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Iberska Kuća

  • Belarte Franco, Maria Carme
Project:


Promoting Intermolecular C-N Bond Formation under the Auspices of Iodine(III)

  • Muñiz, Kilian
The quest for the development of new protocols that provide general conditions for oxidative carbon–nitrogen bond formation has grown over recent years. Within this context, due to feasibility and benignity considerations in biochemical sciences, reactions that rely on main group oxidants as the only promoters have received particular interest. We have recently found that simple protonolysis events enable the incorporation of nitrogenated groups of the bissulfonimide family into the coordination sphere of common iodine(III) complexes such as diacetoxy iodobenzene. The products of the type ArI(OAc)(NTs2) represent rare examples of iodine(III) compounds displaying reactive iodine–nitrogen single bonds. Further protonolysis furnishes the corresponding iodine(III) compounds ArI(NTs2)2 containing two defined iodine–nitrogen single bonds for unprecedented dual transfer of both nitrogenated groups. It is of great synthetic importance that these new compounds contain iodine–nitrogen entities, which upon dissociation in solution lead to electrophilic iodine centers and nucleophilic nitrogen groups. This has enabled the development of a body of conceptually new amination reactions, which do not rely on conventional electrophilic nitrogen reagents but rather employ iodine(III) as an electrophilic activator and bissulfonimides as the source of subsequent nucleophilic amination. Additional diversification arises from the ambident nature of bissulfonimines enabling oxygenation pathways. The exciting chemistry covered in this Account comprises structural features of the reagents (including X-ray analysis), scope and limitation in synthetic amination of different hydrocarbons (including sp-, sp2-, and sp3-hybridized centers as in acetylenes, alkenes, enols, butadienes, allenes, arenes, and alkylketones), and physical-organic and theoretical analysis of the underlying reaction mechanisms. The oxidative transformations with all their rich diversifications originate from the versatile redox chemistry of the iodine(III) and iodine(I) pair, which shares several aspects of transition metal high oxidation state chemistry. For the present aryliodine(III) reagents, steric and electronic fine-tuning is possible through accurate engineering of the arene substituent. In addition to the general reactivity of the I–N bond, chiral aryliodine(III) reagents with defined stereochemical information in the aryl backbone are conceptually compatible with this approach. Thus, the development of enantioselective amination reactions with up to 99% ee was also successful. Several of the active enantioselective reagents have been isolated and structurally characterized. Following this approach for the important class of chiral vicinal diamines, an unprecedented direct diamination of alkenes could be conducted in an enantioselective catalytic manner under full intermolecular reaction control. This latter reaction is based on the precise engineering of a chiral aryliodine(III) catalyst in combination with bismesylimide as nitrogen source. It is the consequence of the precise understanding of the reaction behavior of structurally defined bisimidoiodine(III) reagents.
Project:


Analysis of the gap between new hotel technologies and guests' ability to use them

  • Garcia Vilchez, Yaiza
The purpose of this study was to analyze the gap between the new technologies that the hotels offer to their guest and their ability or knowledge to use these technologies. With this study the hoteliers will be able to identify when exist a digital divide risk with their guests. Since, nowadays do not always match the technologic services offered by the hotels and the guest technological needs and abilities. This gap will be detect by the analysis of the hotel and of the guest based on the three main variables that affect the digital divide. To develop this study, firstly, a deductive theoretical part of the research question has been done, by analyzing the background of the digital divide, detecting and analyzing his main variables and an analyzing the technological services offered in the lodging industry. Secondly, to develop the fieldwork, a quantitative technique was used by collecting secondary data and using the sampling technique. Once analyzed the data collected it was possible to conclude that an hotelier can detect the gap between the guest technological domain and the technology offered by the hotel. In addition to that, it was possible to find out that the digital divide has three main variables, which are the geographic, generation and economic variable and also was possible to classify the hotels and guests based on these variables. Besides, it has been found out that the digital divide it is bigger when a guest is traveling and staying in a hotel of his or her same country than when is traveling to another country of their culture or continent. In addition, after the analysis of the results it can be also concluded that the economic variable it is very influential in the digital divide. Afterwards, some recommendations and further work were pointed out in order to continue improving on the detection of the digital divide on the lodging industry.
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Skulpture iz Augusteuma Narone (Neizlozene i Beobjavljene 2004)

  • Marin, Emilio
  • Claridge, Amanda
  • Kolega, Marija
  • Rodà, Isabel, 1948-
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The History of the European Union (Chinese version)

  • Morata, Francesc
Descriu i analitza el procés d'integració europea des dels seus inicis, els anys cinquanta, fins als nostres dies. L'objectiu consisteix a oferir una visió de conjunt d'un procés que va començar modestament amb la integració dels mercats del carbó i de l'acer dels sis membres fundadors i que ha derivat en una Unió Europea de 27 estats membres i més de 500 milions d'habitants, amb polítiques comunes, una cooperació estreta en els àmbits més sensibles de la sobirania estatal i una moneda única en setze estats, Describe y analiza el proceso de integración europea desde sus inicios, en los años cincuenta, hasta nuestros días. El objetivo consiste en ofrecer una visión de conjunto de un proceso que comenzó modestamente con la integración de los mercados del carbón y del acero de los seis miembros fundadores y que ha derivado en una Unión Europea de 27 Estados miembros y más de 500 millones de habitantes, con políticas comunes, una cooperación estrecha en los ámbitos más sensibles de la soberanía estatal y una moneda única en dieciséis estados
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Al-fanādiq. Fanādiq at-tuǧǧār al-masīḥiyya fī d-dawla al- ḥafṣiyya, Al-fanādiq. Los fondacs de los comerciantes cristianos en la dinastía ḥafṣī, The fanādiq. Fanādiq of Christian traders in the ḥafṣī dynasty

  • Djebbar, Nasser
“Al-fanādiq. Los fondacs de los comerciantes cristianos en la dinastía ḥafṣī”. Este artículo trata de arrojar luz sobre la institución de los fondacs en el Magreb oriental gobernado por la dinastía ḥafṣī entre los siglos séptimo y décimo de la Hégira, abordando en primer lugar el origen y sentido técnico del término para pasar después al análisis de su contenido y sus características principales., “The fanādiq. Fanādiq of Christian traders in the ḥafṣī dynasty”. This paper seeks to throw light on the institution of fanādiq from seventh to tenth Islamic centuries, dealing firstly with the origins and technical meaning of the word, providing thereafter and scrutiny of its contents and main features.
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al-ˁarabiyya al-maġribiyya, allūġat al-umm āw al-lūġat al-aṣliyya. taˁlīmha f al-madrasa li taḥsīn taṭawwur al-ˁaqliyyāt u mahārāt al-haḏra, alqrāya w al-kitāba b el-ˁarabiyya el-fuṣḥa, Moroccan Arabic, mother tongue or native language. Teaching Moroccan Arabic at school to improve thinking, speaking, reading and writing skills in Standard Arabic, El árabe marroquí, lengua materna o lengua nativa. Su enseñanza en la escuela para mejorar el desarrollo cognitivo y las destrezas del habla, lectura y escritura en árabe estándar

  • Moscoso García, Francisco
Partimos de la presentación de tres modelos de codificación y normalización de lenguas: el castellano, el maltés (árabe maltés) y el griego. A continuación exponemos la situación lingüística de Marruecos en relación a la lengua árabe y reflexionamos sobre el valor dado al árabe marroquí desde las esferas de poder, incidiendo en la necesidad de que sea reconocido como lengua de enseñanza, siguiendo así las recomendaciones de estudios pedagógicos, con el fin de que las competencias en árabe literal (L2) sean más sólidas. Por último, destacamos el valor creativo del árabe marroquí, presentando algunas de las producciones literarias y los esfuerzos de profesores e intelectuales marroquíes por codificar y normalizar esta lengua., We begin with the presentation of three models of coding and standardization of languages: the Castilian, the Maltese (Maltese Arabic) and the Greek. Following it, we discuss the linguistic situation in Morocco with the emphasis on the Arabic language. The Moroccan Arabic has’nt any value in the eyes of the local authorities and for it, we stress that Moroccan Arabic needs to be recognized as the language of instruction, following the recommendations of Educational Studies, aiming to improve the knowledge of Standard Arabic. Finally, we emphasize the creative value of any language, presenting some of the literary works in Moroccan Arabic and the efforts of a group of Moroccan enthusiasts, including teachers and intellectuals to codify and standardize Moroccan Arabic.
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MARTIĀLIS Epigramma VII 61: Rōma nunc urbs, nūper magna taberna (vv.1-4; 9-10)

  • Ramos Maldonado, Sandra Inés
Epigramma de Marcial VII 61: "Rōma nunc urbs, nūper magna taberna" (vv.1-4; 9-10)
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