Resultados totales (Incluyendo duplicados): 33743
Encontrada(s) 3375 página(s)
Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281844
Dataset. 2016

DATA FROM: UNUSUALLY LIMITED POLLEN DISPERSAL AND CONNECTIVITY OF PEDUNCULATE OAK (QUERCUS ROBUR) REFUGIAL POPULATIONS AT THE SPECIES' SOUTHERN RANGE MARGIN

  • Moracho, Eva
  • Moreno, Gerardo
  • Hampe, Arndt
  • Jordano, Pedro
Quercus robur tree genotypes. Genotypes and geographic coordinates for adult Quercus robur trees (n = 135) growing in a 20 km long valley and 684 acorns from 72 mother trees at 20 microsatellite loci. Samples come form 10 distinct oak populations. genotypes.xlsx Phenological data for Quercus oak trees. Data on flowering phenology for oak individual trees in 10 populations for two study years. phenology_data.xlsx, Low-latitudinal range margins of temperate and boreal plant species typically consist of scattered populations that persist locally in microrefugia. It remains poorly understood how their refugial habitats affect patterns of gene flow and connectivity, key components for their long-term viability and evolution. We examine landscape-scale patterns of historical and contemporary gene flow in refugial populations of the widespread European forest tree Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) at the species' southwestern range margin. We sampled all adult trees (n = 135) growing in a 20 km long valley and genotyped 724 acorns from 72 mother trees at 17 microsatellite loci. The ten oak stands that we identified were highly differentiated and formed four distinct genetic clusters, despite sporadic historical dispersal being detectable. By far most contemporary pollination occurred within stands, either between local mates (85.6%) or through selfing (6.8%). Pollen exchange between stands (2.6%) was remarkably rare given their relative proximity and was complemented by long-distance pollen immigration (4.4%) and hybridization with the locally abundant Quercus pyrenaica (0.6%). The frequency of between-stand mating events decreased with increasing size and spatial isolation of stands. Overall, our results reveal outstandingly little long-distance gene flow for a wind-pollinated tree species. We argue that the distinct landscape characteristics of oaks' refugial habitats, with a combination of a rugged topography, dense vegetation and humid microclimate, are likely to increase plant survival but to hamper effective long-distance pollen dispersal. Moreover, local mating might be favoured by high tree compatibility resulting from genetic purging in these long-term relict populations., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281847
Dataset. 2016

DATA FROM: RISK ASSESSMENT OF PESTICIDE SEED TREATMENT FOR FARMLAND BIRDS USING REFINED FIELD DATA

  • López-Antia, Ana
  • Feliú, Jordi
  • Camarero, Pablo R.
  • Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E.
  • Mateo, Rafael
Dataset_JAppEcol_ALA, Due to reductions in winter food resources, newly sown cereal seeds have become a key component of many bird species' diets, but these seeds are often treated with pesticides that may cause toxic effects. To complete an appropriate risk assessment, data on treated seed toxicity need to be combined with information about the risk of exposure of birds in the field and the factors that modulate such exposure. We studied the abundance of pesticide-treated seeds available for birds in the field, the pesticides and their concentrations in treated seeds, and the bird species observed in the field that were feeding on these pesticide-treated seeds. The exposure of red-legged partridge to treated winter cereal seeds was characterized through the analysis of crop and gizzard contents of hunted individuals (n = 189). Moreover, we measured the contribution of cereal seeds in the autumn–winter diet of partridges in order to assess the potential risk of exposure to pesticide-treated seeds. Density of treated seeds on the soil surface after sowing (11·3 ± 1·2 seeds m−2 in the centre of field and 43·4 ± 5·5 seeds m−2 in the headlands) was enough to provide, in an area between 6 and 50 m2, doses of six active ingredients above those indicating acute (i.e. a dose capable of killing 50% of individuals of a sensitive species) and / or chronic (no observed effect level) toxicity. Up to 30 bird species were observed consuming treated cereal seeds in recently sown fields. Corn bunting was identified as an appropriate focal passerine species for the risk assessment of pesticide-treated seeds. We found that treated seeds were an important route of pesticide ingestion for red-legged partridge; pesticide residues (six fungicides and two insecticides) were found in 32·3% of crops and gizzards. Cereal seeds represented more than half (53·4 ± 4·3%) of total biomass consumed by partridges from October to February. Synthesis and applications. The field exposure data combined with previous studies about the toxicity to partridges of using pesticide-treated seeds point to an unacceptable risk of this practice to farmland birds. Our results suggest that the prophylactic use of pesticide-coated seeds should be avoided, with the approval of this treatment considered on a case-by-case basis and accompanied with specific measures to minimize risks of adverse effects on avian communities., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/282024
Dataset. 2021

DATA FOR: TIME AT RISK: INDIVIDUAL SPATIAL BEHAVIOUR DRIVES EFFECTIVENESS OF MARINE PROTECTED AREAS AND FITNESS

  • Villegas Ríos, David
  • Claudet, Joachim
  • Freitas, Carla
  • Moland, Even
  • Huneide Thorbjørnsen, Susanna
  • Alonso-Fernández, Alexandre
  • Olsen, Esben Moland
[Methods] Acoustic telemetry. [Usage Notes] There is one file per species and year of tagging. Each file is an R object. Opening it with R, the estimated centers of activity for each group of fish will be shown. These centers of activity are then used for subsequent analyses. An excel file is also provided containing the biological characteristics of the tagged animals., The effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) depends on the mobility of the populations that are the target of protection, with sedentary species likely to spend more time under protection even within small MPAs. However, little is understood about how individual variation in mobility may influence the risk of crossing an MPA border, as well as the fitness costs associated with being exposed to spillover fisheries. Here we investigated the repeatability of spatial behaviour, its role in determining the probability of being at risk (i.e. exposed to the fishery) and the fitness consequences for the individuals. We acoustically tracked the movements and fate of 282 individuals of three fish species during 8 years in a southern Norwegian fjord. We found that for individuals with a home range centroid inside the MPA, the probability of being at risk outside the MPA increased rapidly with reduced distance from the home range centroid to MPA borders, particularly for individuals having larger and more dispersed home ranges. We also detected that the seasonal expansions of the home range are associated with increased time at risk. Last, we show that individuals spending more time at risk were also more likely to be harvested by the fishery operating outside the MPA. Our study provides clear links between individual fish behaviour, fisheries-induced selection, and the effectiveness of protected areas. These links highlight the importance of intraspecific trait variation for understanding the spatial dynamics of populations and emphasize the need to consider individual behaviour when designing and implementing MPAs., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/282031
Dataset. 2021

ROMS-PISCES ORGANIC CARBON IN THE CANARY CURRENT SYSTEM

  • Santana-Falcón, Yeray
This dataset include outputs from a coupled physical-biogeochemical model (ROMS-PISCES) forced by climatological fields that has been used to examine the role of upwelling filaments in the offshore exchange of particulate (POC) and dissolved (DOC) organic carbon in the Canary Current eastern boundary upwelling system (CanC EBUS). The data consists on monthly climatological means of total organic carbon (direct sum of dissolved and particulate pools) generated by 7 years of simulation., European Commission (EC), grant/award no. 817578: Tropical and South Atlantic climate-based marine ecosystem predictions for sustainable management.-- European Commission (EC), grant/award no. 817806: Sustainable management of mesopelagic resources.-- Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN), grant/award no. CTM2015-69392-C3: Constraining organic carbon fluxes in an eastern boundary upwelling ecosystem (NW Africa): the role of non-sinking carbon in the context of the biological pump.-- Spanish National Research Council, grant/award no. CTM2007-66408-CO2-01: Shelf-ocean exchanges in the Canaries-Iberian large marine ecosystem, Peer reviewed

DOI: http://hdl.handle.net/10261/282031, https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.935720
Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/282031
HANDLE: http://hdl.handle.net/10261/282031, https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.935720
Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/282031
PMID: http://hdl.handle.net/10261/282031, https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.935720
Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/282031
Ver en: http://hdl.handle.net/10261/282031, https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.935720
Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/282031

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/282046
Dataset. 2016

DATA FROM: GENETIC VARIATION BUT WEAK GENETIC COVARIATION BETWEEN PRE- AND POSTCOPULATORY EPISODES OF SEXUAL SELECTION IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

  • Travers, Laura M.
  • García-González, Francisco
  • Simmons, Leigh W.
Pre- and postcopulatory trait measures Sheet 1: Data. Sheet 2: Variable descriptions Episodes sexsel_DRYADdata.xlsx, When females mate polyandrously, male reproductive success depends both on the male's ability to attain matings and his ability to outcompete rival males in the fertilization of ova post copulation. Increased investment in ejaculate components may trade-off with investment in precopulatory traits due to resource allocation. Alternatively, pre- and postcopulatory traits could be positively related if individuals can afford to invest heavily in traits advantageous at both episodes of selection. There is empirical evidence for both positive and negative associations between pre- and postcopulatory episodes, but little is known about the genetic basis of these correlations. In this study, we measured morphological, chemical, and behavioural precopulatory male traits and investigated their relationship with measures of male fitness (male mating success, remating inhibition and offensive sperm competitiveness) across 40 isofemale lines of Drosophila melanogaster. We found significant variation among isofemale lines, indicating a genetic basis for most of the traits investigated. However, we found weak evidence for genetic correlations between precopulatory traits and our indices of male fitness. Moreover, pre-and postcopulatory episodes of selection were uncorrelated, suggesting selection may act independently at the different episodes to maximise male reproductive success., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/282050
Dataset. 2021

DATA ON THE EFFECTIVENESS DISPERSAL OF SYNZOOCHOROUS DISPERSERS

  • Gómez, José María
[Methods] Data collected from the literature. Dataset is a compilation of published studies. Effectiveness components were converted to common currencies. QTC is the proportion of seeds dispersed by a given type of disperser during a given dispersal period. QLC is the proportion of dispersed seeds that were cached, either by scatter hoarding or larder hoarding. Information on taxonomy of the two partners, Country where the studies were performed and some traits of both plants and animals is also included., Mutualism effectiveness, the contribution of an interacting organism to its partner’s fitness, is defined as the number of immediate outcomes of the interactions (Quantity component) multiplied by the probability that an immediate outcome results in a new individual (Quality component). These components form a two-dimensional effectiveness landscape with each species’ location determined by its values of quantity (x-axis) and quality (y-axis). The current dataset includes information on the effectiveness of synzoochorous seed dispersal across the world. This might allow any user to make their own landscapes for the entire set of species or for specific subset of species., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/282052
Dataset. 2016

DATA FROM: ADDITIVE GENETIC VARIANCE IN POLYANDRY ENABLES ITS EVOLUTION, BUT POLYANDRY IS UNLIKELY TO EVOLVE THROUGH SEXY OR GOOD SPERM PROCESSES

  • Travers, Laura M.
  • Simmons, Leigh W.
  • García-González, Francisco
Female mating frequency, P2 and Egg-adult Viability data Sheet 1: Female lifetime mating frequency, Sheet 2: Description of variables contained in Sheet 1. Sheet 3: Focal male P2 and egg-to adult viability data, Sheet 4: Description of variables contained in Sheet 3. sexy-good sperm.xlsx, Polyandry is widespread despite its costs. The sexually selected sperm hypotheses (‘sexy’ and ‘good’ sperm) posit that sperm competition plays a role in the evolution of polyandry. Two poorly studied assumptions of these hypotheses are the presence of additive genetic variance in polyandry and sperm competitiveness. Using a quantitative genetic breeding design in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster, we first established the potential for polyandry to respond to selection. We then investigated whether polyandry can evolve through sexually selected sperm processes. We measured lifetime polyandry and offensive sperm competitiveness (P2) while controlling for sampling variance due to male x male x female interactions. We also measured additive genetic variance in egg-to-adult viability and controlled for its effect on P2 estimates. Female lifetime polyandry showed significant and substantial additive genetic variance and evolvability. In contrast, we found little genetic variance or evolvability in P2 or egg-to-adult viability. Additive genetic variance in polyandry highlights its potential to respond to selection. However, the low levels of genetic variance in sperm competitiveness suggest the evolution of polyandry may not be driven by sexy sperm or good sperm processes., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/282056
Dataset. 2016

DATA FROM: CONDITION-DEPENDENT TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN SEXUAL TRAITS, BODY CONDITION AND IMMUNITY: THE EFFECT OF NOVEL HABITATS

  • Iglesias-Carrasco, Maider
  • Head, Megan L.
  • Jennions, Michael D.
  • Cabido, Carlos
Data for field experiment This is the field data for the manuscript “Condition-dependent trade-offs between sexual traits, body condition and immunity: the effect of novel habitats”. Data was collected by MIC and CC. All methods are described in the associated manuscript. Column headings are described in the excel spreadsheet. Field experiment.xlsx Data from mesocosm experiment This is the mesocosm data for the manuscript “Condition-dependent trade-offs between sexual traits, body condition and immunity: the effect of novel habitats” Data was collected by MIC and CC. All methods are described in the associated manuscript. Column headings are described in the excel spreadsheet. mesocosm experiment.xlsx, Background: The optimal allocation of resources to sexual signals and other life history traits is usually dependent on an individual's condition, while variation in the expression of sexual traits across environments depends on the combined effects of local adaptation, mean condition, and phenotypic responses to environment-specific cues that affect resource allocation. A clear contrast can often be drawn between natural habitats and novel habitats, such as forest plantations and urban areas. In some species, males seem to change their sexual signals in these novel environments, but why this occurs and how it affects signal reliability is still poorly understood. Results: The relative size of sexual traits and level of immune responses were significantly lower for male palmate newts Lissotriton helveticus caught in pine and eucalyptus plantations compared to those caught in native forests, but there was no habitat-dependent difference in body condition (n= 18 sites, 382 males). The reliability with which sexual traits signalled body condition and immune responses was the same in all three habitats. Finally, we conducted a mesocosm experiment in which males were maintained in pine, eucalypt or oak infused water for 21 days. Males in plantation-like water (pine or eucalypt) showed significantly lower immune responses but no change in body condition. This matches the pattern seen for field-caught males. Unlike field-caught males, however, there was no relationship between water type and relative sexual trait size. Conclusions: Pine and eucalyptus plantations are likely to be detrimental to male palmate newt because they are associated with reduced immune function and smaller sexual traits. This could be because ecological aspects of these novel habitats, such as high water turbidity or changes in male-male competition, drive selection for reduced investment into sexual traits. However, it is more probable that there are differences in the ease of acquisition, hence optimal allocation, of resources among habitats. Our mesocosm experiment also provides some evidence that water toxicity is a causal factor. Our findings offer insights into how plantations affect amphibian life histories, and how novel habitats might generate long-term selection for new resource allocation strategies in native species., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/282057
Dataset. 2021

DATA FROM: ECOLOGICAL SPECIALIZATION, RATHER THAN THE ISLAND EFFECT, EXPLAINS MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSIFICATION IN AN ANCIENT RADIATION OF GECKOS

  • Tejero-Cicuéndez, Héctor
  • Simó-Riudalbas, Marc
  • Menéndez, Iris
  • Carranza, Salvador
Island colonists are often assumed to experience higher levels of phenotypic diversification than continental taxa. However, empirical evidence shows that exceptions to this “island effect” do exist. Here, we tested this pattern using a thoroughly sampled continent-island system, the genus Pristurus, a group of sphaerodactylid geckos distributed across continental Arabia and Africa and the Socotra Archipelago. We used a recently published phylogeny and an extensive morphological dataset to explore whether Socotran and continental taxa differ in their dynamics of phenotypic evolution. Moreover, we used habitat data to examine if ecological specialisation is correlated with morphological change, reconstructing ancestral habitat occupancy and comparing phenotypic disparity and trait evolution between habitats. We found heterogeneity in the outcome of the colonisation of the Socotra Archipelago. Namely, only one of the three events of colonisation has resulted in an increase in body size. However, in general, Socotran species do not present higher levels or rates of morphological diversification than continental groups. Instead, habitat specialisation provides a more nuanced insight into body size and shape evolution in Pristurus. In particular, the colonisation of ground habitats appears as the main driver of morphological change, producing the highest disparity and evolutionary rates. Additionally, arboreal species show very constrained body size and head proportions, suggesting ecologically driven morphological convergence. Our results reveal a determinant role of ecological mechanisms in morphological evolution and corroborate the complexity of ecomorphological dynamics in continental-island systems., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/282058
Dataset. 2016

DATA FROM: ACTIVE AND REACTIVE BEHAVIOUR IN HUMAN MOBILITY: THE INFLUENCE OF ATTRACTION POINTS ON PEDESTRIANS

  • Gutiérrez-Roig, Mario
  • Sagarra, Oleguer
  • Oltra, Aitana
  • Palmer, John R. B.
  • Bartumeus, Frederic
  • Díaz-Guilera, Albert
  • Perelló, Josep
BeePath2012, Human mobility is becoming an accessible field of study thanks to the progress and availability of tracking technologies as a common feature of smart phones. We describe an example of a scalable experiment exploiting these circumstances at a public, outdoor fair in Barcelona (Spain). Participants were tracked while wandering through an open space with activity stands attracting their attention. We develop a general modeling framework based on Langevin Dynamics, which allows us to test the influence of two distinct types of ingredients on mobility: reactive or context-dependent factors, modelled by means of a force field generated by attraction points in a given spatial configuration, and active or inherent factors, modelled from intrinsic movement patterns of the subjects. The additive and constructive framework model accounts for some observed features. Starting with the simplest model (purely random walkers) as a reference, we progressively introduce different ingredients such as persistence, memory, and perceptual landscape, aiming to untangle active and reactive contributions and quantify their respective relevance. The proposed approach may help in anticipating the spatial distribution of citizens in alternative scenarios and in improving the design of public events based on a facts-based approach., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

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