenomenon filled city streets with groups of young migrants characterized by specific outfits and manners. Some groups of young migrants adopted the names of notorious criminal gangs from Central and North America and developed collective schemes of deviant behavior. The Catalonian police, together with mass media, view these groups as youth street gangs because they use certain symbols, have an organizational structure and are directly involved in criminal behavior in public places. According to the Catalonian police reports, the activities of Latin American street gangs is a greater danger to public safety than the activities of other deviant street groups. The detention level of Latin American gang members, as well as their delinquent activities, are rather high. The immigrant component of street gangs is emphasized and they begin to be viewed as a type of organized crime. The author analyzes the position of Latin American gangs in Catalonia, the condition of their delinquency and criticizes the simplified approach to researching them. He stresses changes in the ethnic component of Latin American gangs and highlights the selective approach in the work of the law enforcement, which may distort the understanding of the actual picture of delinquency. The article points out that the goals and specific characteristics of delinquency of Latin American gangs in Catalonia do not allow them to be viewed as organized crime

Leksicheskoe opisanie emocionalno ocenochnykh edinic russkogo jazyka (Descripcion lexica de las unidades valorativas emocionales de la lengua rusa)

  • Zaynuldinov, Andrei
In the present article is investigated the expressive system of lexicographical markers in lexicons and phraseological dictionaries of Russian, is analyzed the pragmatic aspect of evaluation based on presentation of lexical and phraseological units with positive and negative emotional evaluation. This kind of study helps to solve various problems of lexicographical description and create a better system of expressive markers. A new type of classification, resuming the Russian lexicographical tradition, is presented

Mnogoobrazie i edinstvo v federativnykh gosudarstvakh mira

  • Moreno, Luis
Diversity is one of the most contested issues in domestic and international politics. Debates about ethnic, national, linguistic, religious, and economic diversity and its accommodation in viable and legitimate polities feature prominently in discussions among academics and practitioners of comparative politics, conflict-resolution studies, political sociology, and political theory. There are several types of “old” and “new diversities and their potential to create conflict have been frequently addressed through federal arrangements. First, there is diversity pertaining to cultural, ideological, racial, religious, and linguistic predispositions. When these are concentrated territorially, they may be more difficult to manage institutionally, and they are the ones for which federal arrangements are deemed the most appropriate. Second, the existence of politically mobilized territorial or national self-defined identities in multi-ethnic or multinational societies represents a paramount challenge for the governance and accommodation of differences. Third, there is diversity concerning socio-economic resources and the interests of groups concentrated territorially. Socio-economic differences revolve around the allocation of socially valued goods and the redistribution of resources among territories, and are sometimes a common rationale of federal arrangements. This paper explores how institutions and ideas have helped accommodate ethno-linguistic or religious diversities, empower ethnic or linguistic minorities, manage conflicts, and establish a legitimate, stable, and cohesive order in twelve federal countries: Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Ethiopia, Germany, India, Nigeria, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States of America., Peer reviewed

Istražuvanje na lokalitetot Vrbjanska Čuka vo 2017 godina, Research of the Vrbjanska Čuka site in 2017

  • Naumov, Goce
  • Mitkoski, Aleksandar
  • Talevski, Hristijan
  • Murgoski, Aleksandar
  • Dumurđanov, Nikola
  • Beneš, Jaromír
  • Živaljević, Ivana
  • Pendić, Jugoslav
  • Stojanovski, Darko
  • Gibaja, Juan Francisco
  • Mazzucco, Niccolò
  • Hafner, Albert
  • Szidat, Sönke
  • Dimitrijević, Vesna
  • Stefanović, Sofija
  • Kristýna Budilová
  • Vychronova, Michaela
  • Majerovičová, Tereza
  • Bumerl, Jiří
[EN] The research of Vrbjanska Čuka in 2017 continued those started the previous season, but resulted in much more significant data regarding stratigraphy, architecture and economy in the Neolithic, Late Classical period and Middle Age. They were enabled by the multidisciplinary approach by implementing archaeobotany, zooarchaeology, geomagnetic scanning, digital topography, geoarchaeology, photogrammetry and 3D modeling of artifacts and the environment, drone orthophotography, isotopic, radiocarbon, lipid and use-wear analyses. All these components of the research of Vrbjanska Čuka enabled a comprehensive understanding of the Neolithic settlement and the community that lived there, that was the primary aim of this project. In regard to the stratigraphy of site, it has 5 horizons, the Neolithic ones being determined by architectural features and not by material culture. In this context, a further revision of Neolithic horizons is possible, upon extending the archaeological trench and making a detailed insight into the material culture and the architectural features that would arise. Even though ceramic vessels as the most frequent finds do not bear significant differences between Neolithic horizons in Vrbjanska Čuka, still it could be considered that, examined further, they could contribute towards an even more thorough understanding of changes of this settlement, but also within society. In this regard, radiocarbon analyses provide even a more detailed insight into the chronology of the settlement. According to the data obtained by these analyses at the University of Bern, the earliest Neolithic layers could be dated around 5900 BC. So far, this date places the site in the final phases of Early Neolithic, completely corresponding the dating of few other sites in Pelagonia. Analyzing samples from other Neolithic horizons would determine the chronology of the remaining Neolithic phases of the settlement, which, according to the architectural features, composes of three horizons. Such a stratigraphic condition could potentially be changed, unless there is a significant divergence within material culture and dating of the remaining two horizons. However, according to the current acknowledgment, despite not having an especially high stratigraphy (about 1 meter of the total tell height), this Neolithic settlement was especially dynamic during the 6th millennia BC. The tell was actively used for several hundreds of years during the Early Neolithic, only to be deserted in the next 5 000 years until Late Classical period. According to the material culture found in Horizons IV and V, activities at this site might have continued around the 4th and 5th centuries AD, with recorded activities around the 7th and 8th centuries, and then between the 10th and the 14th centuries., [RU] Истражувањата во 2017 година на локалитетот Врбјанска Чука кај Славеј, се надоврзаа на оние од претходната археолошка кампања, иако се добија многу позначајни податоци за стратиграфијата, архитектурата и стопанскиот живот во неолитот, доцната антика и средниот век. Тоа го овозможи мултидисциплинарниот пристап во истражувањата, коишто освен со елементарните методи и студии на наодите, се проучува и преку археоботаниката, археозоологијата, геомагнетното скенирање, дигиталната топографија, геоархеологијата, фотограметријата и 3Д моделирањето на артефактите и теренот, дронската ортофотографија, изотопските, радиокарбон и use-wear анализите, како и оние на липидите. Сите овие компоненти на истражувањето на Врбјанска Чука овозможуваат мошне доследно разбирање на неолитската населба и заедницата што живеела во неа, што воедно претставува и примарната цел на овој проект. Според добиените податоци од анализите, може да се заклучи дека неолитската населба е формирана околу 5900 година пр.н.е., односно при крајот на раниот неолит и имала 5 развојни фази. Според откриената материјална култура од подоцнежните хоризонти, може да се смета дека активностите на овој локалитет продолжиле околу III и IV век н.е., со регистрирани активности околу VII и VIII век, а потоа и во периодот меѓу X и XIV век., Peer reviewed

Asturian picks from the mesolithic shell midden of Mazaculos II (Northern Spain): a functional interpretation, АСТУРИЙСКИЕ ПИКИ ИЗ МЕЗОЛИТИЧЕСКОЙ РАКОВИННОЙ КУЧИ В МАСАКУЛОС II (СЕВЕРНАЯ ИСПАНИЯ): ФУНКЦИОНАЛЬНАЯ ИНТЕРПРЕТАЦИЯ

  • Cuenca-Solana, D.
  • Gutiérrez Zugasti, Igor
  • Clemente-Conte, Ignacio
  • González-Morales, M. R.
[EN] The Asturian Mesolithic (Northern Iberia) has traditionally been characterized by the accumulation of huge shell heaps in caves and grottoes, as well as the finds of typical stone tools commonly called Asturian peaks. These products, made of quartzite, have specific and unique characteristics, and from the very beginning of the Mesolithic research in this area, they have been considered an indicator of this chrono-cultural horizon. Over the past century, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain their purpose. In this work, we tested the hypotheses about the use of the Asturian peak using the experimental-trasological method on the experimental and archaeological tools found at the site of Masakoulos II (La Franca, Asturias, Northern Spain). The results obtained in the experimental analytical program showed that Asturian peaks were mainly used to collect shellfish, a key resource for this population in the Mesolithic. The results also showed the existence of a clear strategy in the selection of raw materials, features of the production process, reuse of broken tools in other activities and some other aspects related to the social organization of these mesolithic groups., [RU] Астурийский мезолит (Северная Иберия) традиционно характеризуется накоплением огромных раковинных куч в пещерах и гротах, а также находками типичных каменных орудий, обычно называемых астурийскими пиками. Эти изделия, изготовленные из кварцита, обладают специфическими и уникальными характеристиками, и с самого начала исследований мезолита в этом районе они считаются показателем этого хронокультур- ного горизонта. За последнее столетие было предложено несколько гипотез для объяснения их назначения. В этой работе мы проверили гипотезы об использовании астурийских пик с помощью экспериментально-трасологического метода на экспериментальных и археологических орудиях, найденных на стоянке Масакулос II (Ла-Франка, Астурия, Северная Испания). Результаты, полученные в экспериментальной аналитической программе, показали, что астурийские пики в основном использовались для сбора моллюсков, ключевого ресурса для этого населения в мезолите. Результаты также показали существование четкой стратегии в выборе сырья, особенностей производственного процесса, повторного использования сломанных орудий в других видах деятельности и некоторых других аспектов, связанных с социальной организацией этих мезолитических групп., Peer reviewed

Direct and indirect evidence of fishing at Zamostje 2: investigations 2009–2015, ПРЯМЫЕ И КОСВЕННЫЕ СВИДЕТЕЛЬСТВА РЫБОЛОВСТВА НА СТОЯНКЕ ЗАМОСТЬЕ 2: ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ 2009–2015 ГГ.

  • Lozovskaya, Olga
  • Lozovski, Vladimir M.
  • Clemente-Conte, Ignacio
  • Gassiot Ballbè, Ermengol
  • Mazurkevich, Andrey
  • Dolbunova, E.V.
  • Maigrot, Y.
  • Gyria, Evgeni Y.
  • Kulkova, M.A.
  • Ershova, E.G.
  • Zaitseva, G.I.
In 2009–2015, a team of European and Russian scientists conducted complex researches and excavations of the site Zamostje 2 related to the reconstruction of the ishing activity of the Late Mesolithic — Early Neolithic population in the Upper Volga Lowland. he studies included analysis of inventory related to ishing, wooden ishing structures, faunal remains, settlement structure and paleolandscape., Peer reviewed

Insights into ish resource exploitation from the use-wear analysis of lithic tools: case-studies from the Iberian Peninsula between the sixth-third millennia cal BC, ОЦЕНКА ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ РЫБНЫХ РЕСУРСОВ НА ОСНОВЕ АНАЛИЗА СЛЕДОВ ИЗНОСА НА КАМЕННЫХ ОРУДИЯХ: ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ ПИРЕНЕЙСКОГО ПОЛУОСТРОВА В ПЕРИОД МЕЖДУ ШЕСТЫМ И ТРЕТЬИМ ТЫСЯЧЕЛЕТИЕМ ДО Н. Э.

  • Mazzucco, Niccolò
  • Clemente-Conte, Ignacio
  • García Díaz, Virginia
  • Soares, Joaquina
  • Tavares da Silva, C.
  • Ramos Muñoz, José
  • Vijande Vila, Eduardo
[EN] In this paper, we analyze data on the use of fish resources in the Mesolithic - Neolithic period on the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Data from three different sites are presented: Vale Marim I (end VII - beginning of VI thousand cal BC) and Vale Pinsell I (VI thousand cal BC), both located on the southwestern coast of Portugal, and La Esparragosa (IV – III cal BC ), located on the southern coast of Spain. The study of stone complexes using a trasological analysis provides evidence of fish processing and scale removal activities. Moreover, we found some microlithic tools that may have been used as elements of the fortress. The analysis of the tools was based on the experimental base of both the wear and tear marks associated with fish and the taphonomic nature., [RU] Вэтой работе мы анализируем данные об использовании рыбных ресурсов в период мезолита — неолита на атлантическом побережье Пиренейского полуострова. Представлены данные трех разных стоянок: Вале Марим I (конец VII — начало VI тыс. cal BC) и Вале Пинсель I (VI тыс. cal BC), обе расположены на юго-западном побережье Португалии, и Ля Еспаррагоса (IV–III cal BC), расположенная на южном побережье Испании. Изучение каменных комплексов с помощью трасологического анализа дает свидетельства деятельности по переработке рыбы и снятию чешуи. Более того, мы обнаружили некоторые микролитические орудия, которые, возможно, использовались в качестве элементов острог. Анализ инструментов основывался на экспериментальной базе как следов износа, связанных с рыбой, так и тафономического характера., Peer reviewed

Cereal Use-wear Traces and Harvesting Methods, Следы износа от злаков и методы жатвы

  • Clemente-Conte, Ignacio
  • Ibáñez-Estévez, Juan José
  • Gibaja, Juan Francisco
  • Mazzucco, Niccolò
  • Terradas-Batlle, Xavier
  • Mozota Holgueras, Millán
  • Borrell i Tena, Ferran
[EN] In this paper, we present the various methods used for harvesting during the Neolithic period. In order to put forward a hypothesis about the origin of agricultural practices, it is important to assess the degree of domestication of cereals, analyzing the state of their maturity. Based on the analysis of the distribution and texture characteristics of the polish from the cereals, we can understand how the plants were collected. This may be due to different strategies for the use of agricultural crops., [RU] Вэтой работе мы представляем различные методы, использовавшиеся для сбора урожая в период неолита. Чтобы выдвинуть гипотезу о происхождении земледельческих практик, важно оценить степень одомашнивания злаковых, анализируя состояние их зрелости. На основе анализа распределения и текстурной характеристики заполировки от злаков, мы можем понять, как растения были собраны. Это может быть связано с различными стратегиями использования земледельческих культур., Peer reviewed

Los artistas republicanos y el exilio en la URSS, ИСПАНСКИЕ ХУДОЖНИКИ-РЕСПУБЛИКАНЦЫ И ЭМИГРАЦИЯ В СССР

  • Cabañas Bravo, Miguel
Miguel Cabañas Bravo: “Los artistas republicanos y el exilio en la URSS”. En: Olga Volosyuk (dir.): España y Rusia: diplomacia y diálogo de culturas. Tres siglos de relaciones. Moscú: Indrik, 2018, pp. 322-327 (ruso) y 755-760 (castellano). (ISBN: 978-5-91674-528-3), Centrado en los artistas españoles del exilio de 1939 arribados a la URSS, el trabajo introduce en el previo acercamiento al país soviético, la difícil adaptación, los centros culturales creados y la preservación de la identidad española y algunas trayectorias individuales, como las de los artistas plásticos Alberto Sánchez, Julián Castedo y José Sancha o los arquitectos Luis Lacasa y Manuel Sánchez Arcas., Peer reviewed

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