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On the role of retaliation in trade agreements

  • Martin, Alberto, 1974-
  • Vergote, Wouter
This paper analyzes the role of retaliation in trade agreements. It shows that, in the presence of private information, retaliation can always be used to increase the welfare derived from such agreements by the participating governments. In particular, it is shown that retaliation is a necessary feature of any efficient equilibrium. We argue that retaliation would not be necessary if governments could resort to international transfers or export subsidies to compensate for terms-of-trade externalities. Within the current world trading system, though, in which transfers are seldom observed whereas export subsidies are prohibited, the use of the remaining trade instruments in a retaliatory fashion might be optimal. The model is used to interpret the retaliatory use of antidumping observed in the last decades, and the proliferation of these measures relative to other trade remedies.
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Sport as an antidote against audience fragmentation: a scoping study of the most watched Spanish television shows (1989-2016)

  • Martín Guart, Ramon Francesc
  • López González, Hibai, 1983-
  • Fernández Cavia, Josep, 1963-
Introducción: La fragmentación de la audiencia junto con otros factores ha provocado que las cifras de audiencia disminuyan en la mayoría de las cadenas de televisión. En un nuevo contexto en el que hay que reconsiderar lo que es una buena cuota de audiencia, el contenido deportivo destaca como el último antídoto contra la fragmentación de la audiencia. Metodología: En este artículo se examina el papel del contenido deportivo en la televisión española identificando los programas de televisión más vistos cada año desde 1989 hasta 2016 y se analiza más a fondo a través de entrevistas con ocho profesionales de agencias de medios, cadenas de televisión, propietarios de derechos deportivos y patrocinadores. Resultados y conclusiones: Los resultados reflejan que los canales de televisión han capitalizado sistemáticamente el contenido deportivo premium (fundamentalmente el fútbol) para compensar los efectos de la fragmentación de la audiencia y que, ante la incertidumbre sobre los modelos comerciales de televisión, seguirán haciéndolo en un futuro próximo., Introduction: Audience fragmentation, accompanied by other factors, has caused viewing figures to drop across most television networks. In a new context where what is a good audience share needs to be reconsidered, sport content stands out as arguably the last antidote against audience fragmentation. Methodology: This paper examines the role of sport content in Spanish television by compiling the most watched television programs each year from 1989 to 2016. Sport content in television is further discussed through focused interviews with eight professionals from media agencies, networks, media right holders and sponsors. Results and conclusions: The results suggest that networks have systematically capitalized on premium sport content (fundamentally football) to ameliorate the effects of audience fragmentation, and that, given the uncertainty concerning television business models, will continue to do so in the near future.
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Representación mediática de la sexualidad en la ficción seriada dirigida a los jóvenes: estudio de caso de "Los Protegidos" y "Física o Química"

  • Masanet Jordà, Mª José
  • Medina Bravo, Pilar, 1966-
  • Ferrés i Prats, Joan
Se presenta un estudio de caso que analiza la representación de la sexualidad en dos series españolas: “Física o Química” y “Los Protegidos”. Para llevar a cabo el análisis, se exponen los antecedentes en el estudio de la ficción televisiva, la adolescencia y la sexualidad. Posteriormente se presenta la metodología de análisis del discurso planteada para la investigación y el análisis de resultados sobre la representación de la sexualidad en las ficciones televisivas españolas “Física o Química” y “Los Protegidos”., This investigation presents a case study that analyzes the representation of sexuality in two Spanish series: "Física o Química" and "Los Protegidos." To carry out the analysis, an explanation of the background to the study of television fiction, adolescence and sexuality, is provided. We later present the methodology of discourse analysis proposed for this research and analyze the results about the representation of sexuality in Spanish TV fiction "Física o Química" and "Los Protegidos."
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Narratives transmediàtiques, convergència audiovisual i noves estratègies de comunicació

  • Scolari, Carlos Alberto, 1963-
  • Fernández de Azcárate, Sara
  • Garín Boronat, Manuel
  • Guerrero Pico, María del Mar
  • Jiménez-Morales, Manel
  • Martos Ortiz, Aitor
  • Obradors Barba, Matilde
  • Oliva Rota, Mercè
  • Pérez, Óliver
  • Pujadas i Capdevila, Eva
Transmedia storytelling emerges as one of the most interesting research topics in the current media ecology landscape. The goal of this article is to present the results of a research developed between 2010/2011 and focused on transmedia works produced in Catalonia. This exploratory research analyses fiction TV shows, reality shows, parodic and late night shows, and the advertising efforts related to the productions as well as political campaigns. In a methodogical level, the research was based on textual analysis and semi-estructured interviews to the transmedia producers., Les narratives transmediàtiques emergeixen com uns dels temes de recerca més /ninteressants de l’actual ecologia dels mitjans. L’objectiu d’aquest article és presentar els /nresultats generals d’una recerca realitzada entre 2010/11 sobre les narratives /ntransmediàtiques produïdes a Catalunya. En la recerca, de caràcter exploratori, es van /nanalitzar produccions de ficció, reality shows, paròdies, late night shows, produccions /npublicitàries vinculades a aquestes obres i campanyes polítiques. A nivell metodològic, /nla recerca va incloure l’anàlisi del material textual i la realització d’entrevistes semiestructurades amb els /nprincipals responsables de les produccions transmediàtiques.
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Análisis de la literatura sobre dispositivos móviles en la universidad española, Literature review on mobile devices in Spanish university

  • Mateus, Julio César
  • Aran Ramspott, Sue
  • Masanet Jordà, Mª José
Este artículo presenta un análisis sistematizado de la producción científica entre los años 2012 y 2016 sobre el uso y aplicación de dispositivos móviles en el ámbito universitario español. El objetivo es analizar el interés académico por el Aprendizaje Móvil y las características de esta producción. Para ello se seleccionaron 50 artículos de revistas y comunicaciones de actas de congresos internacionales indexados en las bases de datos Web of Science, Scopus y Google Scholar y posteriormente se analizaron en torno a cuatro categorías: información sobre los autores, información bibliográfica de las publicaciones, información sobre las poblaciones estudiadas; e información científico-metodológica. Los resultados indican que se trata de un tema de desarrollo incipiente, dado el limitado número de artículos y comunicaciones halladas, pero esta producción evidencia la importancia de los grupos de investigación y los proyectos financiados, que permiten definir una trayectoria de investigación en varios autores. Asimismo, algunas comunidades autónomas españolas están subrepresentadas, así como algunas disciplinas abordadas en los estudios. En lo que respecta a la metodología, aparece como predominante la cuantitativa y como técnica de investigación más frecuente el cuestionario, aunque también se reconoce un número creciente de diseños experimentales. Las evidencias encontradas proponen un amplio campo para la investigación sobre el potencial pedagógico de los dispositivos móviles en la educación superior y permiten proponer una agenda para futuros estudios., This article presents a systematized review of scientific production between the years 2012 and 2016 of the use and application of mobile devices in Spanish universities. The objective is to interpret academic interest in Mobile Learning and the attributes of this production. In order to do this, 50 articles from journals and minutes from international congresses indexed in the databases of Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar were selected and subsequently analyzed within four categories: information about the authors, the publications’ bibliographic information, information about the populations studied and scientific-methodological information. The results indicate that this is an emerging topic of development, given the limited number of articles and communications found, yet this output demonstrates the importance of the research groups and projects funded, which have defined a research trajectory in several authors. Likewise, some Spanish autonomous regions and certain disciplines addressed in the studies are underrepresented. The predominant methodology is quantitative and the most frequent research technique is the questionnaire, although there is also a growing number of experimental designs. The evidence found suggests a broad field for research into the pedagogical potential of mobile devices in higher education and puts forward an agenda for future studies., Este estudio forma parte del proyecto I+D+i “Competencias mediáticas de la ciudadanía en medios digitales emergentes en entornos universitarios”. EDU2015-64015-C3-2-R, financiado por el Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad de España.
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Children in front of the television: the adultisation and digitisation of audiovisual content, El público infantil frente a la televisión: la "adultización" y digitalización de los contenidos audiovisuales

  • Fernández Cavia, Josep, 1963-
  • Martín Guart, Ramon Francesc
La publicidad necesita conocer en detalle los hábitos comunicativos de sus públicos para ser eficiente. Uno de los targets que mayores desafíos plantea es el infantil, definido habitualmente sin atender a diferencias de género y con una horquilla de edad demasiado amplia, lo que enmascara comportamientos muy diversos. Para identificar las principales diferencias en el consumo televisivo por parte de los más pequeños según las variables edad y género, se realizó un estudio basado en tres fuentes: Kantar Media, EGM y una encuesta específica a 23 niños y niñas. Los resultados muestran una progresiva “adultización” del consumo televisivo hacia canales no exclusivamente infantiles. Un consumo de contenidos audiovisuales que ya no es exclusivo de la televisión y pasan a ser las disciplinas digitales la primera opción de entretenimiento, especialmente en los mayores de 11 años., In order to be efficient, advertising needs to show familiarity with the communication habits of its target audience. As an audience group, children pose huge challenges, particularly since they constitute a target whose gender is not taken into consideration and which has an excessively broad age range, thereby masking a highly varied spectrum of behaviour. To identify the main differences in television viewing by Spanish children depending on age and gender, a study was prepared using three sources as its basis: Kantar Media, the EGM and a specific survey on 23 children. The results show a gradual adultisation of television viewing in favour of channels not intended solely for children. Audiovisual content is not viewed merely on a television set. Digital media have taken pole position as an entertainment choice, particularly among children over the age of 11.
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What variables should be considered in allocating Primary health care Pharmaceutical budgets to districts in Uganda?

  • Mujasi, Paschal N.
  • Puig i Junoy, Jaume
Objectives: A key policy question for the government of Uganda is how to equitably allocate primary health care pharmaceutical budgets to districts. This paper seeks to identify variables influencing current primary health care pharmaceutical expenditure and their usefulness in allocating prospective pharmaceutical budgets to districts. Methods: This was a cross sectional, retrospective observational study using secondary administrative data. We collected data on the value of pharmaceuticals procured by primary health care facilities in each district from National Medical Stores for the financial year 2011/2012. The dependent variable was expressed as per capita district pharmaceutical expenditure. By reviewing literature we identified 26 potential explanatory variables. They include supply, need and demand, and health system organization variables that may influence the demand and supply of health services and the corresponding pharmaceutical expenditure. We collected secondary data for these variables for all the districts in Uganda (n = 112). We performed econometric analysis to estimate parameters of various regression models. Results: There is a significant correlation between per capita district pharmaceutical expenditure and total district population, rural poverty, access to drinking water and outpatient department (OPD) per capita utilisation.(P<0.01). The percentage of health centre IIIs (HC III) among each district’s health facilities is significantly correlated with per capita pharmaceutical expenditure (P < 0.05). OPD per capita utilisation has a relatively strong correlation with per capita pharmaceutical expenditure (r = 0.498); all the other significant factors are weakly correlated with per capita pharmaceutical expenditure (r<0.5). From several iterations of an initially developed model, the proposed final model for explaining per capita pharmaceutical expenditure explains about 53% of the variation in pharmaceutical expenditure among districts in Uganda (Adjusted R2 = 0.528). All variables in the model are significant (p<0.01). Conclusions: From evaluation of the various models, proposed variables to consider in allocating prospective primary health care pharmaceutical budgets to districts in Uganda are: district outpatient department attendance per capita, total district population, total number of government health facilities in the district and the district human poverty index.
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Genetic adaptation of the antibacterial human innate immunity network

  • Casals López, Ferran
  • Sikora, Martin, 1976-
  • Laayouni, Hafid, 1968-
  • Montanucci, Ludovica, 1978-
  • Muntasell i Castellví, Aura, 1972-
  • Lazarus, Ross
  • Calafell i Majó, Francesc
  • Awadalla, Philip
  • Netea, Mihai G
  • Bertranpetit, Jaume, 1952-
Background: Pathogens have represented an important selective force during the adaptation of modern human populations to changing social and other environmental conditions. The evolution of the immune system has therefore been influenced by these pressures. Genomic scans have revealed that immune system is one of the functions enriched with genes under adaptive selection. Results: Here, we describe how the innate immune system has responded to these challenges, through the analysis of resequencing data for 132 innate immunity genes in two human populations. Results are interpreted in the context of the functional and interaction networks defined by these genes. Nucleotide diversity is lower in the adaptors and modulators functional classes, and is negatively correlated with the centrality of the proteins within the interaction network. We also produced a list of candidate genes under positive or balancing selection in each population detected by neutrality tests and showed that some functional classes are preferential targets for selection. Conclusions: We found evidence that the role of each gene in the network conditions the capacity to evolve or their evolvability: genes at the core of the network are more constrained, while adaptation mostly occurred at particular positions at the network edges. Interestingly, the functional classes containing most of the genes with signatures of balancing selection are involved in autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases, suggesting a counterbalance between the beneficial and deleterious effects of the immune response., Support for this research comes from the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Research grant SAF-2007-63171 to JB. Additional support from Direcció General de Recerca of Generalitat de Catalunya (Grup de Recerca Consolidat 2005SGR/00608) and the National Institute for Bioinformatics (http://www.inab.org). A.M. is supported by Red HERACLES (Instituto de Salut Carlos III). R.L. was supported by NIH grants HL065899, HL083069, HG004909 and HG003646. M.G.N. was supported by a Vici grant of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. M.S. was supported by a PhD fellowship from the Programa de becas FPU del Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Spain (AP2005-3982)
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Targeting the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of fragile X syndrome

  • Busquets Garcia, Arnau, 1985-
  • Gomis González, Maria
  • Guegan, Thomas, 1983-
  • Agustín Pavón, Carmen
  • Pastor, Antonio
  • Mato, Susana
  • Pérez Samartín, A.
  • Matute, Carlos
  • Torre Fornell, Rafael de la
  • Dierssen, Mara
  • Maldonado, Rafael, 1961-
  • Ozaita Mintegui, Andrés, 1969-
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common monogenic cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism, is caused by the silencing of the FMR1 gene, leading to the loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a synaptically expressed RNA-binding protein regulating translation. The Fmr1 knockout model recapitulates the main traits of the disease. Uncontrolled activity of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling seem crucial in the pathology of this disease. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a key modulator of synaptic plasticity, cognitive performance, anxiety, nociception and seizure susceptibility, all of which are affected in FXS. The cannabinoid receptors CB1 (CB1R) and CB2 (CB2R) are activated by phospholipid-derived endocannabinoids, and CB1R-driven long-term regulation of synaptic strength, as a consequence of mGluR5 activation, is altered in several brain areas of Fmr1 knockout mice. We found that CB1R blockade in male Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1(-/y)) mice through pharmacological and genetic approaches normalized cognitive impairment, nociceptive desensitization, susceptibility to audiogenic seizures, overactivated mTOR signaling and altered spine morphology, whereas pharmacological blockade of CB2R normalized anxiolytic-like behavior. Some of these traits were also reversed by pharmacological inhibition of mTOR or mGluR5. Thus, blockade of ECS is a potential therapeutic approach to normalize specific alterations in FXS., This study was supported by grants from La Marató de TV3 (#090910 to AO), Grants from the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (#SAF2009-07309 to AO, #SAF2011-29864 to RM and SAF2010-21547 to CM); Instituto de Salud Carlos III (RD06/0001/0001 to RM); PLAN E (Plan Español para el Estímulo de la Economía y el Empleo); Generalitat de Catalunya (SGR-2009-00731 to RM and SGR2009-00718 to RdlT); ICREA (Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats)/nAcademia to RM
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