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Snail1 transcription factor controls telomere transcription and integrity

  • Mazzolini, Rocco
  • Gonzàlez Busqué, Núria, 1980-
  • Garcia-Garijo, Andrea
  • Millanes Romero, Alba, 1986-
  • Peiró Sales, Sandra
  • Smith, Susan
  • García de Herreros, Antonio
  • Canudas i Puig, Sílvia
Besides controlling epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell invasion, the Snail1 transcriptional factor also provides cells with cancer stem cell features. Since telomere maintenance is essential for stemness, we have examined the control of telomere integrity by Snail1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicates that Snail1-depleted mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have both a dramatic increase of telomere alterations and shorter telomeres. Remarkably, Snail1-deficient MSC present higher levels of both telomerase activity and the long non-coding RNA called telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), an RNA that controls telomere integrity. Accordingly, Snail1 expression downregulates expression of the telomerase gene (TERT) as well as of TERRA 2q, 11q and 18q. TERRA and TERT are transiently downregulated during TGFβ-induced EMT in NMuMG cells, correlating with Snail1 expression. Global transcriptome analysis indicates that ectopic expression of TERRA affects the transcription of some genes induced during EMT, such as fibronectin, whereas that of TERT does not modify those genes. We propose that Snail1 repression of TERRA is required not only for telomere maintenance but also for the expression of a subset of mesenchymal genes.

UNR/CDSE1 expression as prognosis biomarker in resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients: A proof-of-concept

  • Martínez-Useros, Javier
  • Georgiev Hristov, Tihomir
  • Fernández Aceñero, María Jesús
  • Borrero-Palacios, Aurea
  • Indacochea Cusirramos, Alberto
  • Guerrero Jijon, Santiago Xavier
  • Li, Weiyao
  • Cebrián, Arancha
  • del Pulgar, Teresa Gómez
  • Puime Otín, Alberto
  • Puerto Nevado, Laura del
  • Rodríguez Remírez, María
  • Pérez, Núria
  • Celdrán Uriarte, Ángel
  • Gebauer, Fátima
  • García-Foncillas, Jesús
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive form of pancreatic cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death. When possible, curative approaches are based on surgical resection, though not every patient is a candidate for surgery. There are clinical guidelines for the management of these patients that offer different treatment options depending on the clinical and pathologic characteristics. However, the survival rates seen in this kind of patients are still low. The CDSE1 gene is located upstream of NRAS and encodes an RNA-binding protein termed UNR. The aim of this study was to analyze UNR expression and its correlation with outcome in patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). For this, samples from resectable PDAC patients who underwent duodenopancreatectomy were used to evaluate UNR protein expression by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray. Here, we observed that low UNR expression was significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival after surgery (P = 0.010). Moreover, this prognostic marker remained significant after Cox proportional hazards model (P = 0.036). We further studied the role of CDSE1 expression in patient's prognosis using data from public repositories (GEO and TGCA), confirming our results. Interestingly, CDSE1 expression correlated with that of genes characteristic of an immunogenic molecular subtype of pancreatic cancer. Based on these findings, UNR may be considered a potential prognostic biomarker for resectable PDAC and may serve to guide subsequent adjuvant treatment decisions., This work has been carried out with the support of the RNA-Reg CONSOLIDER Network CSD2009-00080 (J.M.-U. and J.G.-F.), and Spanish Health Research Project Funds PI16/01468 from “Instituto de Salud Carlos III” (A.C. and J.G.-F.), both of the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness.

Evoked and oscillatory EEG activity differentiates language discrimination in young monolingual and bilingual infants

  • Nácar García, Loreto, 1988-
  • Guerrero-Mosquera, Carlos
  • Colomer, Marc
  • Sebastián Gallés, Núria
Language discrimination is one of the core differences between bilingual and monolingual language acquisition. Here, we investigate the earliest brain specialization induced by it. Following previous research, we hypothesize that bilingual native language discrimination is a complex process involving specific processing of the prosodic properties of the speech signal. We recorded the brain activity of monolingual and bilingual 4.5-month-old infants using EEG, while listening to their native/dominant language and two foreign languages. We defined two different windows of analysis to separate discrimination and identification effects. In the early window of analysis (150–280 ms) we measured the P200 component, and in the later window of analysis we measured Theta (400–1800 ms) and Gamma (300–2800 ms) oscillations. The results point in the direction of different language discrimination strategies for bilingual and monolingual infants. While only monolingual infants show early discrimination of their native language based on familiarity, bilinguals perform a later processing which is compatible with an increase in attention to the speech signal. This is the earliest evidence found for brain specialization induced by bilingualism, This research was supported by grants from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013): ERC grant agreement number 323961 (Under Control); the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (PSI2015-66918-P) and the Catalan Government (SGR 2014–1210).

The Association between Lifelong Greenspace Exposure and 3-Dimensional Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Barcelona Schoolchildren

  • Dadvand, Payam
  • Pujol Martí, Jesús, 1981-
  • Macià, Dídac
  • Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard
  • Blanco Hinojo, Laura
  • Mortamais, Marion
  • Álvarez Pedrerol, Mar
  • Fenoll, Raquel
  • Esnaola, Mikel
  • Dalmau Bueno, Albert
  • López Vicente, Mònica, 1988-
  • Basagaña Flores, Xavier
  • Jerrett, Michael
  • Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
  • Sunyer Deu, Jordi
BACKGROUND: Proponents of the biophilia hypothesis believe that contact with nature, including green spaces, has a crucial role in brain development in children. Currently, however, we are not aware of evidence linking such exposure with potential effects on brain structure. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether lifelong exposure to residential surrounding greenness is associated with regional differences in brain volume based on 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) among children attending primary school. METHODS: We performed a series of analyses using data from a subcohort of 253 Barcelona schoolchildren from the Brain Development and Air Pollution Ultrafine Particles in School Children (BREATHE) project. We averaged satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) across 100-m buffers around all residential addresses since birth to estimate each participant's lifelong exposure to residential surrounding greenness, and we used high-resolution 3D MRIs of brain anatomy to identify regional differences in voxel-wise brain volume associated with greenness exposure. In addition, we performed a supporting substudy to identify regional differences in brain volume associated with measures of working memory (d' from computerized n-back tests) and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error from the Attentional Network Task instrument) that were repeated four times over one year. We also performed a second supporting substudy to determine whether peak voxel tissue volumes in brain regions associated with residential greenness predicted cognitive function test scores. RESULTS: Lifelong exposure to greenness was positively associated with gray matter volume in the left and right prefrontal cortex and in the left premotor cortex and with white matter volume in the right prefrontal region, in the left premotor region, and in both cerebellar hemispheres. Some of these regions partly overlapped with regions associated with cognitive test scores (prefrontal cortex and cerebellar and premotor white matter), and peak volumes in these regions predicted better working memory and reduced inattentiveness. CONCLUSION: Our findings from a study population of urban schoolchildren in Barcelona require confirmation, but they suggest that being raised in greener neighborhoods may have beneficial effects on brain development and cognitive function. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1876., The research leading to these results received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Program (ERCAdvanced Grant) under grant agreement number 268479: The BREATHE project. The research leading to the methodology used for the exposure assessment in this study received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement number 282996: The PHENOTYPE project. P.D. is funded by a Ramón y Cajal fellowship (RYC-2012-10995) awarded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. The sponsors and funding organizations had no role in the design or conduct of this research.

Impact of asthma on women and men: comparison with the general population using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire

  • Hernández, Gimena
  • Dima, Alexandra L.
  • Pont Acuña, Àngels
  • Garin Boronat, Olatz, 1979-
  • Martí-Pastor, Marc
  • Alonso Caballero, Jordi
  • Van Ganse, Eric
  • Laforest, Laurent
  • Bruin, Marijn de
  • Mayoral, Karina
  • Ferrer Forés, Maria Montserrat
  • ASTRO-LAB group
Background: The aim was to evaluate the impact of asthma on patients’ Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) by comparing asthmatic women and men with reference norms, to examine the factors which contributed to an impaired HRQoL, and to identify groups at higher risk. Methods: Cross-sectional evaluation of 222 primary care patients with persistent asthma (18–40 years old). HRQoL impact was estimated with the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), which allows calculating Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) by applying society preferences. Participants self-completed the EQ-5D questionnaire online. Telephonic interviews collected information on medication and adherence, and administered the Asthma Control Questionnaire. Severity markers included asthma-related comorbidity, previous oral corticosteroids course prescription, and inhaled corticosteroids daily dose. After bivariate analyses, multiple linear regression models were constructed to examine the relations between HRQoL asthma impact and socio-demographic and clinical variables, using as dependent variable the deviation from general population-based EQ-5D reference norms. Results: Deviation from the EQ-5D index norms was moderate in most age/gender groups (-0.1, which corresponds to 0.6 standard deviations), while it was large in women aged 18–24 years (-0.18, corresponding to 1.1 standard deviations). In regression models, a poor asthma control was the only factor independently associated to HRQoL impact in both women and men: β -0.18 (p<0.001) and -0.15 (p = 0.01) respectively. Translating these β coefficients to QALYs, they are interpretable as 66 fewer days of full health per year in women with uncontrolled asthma and 55 for men, compared with those with controlled asthma. Conclusion: Persistent asthma has a moderately negative HRQoL impact on patients of both genders, and the youngest women have been identified as a high risk group which merits further research. We identified asthma control as the major contributor to impaired HRQoL in patients, regardless of their gender, suggesting that asthma HRQoL impact could be alleviated by achieving a good control of symptoms.

“Achievement unlocked”: improving second language learning with educational gamification

  • Apetrei, Teodora C.
Treball de fi de màster en Lingüística Teòrica i Aplicada. Tutor: Daniel Cassany., The present study is concerned with the increasingly popular concept of gamification, and the research conducted in this field so far, with a special focus on its applications in education. Having language learning and the positive features of video games as starting points, the main aim of this paper is to explore the possibilities and outcomes of introducing game design elements in second language classrooms. Existing literature on gamification includes plenty of theoretical frameworks, but there is still insufficient empirical data linking game elements to specific learning outcomes. While there have been some promising results of educational gamification regarding behavioral and attitude changes which might be beneficial for second language learning, the existence of negative reactions to this approach encourages us to pay close attention to planning and context. Lastly, I shall investigate three popular language learning mobile applications and how they have successfully integrated some gamification elements.

La terminología del terrorismo en la interpretación del siglo XXI

  • Aranda Casajuana, Bernat
Treball de fi de grau en Traducció i Interpretació. Tutora: Madeleine Cases Silverstone., Terrorism is a very complex concept. Interpreters might eventually struggle when they have to work in speeches in which terrorism is being discussed. Because of my per-sonal interest and an anecdote that my professor shared in class, I decided to conduct a research about interpreter’s terminological difficulties in speeches about terrorism. There is, conceptually, no agreement in order to state what terrorism is. This is due to the different standpoints about violence. There is no official definition of terrorism on a global scale. Some international organizations such as the United Nations have sug-gested definitions for terrorism, but none is accepted internationally as true. Interna-tional law has no official definition for terrorism either. However, most national laws consider terrorism to be a crime under their criminal law system. In order to help interpreters confront the terminological difficulties that might arise when interpreting speeches on these subject, we have worked on a glossary including terms that often appear in the press, in academic papers and in books written by subject-matter experts. Interpreters might have problems with the vocabulary related to terrorism coming from many different disciplines such as law or medicine, but they might also have problems with very idiomatic expressions, for instance, those having to do with death and mourning. The glossary finally produced in this academic research assign-ment, as is the case of all terminological tools, will likely need in some years an update, as terrorism reconverts and new terms will appear to describe new ways of commit-ting terrorist attacks., El terrorismo es un concepto muy complejo. Los intérpretes pueden tener problemas a la hora de trabajar con discursos en que se habla de terrorismo. A raíz de mi interés personal y de una anécdota que mi profesora compartió en clase, decidí investigar sobre las dificultades terminológicas de los intérpretes en los discursos sobre terroris-mo. Conceptualmente, no hay un acuerdo en afirmar qué es el terrorismo. Eso se debe a las distintas perspectivas en cuanto a la violencia. No hay una definición oficial de terrorismo a escala mundial. Algunas organizaciones internacionales como las Nacio-nes Unidas han propuesto definiciones de terrorismo, pero ninguna es aceptada inter-nacionalmente como verdadera. El derecho internacional tampoco dispone de una definición oficial para el terrorismo. Sin embargo, la mayoría de derechos nacionales consideran que el terrorismo es un delito en sus sistemas de derecho penal. Para ayudar a los intérpretes a enfrentarse a las dificultades terminológicas que pueden surgir al interpretar discursos sobre este tema, hemos elaborado un glosario que inclu-ye términos que a menudo aparecen en la prensa, en artículos académicos y en libros escritos por expertos en la materia. Es posible que los intérpretes tengan problemas con el vocabulario relacionado con el terrorismo que proviene de muchas disciplinas diferentes como el derecho o la medicina, pero también es posible que tengan pro-blemas con expresiones muy idiomáticas, por ejemplo, con las que tiene que ver con la muerte y el luto. El glosario que se ha elaborado en este trabajo de final de grado, como es el caso de toda herramienta terminológica, probablemente necesitará una actualización en unos años, ya que el terrorismo se reconvierte y aparecerán nuevos términos para describir nuevas formas de perpetrar atentados.

Breve guía sobre la localización de videojuegos: Cuphead

  • España Delgado, Marta
Treball de fi de grau en Traducció i Interpretació. Tutora: Paula Igareda., One of the main problems of translating videogames is the poor amount of data we are able to find. In spite of how relevant videogames have become in our market, little research on its translation has been done. This end-of-degree project puts its effort on giving some basic guidance in order to overcome some of the most basic problems one can run into. The first part of this article is a compilation of relevant information that any translator should know before developing its task on any localization project, and the second one, a useful analysis of the practice based on the translation of the videogame Cuphead (StudioMDHR, 2017). These two parts promote some reflections about the fields that concern us, such as the importance of the experience for the gamer and the procedures that a translator must take into account to build up a decent translation.

Django desencadenado: análisis del doblaje de los acentos

  • Gallardo Ferrer, Nuria
Treball de fi de grau en Traducció i Interpretació. Tutora: Anjana Martínez Tejerina., There was a moment in history when dubbing movies into Spanish started to be needed. Since then, translators had to face multilingualism as a challenge: there is a large variety of full-length films where more than one language, dialect or accent can be heard. The main purpose of this bachelor’s thesis is to provide a case of study on how accents are rendered. The 2012 Tarantino movie Django Unchained presents different types of English accents such as southern accent, African American Vernacular English accent, and several foreign accents. The official solution of dubbing is thereby studied after interviewing its official translator, Quico Rovira-Beleta. Another aim is to provide a translated script of a scene of the audiovisual text with solutions concerning the reported accents and a comparison to the official translation that was brought to cinema. In this paper, it is demonstrated that it is sometimes not necessary to render all the accents of a movie and that stereotypes can be rendered by context, and not only by speech. It is also interesting to see how the official dubbed version managed to do something far from ordinary.

Anàlisi dels referents culturals de Bridget Jones’s Diary: les tècniques de traducció en català i castellà

  • Aymamí Expósito, Sandra
Treball de fi de grau en Traducció i Interpretació. Tutora: Victòria Alsina., Culture and language are topics commonly discussed and a delicate area of translation because it is extremely difficult to be conscious and determine the knowledge of the readers about cultural references. The main aim of this paper is to analyze two different translations of Helen Fielding’s iconic novel Bridget Jones’ Diary into two closely connected languages, Spanish and Catalan, and see how they have dealt with all the cultural references in order to test the following hypothesis: a large amount of cultural references have not been translated and how that can affect the perception of the novel and if it is going to be the same in all the languages analyzed in this paper. In order to do so 151 referents have been analyzed; they have been divided in cultural categories and in procedures of translation comparing both languages as the same time a survey has been taken by X people. Taking into account the different results it is safe to affirm that most of the cultural references in both translations are not adequate to the cultural knowledge of the target. Basically, this study shows the difficulty of determining the readers’ cultural background.

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