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V. Eusa’s Intervention in the 2nd Expansion of Pamplona: The artistic transformation of a technical model

  • Caballero, Andrés
[EN] It is inevitable to be disappointed when we consciously compare today’s city with yesterday’s. Territorial occupancy was an arduous task which confronted man and nature. It was a collective act, the cultural manifestation of a society that aspired to artistically represent itself in the cities it built, both in buildings and public spaces. The city of the past, so conceived, successfully raised through time, and even today we can appreciate, in the human affection it brings about, the plastic value of its buildings and the ambient quality of its public spaces. Currently the contemporary city is just incapable of meeting a profound spiritual demand if it does not pursues a practical goal. In the Ensanche, one of its most renowned examples, the idea of the city imposes a restriction to the artistic or monumental value of the historic city in favour of a technical efficiency that facilitates the economic and administrative management of the new city. The unidentified reticular mesh so characteristic of the urban morphology of the Ensanche evinces the distortion of the hippodamian model which in past ages and also throughout time probed its validity to provide magnificent examples of cities thought and built also from artistic principles. In the late example of the 2nd Ensanche of Pamplona, we attend to the solitary labour of an architect such as Victor Eusa Razquin, who knew how to transform with his buildings the “technical” uniformity of the Ensanche by transforming, qualifying and enriching it with the incrustation of architectural episodes of elevated artistic value.

A configurational perspective on the transformation of smalland medium-sized historical towns in Zhejiang, China

  • Zhang, Ye
  • Xie, Xiangya
  • Zhang, Jie
[EN] Historical cities in China have experienced tremendous changes in the past century and in particular over the past 30 years. While an increasing number of researches on the transformation of major cities have been witnessed in recent years, endeavours to studying the more ordinary and small- and medium-sized towns are very rare. This research attempts to bridge this knowledge gap by studying six historical towns in Zhejiang, China from a configurational perspective. Changes of street configuration and its relation to spatial distribution of urban activities from Qing dynasty to the present are investigated. Methodologically, both axial and segment models of Space Syntax method are employed and different syntactic measures are examined, in order for an insightful analysis of the change of street configuration. Point-of-interest (PoI) mapping is harnessed to describe urban activity distribution, and its relationship with street configuration is examined using bivariate correlation analysis. The result shows that all six case studies exhibit similar process of change – street configuration become increasingly integrated and structured from Qing dynasty to the 1980s before getting separated and less structured and diverging in street layout until the present. The distribution of urban activities, however, is shown positively correlated to spatial integration throughout the period of history under investigation.

Urban landscape assessment

  • Collado Capilla, Vicente
  • Gómez-Pardo Gabaldón, Sonia
[EN] The valuation of the urban landscape as an important element in the quality of life and the sustainable development of the city constitute an incipient field of investigation from a new perspective that adds meanings and values. It starts from the concept of valuation as a system where the tangible and intangible values that the population and the experts assign to it are considered. These include formal, economic, environmental, social, cultural... issues and the relationships among them. The consideration of the opinions of experts from different disciplines, together with the preferences expressed by the population regarding the spaces they inhabit on a daily basis and their aspirations, strengthen the sense of belonging and the identity of the place as key elements in the perception of landscapes Urban that allows to contribute new qualities, criteria of integration and contemporary values to any type of intervention. These strategies and intervention procedures start from the complexity of the city as a system and incorporate the perception that citizens have or will have of their immediate environment. An analytical-qualitative methodology is proposed for the appraisal of the urban landscape assessment by the experts based on the systemic and perceptive factors that characterize the landscape. Its practical application to the Campanar area in Valencia has allowed us to validate it as a process that leads to the identification of values, pressures and driving forces; the evaluations are carried out in terms of quality objectives and actions to improve the quality of the urban environment.

Marinilla´s cultural landscape and spacial characterization (Colombia)

  • Montoya, Catalina
  • Escobar-Ocampo, Lina María
  • Vélez-Venegas, Claudia María
[EN] The historic center of Marinilla, National Monument since 1959, is located sixty minutes from Medellin at San Nicolas Valley. It has exceptional landscape conditions, highly productive lands, and a large percentage of the water reserve that supplies the region and the country, giving the territory an economic center character since the colony. These physical values make part of collective imagination as a recreation area and an opportunity for development in the 1960s, according to the construction of large national infrastructure works. At the same time, it was object of armed conflict in the 1980s and 1990s, and more recently, directly related to the spatial dynamics of the region: unplanned urban expansion, changes in land use and vegetation cover, with effects on the cultural landscape. In a post-conflict situation, the economic strategies of different actors trust on tourism as a social-spatial management strategy to improve the territory. However, the identity of rurality shows spatial imbalances without recognizing elements of historical construction whose legacies must be revealed to ensure equitable development. To do this, we propose an approach from the cultural landscape in a revision of the historical, symbolic and relational transformation through five systems (anthropic, productive, political, symbolic and spatial), analyzing competitiveness, tourism, landscape and social management, in different scales and during three historical moments.

Ruins and city. Procedure suggestion for the Imperial Forums of Rome

  • Marcenac, Valeria|||0000-0002-5591-1464
  • Ballester Bordes, Mª José
  • Bosch Roig, Lluis|||0000-0003-1507-3512
  • Campos González, Carlos
  • Bosch Reig, Ignacio
[EN] The actual area of the Imperial Forums is presented as a big urban void in which the scale of the city has been lost. A "no man's land", inhospitable, to which you could assign the qualifying of "non-place". A huge and fragmented "archaeological park" in which the observer is not able of relate the rests and recognise the trace of the ancient forums. This problems have been adressed within the framework of the "Workshop of Conservation and Intervention" of the MCPA Master of the UPV, in which have been suggested differente strategies, both of search of the sewn of the city, and of the recognition of the different historical stratums existing on the place. To the same extent, this topic has been an international contest object, on which the proposal we have presented comes from a “modern” attitude, that helps us going beyond the evocative power of the ruin, or from its value as a referent from the past. An attitude which seeks to inhabit the ruin, occupy and settle it with architectures that renew its value, they are commited with the past and the present, and they guarantee their future presence. In this sense, the wanted and searched condition of "presence", is not as supported by the recovery of what have existed as it is by the ability of the intervention by accepting the transformations which have happened throughout history, introducing in turn a new stratum that besides answering the current needs, strengthen its statement as architecture. And all of that, urban regeneration is searched through the recuperation of the city’s scale loss.

The role of residential fabric in the configuration of the city in Spain in the 1940s and 1950s. The case of Jaca

  • Bambó Naya, Raimundo
[EN] The housing problem was one of the fundamental concerns of the new State that emerged after the Civil War in Spain. Different official bodies were created to this end, facing the need for reconstruction of different cities and villages and the dwelling shortage. During the 1940s and 1950s there was a progressive shift of interest from rural housing to urban housing. A series of residential projects of different nature were developed in towns and cities, modifying their urban configuration. The objective of this work is to study different public housing projects carried out during the 1940s and 1950s in the city of Jaca by Lorenzo Monclús, municipal architect of the city, regional delegate of the National Housing Institute and urban planning technician. On the one hand, the study focuses on the theoretical models and international references on which they are based, the building types, the architectural language, and the design of the urban space. On the other hand, on the adaptability of these models to the existing city structure and its planning: a 1917 extension project according to nineteenth century models, carried out after the demolition of the city walls, and revised on successive occasions during the studied period. This analysis of a local experience is part of a wider debate: that of the urban culture in Spain during the postwar period. Despite all the limitations, modern functionalist urbanism was assimilated through public housing projects and urban extensions with open edification in smaller settlements, with techniques akin to those used in larger cities throughout the country.

Study of morphological structures of historical centres as a basic toll for understanding the new conditions of social habitat. Quito, Siracusa and Suzhou

  • Gritti, Andrea
  • Rosero, Veronica
  • Dall'Asta, Juan Carlos
  • Rocchio, Daniele
  • Porreca, Riccardo
  • Tagliabue, Franco
[EN] In the age of globalization, architecture (through an identity crisis) is directly connected with the loss of progressive recognition of morphological studies of city and territory, in a gradual replacement with real-time views of phenomena and urban facts. The satellite gaze finally flattens the interpretation ability of living spaces that were the prerogative of the morphological studies. The actual complexity of cities and territories escapes from the architect's eyes as they increase their technical capability to know details. The season of great renovations and methodological studies that had powered the 1960s, 70s and 80s seems hopelessly distant. Studies on social, economic, and environmental components of the cities and territories (infrastructure, public space, environmental networks) are so proliferated without actually being supported by adequate interpretations of their physical-spatial dynamics. The result: a substantial failure of architectural design to express human habitat visions. It is imperative a theoretical and practical effort to pick up the threads of an interrupted conversation, and return where these studies have expressed their richest potential: the historical centers, the places with most dense and rich heritage. Historical centers of cities like Quito, Siracusa and Suzhou have settled and stratified the morphological structures of several different settlement patterns. As a result, architecture has demonstrated an ability of description and interpretation. Reflecting on how this goal was reached in these cities (by means much less powerful than the current) settlement will be able to bid the morphological component of urban and regional studies and architecture project as a fundamental tool for understanding the human habitat.

Tourist settlements in the Comunidad Valenciana coast: A Typological Map

  • Azulay Tapiero, Marilda|||0000-0001-7436-8754
  • Mas Llorens, Vicente
[EN] The system of tourist settlements on the Mediterranean coast presents a great complexity, as well as its geographical, landscape, morphological, urban and architectural conditions like for the varied way of relating to it the social and economic groups involved. The purpose of the communication is to expose the research about the need and the possibility of actions providing tourist settlements with urban and territorial cohesion, and enabling new proposals where what is decisive is not only acting on the parties but, globally, on the conditions that defines the scenes of action. In order to deal with the complexity of the tourist development on the Valencian Mediterranean coast, we proposed, as a first step, the identification of settlement types where, contrary to the buildings type, it will be necessary to apply mechanisms that take into account there are structures in the process of evolution. As Giorgio Grassi (1973) already said, a classification is not a type but allows an approximation to it. This has allowed the development of a “Typological Map of Tourist Settlements in the Comunidad Valenciana” where situate case studies while reading the territory as a whole and each settlement in relation to others settlements. A map to add data, based on the definition of parameters related to structure, urban form and architecture, but also to the relationship with the coastal physical environment, and selected for their capacity to provide data for the research purposes., Research project coordinated by Universitat Politècnica de València, department of Proyectos Arquitectónicos, and Universidad Ramon Llull, Barcelona, Enginyeria i Arquitectura La Salle, financed with funds from Plan Nacional I+D+i 2008-2011 (reference BIA2011-28297-C02-01) of the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness.

Neoliberal hegemony and the territorial re-configuration of public space in Mexico City

  • Filipe Narciso, Carla
[EN] Sustainability, ecological modernization, citizen participation, public space and rights are concepts that have acquired great importance in international political discourses and that have figured in indicators, guidelines, programs and policies, at national level, giving rise to a urban planning from administrative units or “zoning”, which instead of showing the different structures, forms and functions of cities as a whole, what has generated is a fragmentation of urban space. In a certain way, the implosion of these themes shows the success of capitalism in a period of neoliberal hegemony, since it becomes a smokescreen to hide the class differences superimposed on global discourses of modernization and development, as well as the transformation of natural resources in products, the capitalization of nature and the transformation of politics into management. The text seeks to reflect on the territorial configuration of public space in the light of emerging urban policies and programs in a neoliberal geopolitical context based on two axes of analysis: in the first analyze the neoliberal imposition models on how to construct public space and in the second will analyze the institutional bases, programs and policies of intervention highlighting their objectives, limitations and contradictions that help to understand the material and immaterial forms that the public space adopts at different scales in Mexico City through of the socio-territorial relations that are constructed in a process of mutual reciprocity.

Nowa Huta, Krakow, Poland. Old Urbanism, New Urbanism?

  • Agata Kantarek, Anna
  • Samuels, Ivor
[EN] This paper considers the first stage of Nova Huta New Town built near Krakow in the 1950s. In contrast to UK and US new settlements of the post war period it is a high density apartment block development which was ignored in the literature for more than half a century because its design, based on a system of streets, is in contrast with contemporary forms of development, either low density garden city or higher density free standing apartment blocks. A discussion of its neglect and the recent rediscovery of its qualities, both in Poland and by exponents of the US New Urbanism (part of the Urban Morphology spectrum somewhat neglected by ISUF) leads to a systematic investigation of the development, its influences and how this project conceived in a radically different political and economic context, matches or departs from the tenets of the Charter for the New Urbanism. The extent to which the context has determined the differences leads to a conclusion discussing the enduring qualities and contemporary relevance of inherited urban forms.

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