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Lack of mitochondrial toxicity of darunavir, raltegravir and rilpivirine in neurons and hepatocytes: a comparison with efavirenz.

Growing evidence associates the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz with several adverse events. Newer antiretrovirals, such as the integrase inhibitor raltegravir, the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor rilpivirine and the protease inhibitor darunavir, claim to have a better toxicological profile than efavirenz while producing similar levels of efficacy and virological suppression. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro toxicological profile of these three new antiretrovirals by evaluating their effects on the mitochondrial and cellular parameters altered by efavirenz in hepatocytes and neurons.


Variabilidad y coste de oportunidad de las alternativas quirúrgicas en cáncer de mama.

To analyze medical practice variation in breast cancer surgery (either inpatient-based or day-case surgery), by comparing conservative surgery (CS) plus radiotherapy vs. non-conservative surgery (NCS). We also analyzed the opportunity costs associated with CS and NCS.


Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT7765 promotes a TLR2-dependent anti-inflammatory response in intestinal lymphocytes from mice with cirrhosis.

Intestinal homeostasis plays an important role in bacteria-derived complications in cirrhosis. Intestinal lymphocytes are responsible for immune effector functions and can be modulated by certain probiotics. We evaluate the interaction between Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT7765 and intestinal lymphocytes in mice with cirrhosis.


Central nervous system (CNS) cancer in children and young people in the European Union and its involvements with socio-economic and environmental factors.

Malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the leading cause of death by cancer in children and the second commonest pediatric cancer type. Despite several decades of epidemiologic research, the etiology of childhood CNS tumors is still largely unknown. A few genetic syndromes and therapeutic ionizing radiation are thought to account for 5-10% of childhood cancer, but the etiology of other cases remains unknown. Nongenetic causes, like environmental agents, are thought to explain them. However, as very few epidemiologic studies have been conducted, it is not surprising that nongenetic risk factors have not been detected. The biggest difference between cancers for which there are good etiologic clues and those for which there are none could be the number of relevant studies. This study, which covers the 1980-2011 period, identified links between CNS cancer evolution and the socio-economic and environmental indicators in the same space and time limits in the European Union.


Generation of a disease-specific iPS cell line derived from a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2K lacking functional GDAP1 gene.

Human CMT2-FiPS4F1 cell line was generated from fibroblasts of a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease harbouring the following mutations in the GDAP1 gene in heterozygosis: p.Q163X/p.T288NfsX3. This patient did not present mutations in the PM22, MPZ or GJB genes. Human reprogramming factors OCT3/4, KLF4, SOX2 and C-MYC were delivered using a non-integrative methodology that involves the use of Sendai virus.


Caries Incidence in a Healthy Young Adult Population in Relation to Diet.

In the past, epidemiological studies focused on cavitated stages of caries. The arrival of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in 2004 allowed for clinical measurements of the initial stages of enamel caries. However, since the introduction, most studies applying the ICDAS still have studied the diseased population. The objective of this cross-sectional observational study was to describe early enamel caries in a large healthy young adult population and determine the relationship with diet and oral hygiene measures. The study population consisted of 268 healthy participants without frank cavitation. The examinations were done visually and radiographically using ICDAS on all tooth surfaces. In total, 8.6% of the surfaces (occlusal > approximal > smooth) had caries, of which 92.0% were confined to enamel (28.5% ICDAS score 1, 54.0% score 2, 8.6% score 3). Thirteen percent of the occlusal and 63% of the approximal caries were found with radiography. Thus, radiography is quintessential for the diagnosis of approximal enamel lesions. We found a positive correlation between enamel caries (ICDAS 1 to 3) and the consumption of mono- and disaccharides and carbohydrates ( r = 0.226 and r = 0.188, respectively, both P < 0.01), as well as a negative correlation with alcohol consumption ( r = -0.202, P < 0.01). There was also a positive correlation between enamel caries and the energy intake from mono- and disaccharides (sugar kJ, r = 0.206, P < 0.01), which was independent of body mass index. Only 11 participants consumed less than 10% of total energy as sugar kJ, which is the recommended percentage of kJ from free sugar by the World Health Organization. No clear correlation was found with oral hygiene. In conclusion, in this healthy young adult population, caries was found in 97.8% of the subjects, mostly initial enamel caries (ICDAS 1 to 2) in the occlusal surface of molars, and was related with dietary factors.


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